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Encyclopedia > Urban planning
Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the world's largest cities. Shown here is Hong Kong's CBD.

Urban, city, or town planning is the discipline of land use planning which explores several aspects of the built and social environments of municipalities and communities. Other professions deal in more detail with a smaller scale of development, namely architecture, landscape architecture and urban design. Regional planning deals with a still larger environment, at a less detailed level. Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1232 KB)Hong Kong from Western District overlooking Kowloon File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1232 KB)Hong Kong from Western District overlooking Kowloon File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Land use planning is the term used for a branch of public policy which encompasses various disciplines which seek to order and regulate the use of land in an efficient way. ... This article is about building architecture. ... Central Park, like all parks, is an example of landscape architecture. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Regional planning is a branch of land use planning and deals with the efficient placement of land use activities, infrastructure and settlement growth across a significantly larger area of land than an individual city or town. ...


Another key role of urban planning is urban renewal, and re-generation of inner cities by adapting urban planning methods to existing cities suffering from long-term infrastructural decay.[1] Urban Renewal redirects here. ...

Contents

History

Urban planning as an organized profession has existed for less than a century, however most settlements and cities have displayed various degrees of forethought and conscious design in their layout and functioning.


As agriculture replaced a nomadic existence, permanent human settlements, and larger settlements began to appear. These early cities became centres for trade, defense, and politics and as centers for distributing the agricultural surplus a settled farming society produces. Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ...


Cities laid out with forethought and design permeate antiquity. Perhaps the earliest of these were those of the ancient Mesopotamian and Harrapan civilizations of the third century BCE. Antiquity means different things: Generally it means ancient history, and may be used of any period before the Middle Ages. ... This is an article about the ancient middle eastern region. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... For other uses, see Civilization (disambiguation). ... BCE is a TLA that may stand for: Before the Common Era, date notation equivalent to BC (e. ...


Ur located near the Euphrates and Tigris rivers in modern day Iraq and some ancient cities of the Indus Valley in modern day India are perhaps the earliest examples of deliberately planned and managed cities in history. The streets of these early cities were often paved and laid out at right angles in a grid pattern. There was also with a hierarchy of streets (commercial boulevards to small residential alleyways). In Harrapan settlements, archaeological evidence suggests the houses were laid out to protect from noise, odors, and thieves, and had their own wells, and sanitation. Ancient cities often had drainage, large granaries, and well-developed urban sanitation[2] For other uses, see Ur (disambiguation). ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... A simple grid plan road map (Windermere, Florida). ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... Village pump redirects here, for information on Wikipedia project-related discussions, see Wikipedia:Village pump. ... Granary at Thiruparaithurai, Kumbakonam (old temple town), built around 1600-1634 A granary is a storehouse for threshed grain or animal feed. ... E. Coli bacteria under magnification Sanitation is the hygienic disposal or recycling of waste, as well as the policy and practice of protecting health through hygienic measures. ...


The Greek Hippodamus (c. 407 BC) is widely considered the father of city planning in the West, for his design of Miletus; Alexander commissioned him to lay out Alexandria, the grandest example of idealized urban planning of the Mediterranean world, where regularity was aided in large part by its level site near a mouth of the Nile. Hippodamus of Miletus (sometimes also called Hippodamos), was a Greek architect of the 5th century BC. It was he who introduced order and regularity into the planning of cities, in place of the previous intricacy and confusion. ... The lower half of the benches and the remnants of the scene building of the theater of Miletus (August 2005) Miletus (Carian: Anactoria Hittite: Milawata or Millawanda, Greek: Μίλητος transliterated Miletos, Turkish: Milet) was an ancient city on the western coast of Anatolia (in what is now Aydin Province, Turkey), near... This article is about the city in Egypt. ...


The ancient Romans used a consolidated scheme for city planning, developed for military defense and civil convenience. The basic plan is a central plaza with city services, surrounded by a compact rectilinear grid of streets and wrapped in a wall for defense. To reduce travel times, two diagonal streets cross the square grid corner-to-corner, passing through the central square. A river usually flows through the city, to provide water and transport, and carry away sewage, even in sieges.[citation needed] Effectively, many European towns still preserve the essence of these schemes, as in Turin.The Romans had a very logical way of designing their cities. They put all the streets at right angles, set up in a square grid. All the roads were equal in width and length except for two. These two roads formed the center of the grid and intersected in the middle. One went East/West, the other North/South. They were slightly wider than the others. All roads were made of carefully fitted stones and smaller hard packed stones. Bridges were also constructed where needed. Each square marked by four roads was called an insulae. An insulae was the Roman equivalent of a city block. Each insulae was 80 yards square. The land of each insulae was divided up. As the city developed, each insulae would eventually be filled with buildings of various shapes and sizes and would be crisscrossed with back roads and alleys. Most insulae were given to the first settlers of a budding new Roman city, but each person had to pay for the building of their own houses. The city was surrounded by a wall to protect the city from invaders and other enemies, and to mark the cities limits. Area outside of the walls and city limits was left for farmland. At the end of each main road, there was a large gateway with watchtowers. A portcullis covered the opening when the city was under siege. Other watchtowers were constructed around the rest of the city’s wall. An aqueduct was built outside of the cities walls. This brought in the water necessary for the cities functioning. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Plaza is a Spanish word related to field which describes an open urban public space, such as a city square. ... For other uses, see Turin (disambiguation). ...


The idea of rational planning collapsed with the idea of the res publica in the European Early Middle Ages. Round a fortress or fortified abbey or next to a Roman nucleus — sometimes itself abandoned— urban growth occurred "like the annular rings of a tree"[3] whether in an extended village or the center of a larger city. Since the new center was often on high, defensible ground, the city plan took on an organic character, following the irregularities of elevation contours like the shapes that result from agricultural terracing. Res publica is a Latin phrase, made of res + publica, literally meaning public thing or public matter. It is the origin of the word Republic. // The word publica is the feminine singular of the 1st- and 2nd-declension adjective publicus, publica, publicum, which is itself derived from an earlier form... Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ... For discussion of land surfaces themselves, see Terrain. ... Terraced vineyards near Lausanne The Incan terraces at Písac are still used today. ...

The ideal centrally-planned urban space: Sposalizio by Raphael, 1504
The ideal centrally-planned urban space: Sposalizio by Raphael, 1504

The ideal city resurfaced in the Early Renaissance in Florence, where the star-shaped city plan was adapted from the new cannon-resistant star fort. The star-shaped fortification had a formative influence on the patterning of Renaissance urban planning: "The Renaissance was hypnotized by one city type which for a century and a half— from Filarete to Scamozzi— was impressed upon utopian schemes: this is the star-shaped city"[4] Radial streets extend outward from a defined center of military, communal or spiritual power. Only in ideal cities did a centrally-planned structure stand at the heart, as in Raphael's Sposalizio of 1504 (illustration); as built, the unique example of a rationally-planned quattrocento new city center, that of Vigevano, 1493-95, resembles a closed space instead, surrounded by arcading. Filarete's ideal city, building on hints in Leone Battista Alberti's De re aedificatoria, was named "Sforzinda" in compliment to his patron; its twelve-pointed shape, circumscribable by a "perfect" Pythagorean figure, the circle, takes no heed of its undulating terrain in Filarete's manuscript.[5] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1576x2378, 288 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Art of Italy The Marriage of the Virgin (Raphael) 1504 in art ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1576x2378, 288 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Art of Italy The Marriage of the Virgin (Raphael) 1504 in art ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Renaissance#Start of the Renaissance. ... Bourtange fortification, restored to 1750 situation, Groningen, Netherlands A Star Fort is a fortification in the style that evolved during the Age of Blackpowder when cannon came to dominate the battlefield. ... Vincenzo Scamozzi Vincenzo Scamozzi (September 2, 1548 - August 7, 1616) born in Vicenza, Italy, was an architect and a writer on architecture, active mainly in Vicenza and Venice area in the second half of the 16th century. ... This page is about the artist. ... Vigevano is an ancient town in the province of Pavia, Lombardy, northern Italy, which possesses many artistic treasures and runs a huge industrial business. ... Antonio di Pietro Averlino (c. ... Late statue of Leon Battista Alberti. ... Antonio di Pietro Averlino (c. ... Pythagoras of Samos (Greek: ; between 580 and 572 BC–between 500 and 490 BC) was an Ionian (Greek) philosopher[1] and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. ...


The true heirs of Greek rational planning were the Muslims, who are thought to have originated the idea of formal zoning (see haram and hima and the more general notion of khalifa, or "stewardship" from which they arise),[citation needed] although modern usage in the West largely dates from the ideas of the Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... A typical zoning map; this one identifies the zones, or development districts, in the city of Ontario, California Zoning is a North American term for a system of land-use regulation. ... This article covers the word as used in Islamic urban planning. ... Hima means (is Arabic for) inviolate zones solely for the conservation of natural capital, typically fields, wildlife and forests (contrast haram to protect areas for more immediate human purposes). ... Omdurman, Sudan. ... The Congrès International dArchitecture Moderne (CIAM) (International Congress of Modern Architecture) (1928 - 1959) was the think tank of the Modern Movement (or International Style) in architecture. ...


Many cities in Central American civilizations also engineered urban planning in their cities including sewage systems and running water. Mexico-Tenochtitlan, was the capital of the Aztec empire, built on an island in Lake Texcoco in what is now the Federal District in central Mexico. At its height, Tenochtitlan was one of the largest cities in the world, with close to 250,000 inhabitants.[citation needed]


In developed countries (Western Europe, North America, Japan and Australasia) during the last two centuries, planning and architecture can be said to have gone through various stages of general consensus. Firstly there was the industrialised city of the 19th century, where control of building was largely held by businesses and the wealthy elite. Around the turn of the 20th century there began to be a movement for providing people, and factory workers in particular, with healthier environments. The concept of garden cities arose and some model towns were built, such as Letchworth and Welwyn Garden City the world's first garden cities, in Hertfordshire, UK. However, these were principally small scale in size, typically dealing with only a few thousand residents.[6] A current understanding of Western Europe. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Ebenezer Howards 3 magnets diagram which addressed the question Where will the people go?, the choices being Town, Country or Town-Country The garden city movement is an approach to urban planning that was founded in 1898 by Ebenezer Howard in England. ... Arms of Letchworth Urban District Council Letchworth, officially Letchworth Garden City, is a town in Hertfordshire, England. ... Not to be confused with Welwyn. ... For the similarly named county in the West Midlands region, see Herefordshire. ...


It wasn't until the 1920s when modernism began to surface. Based on the ideas of Le Corbusier and utilising new skyscraper building techniques, the modernist city stood for the elimination of disorder, congestion and the small scale, replacing them instead with preplanned and widely spaced freeways and tower blocks set within gardens. There were plans for large scale rebuilding of cities, such as the Plan Voisin (based on Le Corbusier's Ville Contemporaine), which proposed clearing and rebuilding most of central Paris. No large scale plans were implemented until after World War II however. Throughout the late 1940s and 1950s, housing shortages caused by war destructions led many cities around the world to build substantial amounts of government housing. Planners at the time used the opportunity to implement the modernist ideal of towers surrounded by gardens. The most prominent example of an entire modernist city is Brasilia, constructed between 1956 and 1960 in Brazil. For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Charles-Edouard Jeanneret, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-born architect and writer, who is famous for his contributions to what now is called Modern Architecture. ... City for three million inhabitants (1922) The Ville Contemporaine or Contemporary City was an unrealised project to house three million inhabitants designed by the French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier in 1922. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Bras lia is the capital city of Brazil and is located in the center of the country in a federal district created in the state of Goi s. ...


By the late 1960s and early 1970s, many planners were coming to realise that the imposition of modernist clean lines and a lack of human scale also tended to sap vitality from the community. This was expressed in high crime and social problems within these planned neighbourhoods. [7] Modernism can be said to have ended in the 1970s when the construction of the cheap, uniform tower blocks ended in many countries, such as Britain and France. Since then many have been demolished and in their way more conventional housing has been built. Rather than attempting to eliminate all disorder, planning now concentrates on individualism and diversity in society and the economy. This is the post-modernist era.[8] A tower block, block of flats, or apartment block, is a multi-unit high-rise apartment building. ...


Minimally-planned cities still exist. Houston is an example of a large city (with a metropolitan population of 5.5 million) in a developed country, without a comprehensive zoning ordinance. Houston does, however, have many of the land use restrictions covered by traditional zoning regulations, such as restrictions on development density and parking requirements, even though specific land uses are not regulated. Moreover, private-sector developers have used subdivision covenants and deed restrictions effectively to create the same kinds of land use restrictions found in most municipal zoning laws. Houston voters have rejected proposals for a comprehensive zoning ordinance three times since 1948. Even without zoning in its traditional sense, metropolitan Houston displays similar land use patterns at the macro scale to regions comparable in age and population that do have zoning, such as Dallas. This suggests that factors outside the regulatory environment, such as the provision of urban infrastructure and methods of financing development, may play a greater role in the way American cities are developed than does zoning. Houston redirects here. ...


Sustainable development and Sustainability

Sustainable development and sustainability have become buzzwords in the planning industry, with the recognition that present ways of consumption and living have led to problems like the overuse of natural resources, ecosystem destruction, urban heat islands, pollution, growing inequality in cities, the degradation of human living conditions and human-induced climate change. Planners have, as a result, taken to advocating for the development of sustainable cities.[9] Sustainable development is a socio-ecological process characterized by the fulfilment of human needs while maintaining the quality of the natural environment indefinitely. ...


However, the notion of sustainable development can be considered as rather recent and evolving, with many questions surrounding this concept.[10] That said, it is often not difficult to recognise what are 'unsustainable' forms of lifestyles, and urban planning is recognised to play a crucial position in the development of sustainable cities.


Stephen Wheeler, in his 1998 article, suggests a definition for sustainable urban development to be as "development that improves the long-term social and ecological health of cities and towns."[11] He goes on to suggest a framework that might help all to better understand what a 'sustainable' city might look like. These include compact, efficient land use; less automobile use yet with better access; efficient resource use, less pollution and waste; the restoration of natural systems; good housing and living environments; a healthy social ecology; sustainable economics; community participation and involvement; and preservation of local culture and wisdom.[12]


The difficult challenge facing planners comes with the implementation of sustainability visions, policy and programmes, and in the midst of doing so, the need to modify institutions to achieve these goals. This is still being worked out by urban planners.


Aspects of planning

Aesthetics

Towns and cities have been planned with aesthetics in mind, here in Bath (England), 18th century private sector development was designed to appear attractive.
Towns and cities have been planned with aesthetics in mind, here in Bath (England), 18th century private sector development was designed to appear attractive.

In developed countries there has been a backlash against excessive man-made clutter in the environment, such as signposts, signs, and hoardings.[13] Other issues that generate strong debate amongst urban designers are tensions between peripheral growth, increased housing density and planned new settlements. There are also unending debates about the benefits of mixing tenures and land uses, versus the benefits of distinguishing geographic zones where different uses predominate.[14] The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1800x1372, 510 KB) Royal Crescent (Bath, England) viewed from a hot air balloon, on a dull September evening. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1800x1372, 510 KB) Royal Crescent (Bath, England) viewed from a hot air balloon, on a dull September evening. ...


Successful urban planning considers character, of "home" and "sense of place", local identity, respect for natural, artistic and historic heritage, an understanding of the "urban grain" or "townscape," pedestrians and other modes of traffic, utilities and natural hazards, such as flood zones.


Some argue that the medieval piazza and arcade are the most widely appreciated elements of successful urban design, as demonstrated by the Italian cities of Siena and Bologna[citation needed]. A piazza is an open square in a city, often used as a marketplace, found in Italy. ... Piazza del Campo Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. ... For the food product, see Bologna sausage. ...


While it is rare that cities are planned from scratch, planners are important in managing the growth of cities, applying tools like zoning to manage the uses of land, and growth management to manage the pace of development. When examined historically, many of the cities now thought to be most beautiful are the result of dense, long lasting systems of prohibitions and guidance about building sizes, uses and features. These allowed substantial freedoms, yet enforce styles, safety, and often materials in practical ways. Many conventional planning techniques are being repackaged using the contemporary term, smart growth. A typical zoning map; this one identifies the zones, or development districts, in the city of Ontario, California Zoning is a North American term for a system of land-use regulation. ... Growth management is a set of techniques used by government to ensure that as the population grows that there are services available to meet their demands. ... Smart growth is a concept and term used by those who seek to identify a set of policies governing transportation and land use planning policy for urban areas that benefits communities and preserves the natural environment. ...


There are some cities that have been planned from conception, and while the results often don't turn out quite as planned, evidence of the initial plan often remains. (See List of planned cities) This is a list of planned cities (sometimes known as planned communities or new towns) by country. ...


Safety

The medieval walled city of Carcassonne in France is built upon high ground to provide maximum protection from attackers.
The medieval walled city of Carcassonne in France is built upon high ground to provide maximum protection from attackers.

Historically within the Middle East, Europe and the rest of the Old World settlements were located on higher ground (for defense) and close to fresh water sources[citation needed]. Cities have often grown onto coastal and flood plains at risk of floods and storm surges. Urban planners must consider these threats. If the dangers can be localised then the affected regions can be made into parkland or Greenbelt, often with the added benefit of open space provision. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 525 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The view of the medieval city of Carcassonne from the newer part known as La Bastide St Louis. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 525 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The view of the medieval city of Carcassonne from the newer part known as La Bastide St Louis. ... For other uses, see Carcassonne (disambiguation). ... The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans, Asians, and Africans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus; it includes Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia), plus surrounding islands. ... For other uses of the word Greenbelt, see Greenbelt (disambiguation). ...


Extreme weather, flood, or other emergencies can often be greatly mitigated with secure emergency evacuation routes and emergency operations centres. These are relatively inexpensive and unintrusive, and many consider them a reasonable precaution for any urban space. Many cities will also have planned, built safety features, such as levees, retaining walls, and shelters. For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ... Flooding in Amphoe Sena, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. ... Emergency evacuation is the movement of persons from a dangerous place due to the threat or occurrence of a disastrous event. ... A levee, levée (from the feminine past participle of the French verb lever, to raise), floodbank or stopbank is a natural or artificial slope or wall, usually earthen and often parallels the course of a river. ... Structure in the foreground is called a mud box, a type of retaining wall built to hold flood waters in check. ...


In recent years, practitioners have also been expected to maximize the accessibility of an area to people with different abilities, practicing the notion of "inclusive design," to anticipate criminal behaviour and consequently to "design-out crime" and to consider "traffic calming" or "pedestrianisation" as ways of making urban life more pleasant.


City planning tries to control criminality with structures designed from theories such as socio-architecture or environmental determinism. These theories say that an urban environment can influence individuals' obedience to social rules. The theories often say that psychological pressure develops in more densely developed, unadorned areas. This stress causes some crimes and some use of illegal drugs. The antidote is usually more individual space and better, more beautiful design in place of functionalism. for other uses please see Crime (disambiguation) A crime is an act that violates a political or moral law. ... Socio-architecture is a phrase coined by psychologist Humphry Osmond and Canadian architect Kyo Izumi as part of their research for the best architectural form for Osmonds Weyburn, Saskatchewan mental hospital in 1951. ... Environmental determinism, also known as climatic determinism, is the view that the physical environment, rather than social conditions, determines culture. ... Functionalism, in architecture, is the principle that architects should design a building based on the purpose of that building. ...


Oscar Newman’s defensible space theory cites the modernist housing projects of the 1960s as an example of environmental determinism, where large blocks of flats are surrounded by shared and disassociated public areas, which are hard for residents to identify with. As those on lower incomes cannot hire others to maintain public space such as security guards or grounds keepers, and because no individual feels personally responsible, there was a general deterioration of public space leading to a sense of alienation and social disorder Source The Defensible Space Theory of architect and city planner Oscar Newman encompasses ideas about crime prevention and neighborhood safety. ...


Jane Jacobs is another notable environmental determinist and is associated with the "eyes on the street" concept. By improving ‘natural surveillance’ of shared land and facilities of nearby residents by literally increasing the number of people who can see it, and increasing the familiarity of residents, as a collective, residents can more easily detect undesirable or criminal behaviour. Jane Jacobs Jane Jacobs, OC, O.Ont (May 4, 1916 – April 25, 2006) was an American-born Canadian urbanist, writer and activist. ...


The "broken-windows" theory argues that small indicators of neglect, such as broken windows and unkempt lawns, promote a feeling that an area is in a state of decay. Anticipating decay, people likewise fail to maintain their own properties. The theory suggests that abandonment causes crime, rather than crime causing abandonment[citation needed]. Broken windows in the Pruitt-Igoe housing development Fixing Broken Windows: Restoring Order and Reducing Crime in Our Communities by George L. Kelling and Catherine Coles is a criminology book published in 1996, about petty crime and strategies to contain or eliminate it from urban neighbourhoods. ...


Some planning methods might help an elite group to control ordinary citizens. Haussmann's renovation of Paris created a system of wide boulevards which prevented the construction of barricades in the streets and eased the movement of military troops. In Rome, the Fascists in the 1930s created ex novo many new suburbs in order to concentrate criminals and poorer classes away from the elegant town. Boulevard Haussmann The Haussmann Renovations, or Haussmannization of Paris was a work led under the initiative of Napoléon III and the Seine préfet, Haussmann, from 1852 to 1870. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the interests of the state. ... “Suburbia” redirects here. ... for other uses please see Crime (disambiguation) A crime is an act that violates a political or moral law. ...


Other social theories point out that in Britain and most countries since the 18th century, the transformation of societies from rural agriculture to industry caused a difficult adaptation to urban living. These theories emphasize that many planning policies ignore personal tensions, forcing individuals to live in a condition of perpetual extraneity to their cities. Many people therefore lack the comfort of feeling "at home" when at home. Often these theorists seek a reconsideration of commonly used "standards" that rationalize the outcomes of a free (relatively unregulated) market. For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ...


Slums

Main article: Slums

The rapid urbanization of the last century has resulted in a significant amount of slum habitation in the major cities of the world, particularly in the Third World. There is significant demand for planning resources and strategies to address the issues that arise from slum development, and many planning theorists and practitioners are calling for increased attention and resources in this area, particularly the Commonwealth Association of Planners.[15] When urban planners give their attention to slums, one also have to pay attention to the racial make - up of that area to ensure that racial steering does not occur. A slum is an overcrowded and squalid district of a city or town usually inhabited by the very poor. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... The Commonwealth Association of Planners was formed provisionally on 23 September 1970, and its constitution ratified in March, 1973, to, among other things; [1] The association produces newsletters three times a year, and holds conferences for planning theorists and practitioners. ... Racial Steering refers to the practice in which real estate brokers guide prospective home buyers towards or away from certain neighborhoods based on their race. ...


The issue of slum habitation has often been resolved via a simple policy of clearance, however more creative solutions are beginning to emerge such as Nairobi's "Camp of Fire" program, where established slum-dwellers have promised to build proper houses, schools, and community centers without any government money, in return for land they have been illegally squatting on for 30 years. The "Camp of Fire" program is one of many similar projects initiated by Slum Dwellers International, which has programs in Africa, Asia, and South America.[16] Nairobi (pronounced IPA: ) is the capital and largest city of Kenya. ... Camp of Fire is a slum development programme in Nairobi, Kenya, which has been initiated by Slum Dwellers International, where established slum-dwellers have promised to build proper houses, schools, and community centers without any government money, in return for land they have been illegally squatting on for 30 years. ... Slum Dwellers International (SDI) is a network of federations of the urban poor and slum dwellers, particularly focused in the the Global South. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Urban decay

Main article: Urban decay
Broken Promises:John Fekner © 1980 Charlotte Street Stencils South Bronx, New York. Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan both came to this spot during their political careers to make promises.
Broken Promises:John Fekner © 1980 Charlotte Street Stencils South Bronx, New York. Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan both came to this spot during their political careers to make promises.

Urban decay is a process by which a city, or a part of a city, falls into a state of disrepair. It is characterized by depopulation, property abandonment, high unemployment, fragmented families, political disenfranchisement, crime, and desolate and unfriendly urban landscapes. Urban decay and renewal in Cincinnati Urban decay is the popular term for both the physical and social degeneration of cities and large towns. ... Image File history File linksMetadata BrokenPromises_JohnFekner. ... Image File history File linksMetadata BrokenPromises_JohnFekner. ... John Fekner (b. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ... Urban decay and renewal in Cincinnati Urban decay is the popular term for both the physical and social degeneration of cities and large towns. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... Depopulation is a term used to describe any great reduction in a human population. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Disenfranchising refers to the removal of the ability to vote from a person or group of people. ...


Urban decay was associated with Western cities, especially North America and parts of Europe during the 1970s and 1980s. During this time period major changes in global economies, transportation, and government policies created conditions that fostered urban decay[17]. North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ...


The effects of urban decay run counter to the development patterns found in most cities in Europe and countries outside of North America, where slums are usually located on the outskirts of major metropolitan areas while the city center and inner city retain high real estate values and a steady or increasing population. In contrast, North American cities often experienced an outflux of population to city suburbs or exurbs, as in the case of white flight.[18]. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Slums in Delhi, India. ... Downtown Honolulu in Hawaii, United States, an example of an urban downtown district Central business district (CBD) and downtown are terms referring to the commercial heart of a city. ... The term inner-city is often applied to the poorer parts at the centre of a major city. ... Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ... Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ... Commuters waiting for the morning train in Maplewood, New Jersey to travel to New York City A commuter town is an urban community that is primarily residential, from which most of the workforce commute out of the community to earn their livelihood. ... White flight is a term for the demographic trend where working- and middle-class white people move away from increasingly racial-minority inner-city neighborhoods to white suburbs and exurbs. ...


There is no single cause of urban decay, though it may be triggered by a combination of interrelated factors, including urban planning decisions, the development of freeways[19], suburbanisation, redlining[20], immigration restrictions[21] and racial discrimination. For specific systems, such as the Autobahns of Germany, see list of highway systems with full control of access and no cross traffic. ... Suburbanization is a term used by many to describe the current residential living situation in the United States, and it is related to the phenomenon of urban sprawl. ... For the automotive term, see redline. ... An African-American drinks out of a water fountain marked for colored in 1939 at a street car terminal in Oklahoma City. ...


Reconstruction and renewal

Main article: Urban Renewal
The overall area plan for the reconstruction of Kabul's Old City area, the proposed Kabul - City of Light Development.
The overall area plan for the reconstruction of Kabul's Old City area, the proposed Kabul - City of Light Development.

Areas devastated by war or invasion represent a unique challenge to urban planners: the area of development is not one for simple modification, nor is it a "blank slate". Buildings, roads, services and basic infrastructure like power, water and sewerage are often severely compromised and need to be evaluated to determine what, if anything, can be salvaged for re-incorporation. There is also the problem of population; more often than not, people are also still living in these areas, displaced but not removed, and their issues need to be addressed. Historic areas and religious or social centers also need to be preserved and re-integrated into the new city plan. A prime example of this is the capital city of Kabul, Afghanistan, which after decades of civil war and occupation has regions that have literally been reduced to rubble. Despite this, the indigenous population continues to live in the area, constructing makeshift homes and shops out of whatever can be salvaged. Any reconstruction plan proposed, such as Hisham Ashkouri's City of Light Development, needs to be sensitive to the needs of this community and its existing culture, businesses and needs. Urban Renewal redirects here. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1484x857, 977 KB) Kabul - City of Light Development area and concept plan File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kabul Urban planning City of Light Development Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1484x857, 977 KB) Kabul - City of Light Development area and concept plan File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kabul Urban planning City of Light Development Metadata This... For the episode of Buffy the Vampire Slayer, see Tabula Rasa (Buffy episode) In music, Tabula Rasa is the title of many compositions, including one by Arvo Pärt, and an album by Einstürzende Neubauten. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Hisham N. Ashkouri Portrait Hisham N. Ashkouri (born August 15, 1948, Baghdad) is a Boston and New York-based architect. ... The Kabul - City of Light Development is an urban reconstruction plan first conceived in 2004 by urban planner and architect Hisham N. Ashkouri to revitalize Kabul, the capital city of Afghanistan. ...


Urban Reconstruction Development plans must also work with government agencies as well as private interests to develop workable designs.


Transport

Very densely built-up areas require high capacity urban transit, urban planners must consider these factors in long term plans.
Very densely built-up areas require high capacity urban transit, urban planners must consider these factors in long term plans.
Although an important factor, there is a complex relationship between urban densities and car use.
Although an important factor, there is a complex relationship between urban densities and car use.

There is a direct, well-researched connection between the density of an urban environment, and the need to travel within it [citation needed]. Good quality transport is often followed by development. Development beyond a certain density can quickly overcrowd transport[citation needed]. Transportation planning is the field involved with the siting of transportation facilities (generally streets and highways and public transport lines). ... canary wharf tube station taken by a brady 27/11/03 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... canary wharf tube station taken by a brady 27/11/03 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Revised_petrol_use_urban_density. ... Image File history File links Revised_petrol_use_urban_density. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Good planning attempts to place higher densities of jobs or residents near high-volume transportation. For example, some cities permit commerce and multi-story apartment buildings only within one block of train stations and four-lane boulevards, and accept single-family dwellings and parks further away[citation needed].


Densities can be measured in several ways[citation needed]. A common method, used is the Floor area ratio, using the floor area of buildings divided by the land area. Ratios below 1.5 could be considered low density, and plot ratios above five very high density. Most exurbs are below two, while most city centres are well above five. Walk-up apartments with basement garages can easily achieve a density of three. Skyscrapers easily achieve densities of thirty or more. In the field of zoning, floor area ratio refers to a limit on how much total space, expressed as a fraction of the total size of the parcel of land involved, may be consumed by the floor or floors of a building or buildings constructed on the parcel. ... Commuters waiting for the morning train in Maplewood, New Jersey to travel to New York City A commuter town is an urban community that is primarily residential, from which most of the workforce commute out of the community to earn their livelihood. ...


City authorities may try to encourage lower densities to reduce infrastructure costs, though some observers note that low densities may not accommodate enough population to provide adequate demand or funding for that infrastructure. In the UK, recent years have seen a concerted effort to increase the density of residential development in order to better achieve sustainable development. Increasing development density has the advantage of making mass transport systems, district heating and other community facilities (schools, health centres, etc) more viable. However critics of this approach dub the densification of development as 'town cramming' and claim that it lowers quality of life and restricts market led choice[citation needed].


Problems can often occur at residential densities between about two and five[citation needed]. These densities can cause traffic jams for automobiles, yet are too low to be commercially served by trains or light rail systems. The conventional solution is to use buses, but these and light rail systems may fail where automobiles and excess road network capacity are both available, achieving less than 1% ridership[citation needed]. Car redirects here. ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... Autobus redirects here. ...


The Lewis-Mogridge Position claims that increasing road space is not an effective way of relieving traffic jams as latent or induced demand invariably emerges to restore a socially-tolerable level of congestion. The Lewis-Mogridge Position was formulated in 1990. ... Induced demand is the phenomenon that after supply increases, more of a good is consumed. ...


Some theoreticians[citation needed] speculate that personal rapid transit (PRT) might coax people from their automobiles, and yet effectively serve intermediate densities, but this has not been demonstrated. Personal rapid transit (PRT), also called personal automated transport (PAT) or podcar is a public transportation concept that offers automated on-demand non-stop transportation, on a network of specially-built guideways. ...


Addressing

If house numbering is part of the plan, the risk that the numbering task will end up in the hands of non-professionals can be reduced, saving citizens much lost time looking for addresses later. This is especially important for non grid plan areas with no city-wide addressing standard already in place. Unfortunately addressing is often not even mentioned in urban planning courses. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A simple grid plan road map (Windermere, Florida). ...


Suburbanization

Main article: Suburbanization
Very low (auto-oriented) density suburban development near Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
Very low (auto-oriented) density suburban development near Cincinnati, Ohio, United States

In some countries declining satisfaction with the urban environment is held to blame for continuing migration to smaller towns and rural areas (so-called urban exodus). Successful urban planning supported Regional planning can bring benefits to a much larger hinterland or city region and help to reduce both congestion along transport routes and the wastage of energy implied by excessive commuting. Urban scholar N.J. Slabbert claims that the advent of the Internet has opened the way to "telecommunities" or populations of workers who will no longer commute physically, and that this will greatly revitalize small towns in the 21st century. [22] Suburbanisation is a term used by many to describe the current social urban dynamic operating within many parts of the developed world and is related to the phenomenon of urban sprawl. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1569 KB) Summary Tract housing near Union, Kentucky from the air. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1569 KB) Summary Tract housing near Union, Kentucky from the air. ... “Cincinnati” redirects here. ... Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green). ... Rural exodus is a term used to describe the migratory patterns that normally occur in a region following the mechanisation of agriculture. ... Regional planning is a branch of land use planning and deals with the efficient placement of land use activities, infrastructure and settlement growth across a significantly larger area of land than an individual city or town. ... The meaning of hinterland and its history. ... The term city region has been in use since about 1950 by urbanists, economists and urban planners to mean not just the administrative area of a recognisable city or conurbation but also its hinterland that will often be far bigger. ... Commuters on the New York City Subway during rush hour Rush hour at Shinjuku Station, Yamanote Line Traffic jam Commuting is the process of travelling between a place of residence and a place of work. ...


Environmental factors

Environmental protection and conservation are of utmost importance to many planning systems across the world. Not only are the specific effects of development to be mitigated, but attempts are made to minimise the overall effect of development on the local and global environment. This is commonly done through the assessment of Sustainable urban infrastructure. In Europe this process is known as Sustainability Appraisal. Environmental planning is a relatively new field of study that aims to merge the practice of urban planning with the concerns of environmentalism. ... Environmental movement is a term often used for any social or political movement directed towards the preservation, restoration, or enhancement of the natural environment. ... Sustainable urban infrastructure is a term used to describe infrastructure that facilitates a place or regions progress towards the goal of sustainable living. ... In United Kingdom Planning Law a Sustainability Appraisal is an appraisal of the economic, environmental and social effects of a plan from the outset of the preparation process to allow decisions to be made that accord with sustainable development. ...


Arcology seeks to unify the fields of ecology and architecture, especially landscape architecture, to achieve a harmonious environment for all living things. On a small scale, the eco-village theory has become popular, as it emphasizes a traditional 100-140 person scale for communities[citation needed]. The Try2004 Hyperstructure or Megacity as featured on the Discovery Channels Extreme Engineering programs. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... This article is about building architecture. ... Central Park, like all parks, is an example of landscape architecture. ... Ecovillages are socially, economically and ecologically sustainable villages of 50 to 150 people. ...


In most advanced urban or village planning models, local context is critical. In many, gardening assumes a central role not only in agriculture but in the daily life of citizens. A series of related movements including green anarchism, eco-anarchism, eco-feminism and Slow Food have put this in a political context as part of a focus on smaller systems of resource extraction, and waste disposal, ideally as part of living machines which do such recycling automatically, just as nature does. The modern theory of natural capital emphasizes this as the primary difference between natural and infrastructural capital, and seeks an economic basis for rationalizing a move back towards smaller village units. A common form of planning that leads to suburban sprawl is single use zoning. A gardener Gardening is the practice of growing flowering plants, vegetables, and fruits. ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Green anarchism is a school of thought within anarchism which puts an emphasis on the environment. ... Eco-anarchism argues that small eco-villages (of no more than a few hundred people) are a scale of human living preferable to civilization, and that infrastructure and political systems should be re-organized to ensure that these are created. ... Ecofeminism is a biocentric environmental movement with cultural and social concerns. ... A restaurant placard, Santorini The Slow Food movement was founded by Carlo Petrini in Italy as a resistance movement to combat fast food and claims to preserve the cultural cuisine and the associated food plants and seeds, domestic animals, and farming within an ecoregion. ... Green politics or Green ideology is the ideology of the Green Parties, mainly informed by environmentalism, ecosophy and sustainable economics and aimed at developing a sustainable society. ... The living machine at Oberlin College with a settlement tank in the foreground and filtering tanks in the background Living Machines are a form of biological wastewater treatment designed to mimic the cleansing functions of wetlands. ... Natural capital, as described in the book Natural Capitalism, is a metaphor for the mineral, plant, and animal formations of the Earths biosphere when viewed as a means of production of oxygen, water filter, erosion preventer, or provider of other ecosystem services. ... Infrastructural capital refers to any physical means of production or means of protection beyond that which can be gathered or found directly in nature, i. ... Green economics is an unconventional approach to economics by non-economists. ... A practice of urban planning where everyday uses are separated from each other and where land use of the same type is grouped together. ...


An urban planner is likely to use a number of Quantitative tools to forecast impacts of development on a variety of environmental concerns including roadway air dispersion models to predict air quality impacts of urban highways and roadway noise models to predict noise pollution effects of urban highways. As early as the 1960s, noise pollution was addressed in the design of urban highways as well as noise barriers.[23] The Phase I Environmental Site Assessment can be an important tool to the urban planner by identifying early in the planning process any geographic areas or parcels which have toxic constraints. Roadway air dispersion is applied to highway segments Roadway air dispersion modeling is the study of air pollutant transport from a roadway or other linear emitter. ... Roadway noise is the most prevalent form of environmental noise. ... Noise pollution (or environmental noise in technical venues) is displeasing human or machine created sound that disrupts the environment. ... The sound tube in Melbourne, Australia, designed to reduce roadway noise without detracting from the areas aesthetics. ... Any piece of real estate can be the subject of a Phase I ESA. A Phase I Environmental Site Assessment is a report prepared for a real estate holding which identifies potential or existing environmental contamination liabilities. ... Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Process

Blight may sometimes impulse communities into redeveloping and urban planning.
Blight may sometimes impulse communities into redeveloping and urban planning.

The traditional planning process focused on top-down processes where the town planner created the plans. A planner is usually skilled in either surveying, engineering or architecture, bringing to the town planning process ideals based around these disciplines. They typically worked for national or local governments. [citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1777x1405, 612 KB) Summary One of Toys r us stores (in Rome, Georgia) pictured by Cculber007 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1777x1405, 612 KB) Summary One of Toys r us stores (in Rome, Georgia) pictured by Cculber007 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Urban planners work with local governments to formulate plans for the short- and long-term growth and renewal of urban and suburban communities. ...


Changes to the planning process[1] over past decades have witnessed the metamorphosis of the role of the urban planner in the planning process. Calls championing for more democratic planning processes have played a huge role in allowing the public to make important decisions as part of the planning process. Community organizers and social workers are now very involved in planning from the grassroots level.[24] Public is of or pertaining to the people; belonging to the people; relating to, or affecting, a nation, state, or community; opposed to private; as, the public treasury, a road or lake. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A social worker is a person employed in the administration of charity, social service, welfare, and poverty agencies, advocacy, or religious outreach programs. ...


Developers too have played huge roles in influencing the way development occurs, particularly through project-based planning. Many recent developments were results of large and small-scale developers who purchased land, designed the district and constructed the development from scratch. The Melbourne Docklands, for example, was largely an initiative pushed by private developers who sought to redevelop the waterfront into a high-end residential and commercial district. A real estate developer (American English) or property developer (British English) makes improvements of some kind to real property, thereby increasing its value. ... The Melbourne Docklands is a new inner city suburb and Urban renewal project in Melbourne, Australia. ...


See also

This is a list of planned cities (sometimes known as planned communities or new towns) by country. ... Urban, city, or town planning is the discipline of planning which explores several aspects of the built and social environments of municipalities and communities: American Institute of Certified Planners (AICP) American Planning Association Athens Charter Concentric zone model Crime prevention through environmental design eGovernment Environmental design Environmental planning Garden city... Urban Studies is the scientific discipline that studies all aspects of cities, their suburbs, and other urban areas. ... List of urban planners chronological by initial year of plan. ... List of urban theorists, in alphabetical order: Christopher Alexander Donald Appleyard Manuel Castells Richard Florida Joel Garreau Sir Peter Hall Jane Jacobs Kevin Lynch Lewis Mumford Witold Rybczynski Richard Sennett See also List of urban planners List of planned communities New town Urban design Urban economics Urban planner Urban planning...

External links

  • About Planning — An urban planning directory of websites
  • American Planning Association — organization for professional and citizen planners
  • Association of Metropolitan Planning Organizations
  • Canadian Institute of Planners
  • Cyburbia — urban planning-related message boards, wiki, image galleries, and hierarchical link directory
  • HUD USER
  • Planetizen — planning news, job board, courses, editorials
  • Planning Institute — A California corporation portal with free planning news, articles, jobs, consultant listings and community announcements
  • Planning Institute Australia — Organisation representing professional planners in Australia
  • PlanningNewsVote (PNV) — Social-bookmarking Website for Planning News
  • Planum — The European Journal of Planning
  • Royal Town Planning Institute — professional organisation of planners in UK and worldwide
  • Singapore Institute of Planners
  • Urban Land Institute
  • Urban Planet — An online forum for urbanists
  • Urban and Regional Innovation Research

Image File history File links Emblem-important. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Grogan, Paul, Proscio, Tony, Comeback Cities: A Blueprint for Urban Neighborhood Revival, 2000. ISBN 0-8133-3952-9
  2. ^ Eapen, Jacob. Indus River Valley Civilization, 1997.
  3. ^ Siegfried Giedion, Space, Time and Architecture (1941) 1962, in reference to an air view (fig.8) of the medieval Italian town of Bagnocavallo. Giedion's source was Luigi Piccinati, "Urbanistica Medioevale" in Urbanistica deal Antichità ad Oggi (Florence 1943).
  4. ^ Siegfried Giedion, Space, Time and Architecture (1941) 1962 p 43.
  5. ^ The undulating terrace of housing makes its appearance surprisingly late: Giedion's example is Lansdown Crescent, Bath, 1794 (Giedion 1962:fig. 83
  6. ^ Hall, Peter et al. Sociable Cities; the legacy of Ebeneezer Howard, 1998, ISBN 0-471-98504-X, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
  7. ^ Smith Morris et al. British Town Planning and Urban Design, 1997, ISBN 0-582-23496-4, Longman, Singapore.
  8. ^ Smith Morris et al. British Town Planning and Urban Design, 1997, ISBN 0-582-23496-4, Longman, Singapore.
  9. ^ Wheeler Stephen. "Planning Sustainable and Livable Cities", 1998, ISBN 0-415-27173-8, Routledge, New York.
  10. ^ Wheeler Stephen. "Planning Sustainable and Livable Cities", 1998, ISBN 0-415-27173-8, Routledge, New York.
  11. ^ Wheeler Stephen. "Planning Sustainable and Livable Cities", 1998, ISBN 0-415-27173-8, Routledge, New York.
  12. ^ Wheeler Stephen. "Planning Sustainable and Livable Cities", 1998, ISBN 0-415-27173-8, Routledge, New York.
  13. ^ New Zealand Herald: Tensions spill over in billboard row
  14. ^ Holm, Ivar (2006). Ideas and Beliefs in Architecture and Industrial design: How attitudes, orientations, and underlying assumptions shape the built environment. Oslo School of Architecture and Design. ISBN 8254701741.
  15. ^ Reinventing planning: A new governance paradigm for managing Human settlements, Commonwealth Association of Planners
  16. ^ The Christian Science Monitor: Kenyans buy into slum plan, 26 May 2004
  17. ^ Urban Sores: On the Interaction Between Segregation, Urban Decay, and Deprived Neighbourhoods By Hans Skifter Andersen. ISBN 0754633055. 2003.
  18. ^ Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States by Professor Kenneth T Jackson (1987)
  19. ^ The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York by Robert Caro. Page 522.

    The construction of the Gowanus Parkway, laying a concrete slab on top of lively, bustling Third Avenue, buried the avenue in shadow, and when the parkway was completed, the avenue was cast forever into darkness and gloom, and its bustle and life were forever gone. Sigfried Giedon (April 14, 1888, Prague – April 10, 1968, Zürich) was a Bohemia-born Swiss historian of architecture, and critic for architecture. ... Sigfried Giedon (April 14, 1888, Prague – April 10, 1968, Zürich) was a Bohemia-born Swiss historian of architecture, and critic for architecture. ... Lansdown Crescent is a well-known example of Georgian architecture in Bath, England, designed by John Palmer and constructed by a variety of builders between 1789 and 1793. ... Sir Peter Hall is Professor of Planning and Regeneration at The Bartlett, University College London and President of the Town and Country Planning Association. ... The Power Broker is a 1973 biography of Robert Moses, New York Citys Master Builder, by Robert Caro. ... Robert Allan Caro (born October 30, 1935) is a biographer most noted for his studies of United States political figures Robert Moses and Lyndon B. Johnson. ... The eastbound Gowanus Expressway (I-278) at EXIT 24 (NY 27 / Prospect Expressway). ...

  20. ^ How East New York Became a Ghetto by Walter Thabit. ISBN 0814782671. Page 42.
  21. ^ Comeback Cities: A Blueprint for Urban Neighborhood Revival By Paul S. Grogan, Tony Proscio. ISBN 0813339529. Published 2002. Page 139-145.

    "The 1965 law brought an end to the lengthy and destructive -at least for cities- period of tightly restricted immigration a spell born of the nationalism and xenophobia of the 1920s." Page 140 Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  22. ^ Slabbert, N.J. "The Future of Urbanization: How Teletechnology is Shaping a New Urban Order", 2006, Harvard International Review, Cambridge, Mass.
  23. ^ C. Michael Hogan, Analysis of highway noise, Journal of Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, Volume 2, Number 3, Biomedical and Life Sciences and Earth and Environmental Science Issue, pages 387-392, September, 1973, Springer Verlag, Netherlands ISSN 0049-6979
  24. ^ Forester John. "Planning in the Face of Conflict", 1987, ISBN 0-415-27173-8, Routledge, New York.

References

  • Garvin, Alexander (2002). The American City: What Works and What Doesn't. New York: McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-137367-5.  (A standard text for many college and graduate courses in city planning in America)
  • Hoch, Charles, Linda C. Dalton and Frank S. So, editors (2000). The Practice of Local Government Planning, Intl City County Management Assn; 3rd edition. ISBN 0-87326-171-2 (The "Green Book")
  • Tunnard, Christopher and Boris Pushkarev (1963). Man-Made America: Chaos or Control?: An Inquiry into Selected Problems of Design in the Urbanized Landscape, New Haven: Yale University Press. (This book won the National Book Award, strictly America; a time capsule of photography and design approach.)
  • Wheeler, Stephen (1998). "Planning Sustainable and Livable Cities", Routledge; 3rd edition.

This article is about the city in Connecticut. ... Yale redirects here. ... The National Book Awards is one of the most preeminent literary prizes in the United States. ...

Further reading


  Results from FactBites:
 
Urban planning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3359 words)
Urban planning is the discipline that deals with making decisions about how space and place are to be transformed, and thus influencing and being influenced by the physical, social, economic and environmental dimensions of development.
Urban planning is usually not involved in small scale developments, say, the internal layout of a room although there are instances where planning legislation has been drawn to regulate some specific fixtures at the scale of a single development (such as the height of buildings, distance of driveways, etc.).
An urban planner is likely to use a number of Quantitative tools to forecast impacts of development on a variety of environmental concerns including roadway air dispersion models to predict air quality impacts of urban highways and roadway noise models to predict noise pollution effects of urban highways.
Urban planning - definition of Urban planning in Encyclopedia (1558 words)
Urban, city, or town planning, deals with design of the built environment from the municipal and metropolitan perspective.
The basic plan is a central plaza with city services, surrounded by a compact grid of streets and wrapped in a wall for defense.
While it is rare that cities are planned from scratch (and, in case, with some risk of unsuccessful examples like for Brasília), planners are important in managing the growth of cities, applying tools like zoning to manage the uses of land, and growth management to manage the pace of development.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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