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Encyclopedia > Urartu
Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC
Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC
Ancient Mesopotamia
Euphrates · Tigris
Cities / Empires
Sumer: Uruk · Ur · Eridu
Kish · Lagash · Nippur
Akkadian Empire: Akkad
Babylon · Isin · Susa
Assyria: Assur · Nineveh
Dur-Sharrukin · Nimrud
Babylonia · Chaldea
Elam · Amorites
Hurrians · Mitanni
Kassites · Urartu
Chronology
Kings of Sumer
Kings of Assyria
Kings of Babylon
Language
Aramaic
Sumerian · Akkadian
Elamite · Hurrian
Mythology
Enûma Elish
Gilgamesh · Marduk

Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). The kingdom existed from ca. 860 BC, emerging from Late Bronze Age Nairi polities, until 585 BC. The name corresponds to the Biblical Ararat. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1708x976, 148 KB) Summary Urartus maximal expansion in 743 BC catalanian wikipedia by Usuari:Jolle File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Armenia Urartu Maps of Armenia... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1708x976, 148 KB) Summary Urartus maximal expansion in 743 BC catalanian wikipedia by Usuari:Jolle File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Armenia Urartu Maps of Armenia... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... Image File history File links Babylonlion. ... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other being the Tigris). ... The Tigris River (Arabic: دجلة Dijla, Hebrew: חדקל ḥiddeqel, Kurdish: Dîjle, Pahlavi: Tigr, Old Persian: Tigrā-, Syriac: ܕܩܠܬ Deqlath, Turkish: Dicle, Akkadian: Idiqlat) is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq (the name Mesopotamia... Sumer (or Å umer, Sumerian ki-en-gir[1], Egyptian Sanhar[2]) was one of the early civilizations of the Ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iraq) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... For other uses, see UR. Ur seen across the Royal tombs, with the Great Ziggurat in the background, January 17, 2004 Ur was an ancient city in southern Mesopotamia, located near the mouth (at the time) of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers on the Persian Gulf and close to Eridu. ... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... Kish [kish] (Tall al-Uhaymir) was an ancient city of Sumer, now in central Iraq. ... Lagash or Sirpurla was one of the oldest cities of Sumer and later Babylonia. ... The city of Nippur [nipoor] (Sumerian Nibru, Akkadian Nibbur) was one of the most ancient of all the Babylonian cities of which we have any knowledge, the special seat of the worship of the Sumerian god, Enlil, ruler of the cosmos subject to An alone. ... The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... Akkad (or Agade) was a city and its region of northern Mesopotamia, situated on the left bank of the Euphrates, between Sippar and Kish (located in present-day Iraq, ca. ... Babylon was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 50 miles (80 km) south of Baghdad. ... An International Securities Identifying Number (ISIN) uniquely identifies a security. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Assur (Assyrian: ܐܫܘܪ) also spelled Ashur, from Assyrian AÅ¡Å¡ur, was the capital of ancient Assyria. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ... Human-headed winged bull, found during Bottas excavation. ... Nimrud is an ancient Assyrian city located south of Nineveh on the river Tigris. ... Babylonia, named for its capital city, Babylon, an ancient state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... For other uses, see Chaldean. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Tidnum or AmurrÅ«m (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the country west of the Euphrates from the second half of the third millennium BC, and also the god they worshipped (see Amurru). ... The Hurrians were a people of the Ancient Near East, who lived in northern Mesopotamia and areas to the immediate east and west, beginning approximately 2500 BC. They probably originated in the Caucasus and entered from the north, but this is not certain. ... Mitanni or Mittani (in Assyrian sources Hanilgalbat, Khanigalbat) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia (in what is today Syria) from ca. ... The Kassites were a Near Eastern mountain tribe of obscure origins, who spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. ... The Chronology of the Ancient Orient deals with the notoriously difficult task of assigning years of the Common Era to various events, rulers and dynasties of the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC. The chronology of this region is based on five sets of primary materials. ... The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties. ... This page lists the Kings of Assyria from earliest times. ... The following is a list of the Kings of Babylon, a major city of ancient Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... The Sumerian language ( EME.GIR15 native tongue) of ancient Sumer was spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. Sumerian was replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language around 1800 BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific language in Mesopotamia until... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Elamite is an extinct language, which was spoken by the ancient Elamites (also known as Ilamids). ... Hurrian is a conventional name for the language of the Hurrians (Khurrites), a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly vanished by 1000 BC. Hurrian was the language of the Mitanni kingdom in northern Mesopotamia, and was likely spoken at least initially in Hurrian settlements in... Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... Enûma EliÅ¡ is the Babylonian creation epic. ... Gilgamesh, according to the Sumerian king list, was the fifth king of Uruk (Early Dynastic II, first dynasty of Uruk), the son of Lugalbanda, ruling circa 2650 BC. Legend has it that his mother was Ninsun, a goddess. ... Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical: Merodach) was the Babylonian name of a late generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century... Urartian is the conventional name for the language spoken by the inhabitants of the ancient kingdom of Urartu in Northeast Anatolia (present-day Turkey), in the region of Lake Van. ... For related meanings see also Monarch (disambiguation) A monarchy, (from the Greek monos archein, meaning one ruler) is a form of government that has a monarch as Head of State. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ... Armenian Highland (Armenian Upland) is part of the Transcaucasian Highland and constitutes the continuation of the Caucasus mountains. ... Lake Van from space, September 1996 Lake Van Landsat photo Lake Van (Turkish: Van Gölü, in Armenian: ÕŽÕ¡Õ¶Õ¡ Õ¬Õ«Õ³) is the largest lake in Turkey, located in the far east of the country. ... Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 910s BC 900s BC 890s BC 880s BC 870s BC - 860s BC - 850s BC 840s BC 830s BC 820s BC 810s BC Events and Trends 865 BC - Kar Kalmaneser was conquered by the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III 864 BC... Nairi may refer to one of the following. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC Events and Trends 589 BC - Apries succeeds Psammetichus II as king of Egypt 588 BC _ Nebuchadnezzar II of... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... Mount Ararat,Kurdish Ciyaye Agiri/Ararat Armenian: , Kurdish: , Greek: , Persian: ‎, Russian: , Georgian: არარატის, Azeri: AÄŸrıdaÄŸ, Hebrew: ‎, Tiberian Hebrew: ) is the tallest peak in modern Turkey. ...

Contents

Name

The name Urartu comes from Assyrian (a dialect of Akkadian) sources, and was given to the kingdom by its chief rivals to the south. The kingdom was named Biainili by its inhabitants, which was probably related to Lake Van--the political center of the kingdom. Scholars believe that "Urartu" is an Akkadian variation of Ararat of the Old Testament. Indeed, Mount Ararat is located in ancient Urartian territory, approximately 120 km north of its former capital. In addition to referring to the famous Biblical mountain, "Ararat" was also used in the Old Testament to refer to an ancient kingdom north of Mesopotamia. Similarly, early Armenian chronicles (5th - 7th cc. AD) state that the original name for Armenia was "country of Ararad." The variations possibly originate from the Armenian "Ayrarat," which in Armenian means "land of the brave" and "land of Armenians." [1] The term Assyrian language can mean one of: Assyrian Neo-Aramaic: a language spoken in Israel, Syria, and Mesopotamia from perhaps 700 BC until now. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Lake Van from space, September 1996 Lake Van Landsat photo Lake Van (Turkish: Van Gölü, in Armenian: Վանա լիճ) is the largest lake in Turkey, located in the far east of the country. ... Mount Ararat,Kurdish Ciyaye Agiri/Ararat Armenian: , Kurdish: , Greek: , Persian: ‎, Russian: , Georgian: არარატის, Azeri: Ağrıdağ, Hebrew: ‎, Tiberian Hebrew: ) is the tallest peak in modern Turkey. ... A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ...


Some scholars such as C. F. Lehmann-Haupt (1910) believe that the people of Urartu called themselves Khaldini after their god Khaldi, or that they were related to the Khaldi of the Black Sea coast [citation needed]. The Nairi, an Iron Age people of the Van area, are sometimes considered related or identical. Khaldi is the supreme god of the Urartians. ... For the Urartian god of this name, see Khaldi (god). ...


Urartu was often called the "Kingdom of Ararat" in many ancient manuscripts and holy writings of different nations. The reason for uncertainty in the names (i.e. Urartu and Ararat) is due to variations in sources. In fact, the written languages at that time employed only consonants and not vowels. So the word itself in various ancient sources is written as "RRT", which could be either Ararat, or Urartu, or Uruarti and so on (for more on the name's etymology, see the section Name below). See also consonance in music. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ...


Ancient sources have sometimes used "Armenia" and "Urartu" interchangeably to refer to the same country. For example, in the trilingual Behistun inscription, carved in 520 BC by the order of Darius the Great of Persia the country is referred to as Arminia in Old Persian, translated as Harminuia in Elamite and Urartu in Babylonian. The Behistun Inscription, carved into a cliffside, gives the same text in three languages, telling the story of King Darius conquests, with the names of twenty-three provinces subject to him. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... Elamite is an extinct language, which was spoken in the ancient Elamite Empire. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ...


Furthermore, the kingdom was known as Armenia to the Greeks (and, subsequently, to the Roman Empire) living in western Anatolia, possibly due to the fact that the contacts they had with Urartu, were through the people of the tribe of Armen. In the late 7th - early 6th centuries BC, the Urartian Kingdom was replaced by the Kingdom of Armenia, ruled by the Persian Orontid dynasty (see the History section for more on this transition). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (sometimes referred to as Armenia Minor) was a state formed in the Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia. ... The Orontid Dynasty was the first Armenian dynasty. ... Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ...

Examples of sources for the study of urartu
To the left - inscription on the foundation of fortress in Erebuni on the hill of Arene- reeds near Yerevan. (inscription is executed in the Urartian language by the cuneiform, borrowed in Assyrians. Text assigns building fortress to tsar To argishti I.) To the right - the fragment of the bronze helmet of epoch To argishti I, on which is depicted the motive of the "tree of life popular among the ancient societies". (helmet it was discovered with the excavations of the fortress Of teyshebaini on the hill Of karmir-Blur))

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1021x461, 218 KB) Česky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | Românǎ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (717x649, 344 KB) Česky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | Românǎ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other...

Geography

The Urartu empire comprised an area of approximately 200,000 square miles, reaching from the river kura to the southern or more to the northern foothills of the Taurus, and from the Euphrates in the west to the Caspian sea in the east. [2] Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other being the Tigris). ... The Caspian Sea is the largest lake on Earth by both area and volume,[1] with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometres (143,244 mi²) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometres (18,761 mi³).[2] It is a landlocked endorheic body of water and lies between...


At its apogee, Urartu stretched from northern Mesopotamia through the southern Caucasus, including present-day Armenia and reaching the river Kura. Archaeological sites within its boundaries include Altintepe, Toprakkale, Patnos and Cavustepe. Urartu fortresses included Erebuni (present day Yerevan city), Van, Armavir, Anzaf, Cavustepe and Başkale, as well as Argishtiqinili, Teishebaini (Karmir Blour) and others. This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Toprakkale is a fortress built by the ancient kingdom of Urartu and located near the city of Van in southeastern Turkey. ... Patnos is a district of AÄŸrı Province of Turkey. ... Ruins of Erebuni Fortress Erebuni Fortress is a famous castle in Yerevan, the capital of Armenia. ... Location Location of Yerevan in Armenia Government Country Armenia Established 782 BC Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Geographical characteristics Area  - City 227 km² Population  - City (2004)    - Density 1226000   5196. ... Van is a city in eastern Turkey with a population of 380 000 (2001). ... Armavir (Ô±Ö€Õ´Õ¡Õ¾Õ«Ö€ in Armenian) is a city located in southwestern Armenia. ... BaÅŸkale (38°10′N 44°00′E, also known as Bashkala) is a large town in south-eastern Turkey in the vilayet (province) of Van. ... Teishebaini was the capital of the Urartuian Transcaucasian provinces. ...

This article is part of the series on: Image File history File links LusignanCOA.gif‎ Coat of Arms of the Lusignan Dynasty of Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Copyright©2004 Andrew Andersen Atlas of Conflicts File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


History of Armenia // Prehistory Archaeologists refer to the Shulaveri-Shomu culture of the central Transcaucasus region, including modern Armenia, as the earliest known prehistoric culture in the area, carbon-dated to roughly 6000 - 4000 BC. However, a recently discovered tomb has been dated to 9000 BC. Another early culture in the Armenian Highland...

Early History
Haik
Armens
Hayasa-Azzi
Nairi
Kingdom of Urartu
Kingdom of Armenia
Orontid Armenia
Artaxiad Dynasty
Arsacid Dynasty
Medieval History
Marzpanate Period
Byzantine Armenia
Bagratuni Armenia
Kingdom of Vaspurakan
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
Foreign Rule
Persian Rule
Ottoman Rule
Russian Rule
Hamidian Massacres
Armenian Genocide
Early Independence
Democratic Republic of Armenia
Soviet Armenia
Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic
Modern Armenia
Republic of Armenia
Topical
Military history of Armenia
Timeline of Armenian history
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Statue of Haik in Yerevan Haik (Also spelled Hayk or Haig) is the legendary patriarch and establisher of the first Armenian nation. ... Armens, located in the Armenian Highland, the people are usually referred to as Arman, Armenic. ... Hayasa-Azzi or Azzi-Hayasa was a confederation formed between the Kingdoms of Hayasa located South of Trabzon and Azzi, located North of the Euphrates and to the South of Hayasa. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (sometimes referred to as Armenia Minor) was a state formed in the Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia. ... The Orontid Dynasty was the first Armenian dynasty. ... The Artaxiad Dynasty ruled Armenia from 189 BC until their overthrow by the Romans in AD 12. ... The Arsacid Dynasty (Arshakuni Dynasty) ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from AD 54 to 428. ... Marzpanate period is the time in Armenian history after the fall of the Arshakuni Dynasty of Armenia in 428, when most of Armenia was governed by Marzbans (Governors-general of the boundaries), nominated by the Sassanid Persian King. ... Byzantine Armenia is the name given to the Armenian part of the Byzantine Empire. ... The Bagratuni or Bagratid royal dynasty of Armenia (Armenian: Բագրատունյաց Արքայական Տոհմ or Bagratunyac Arqayakan Tohm) is a royal family whose branches formerly ruled many regional polities, including Armenian lands of Syunik, Lori, Vaspurakan, Kars, Taron, and Tayk. ... Vaspurakan was a province and then kingdom of Greater Armenia during the Middle Ages. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... Persian Armenia, AD 387-591 Persian Armenia corresponds to the Armenian territory controlled by Persia throughout history. ... It has been suggested that Ottoman Armenian be merged into this article or section. ... Eastern Armenia or Russian Armenia is the portion of Ottoman Armenia that was ceded to the Russian Empire following the Russo-Turkish War, 1828-1829. ... Contemporary political cartoon portraying Hamid as a butcher of the Armenians During the long reign of Sultan Hamid, unrest and rebellion occurred in many areas of the Ottoman Empire. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ... National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Դեմոկրատական Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of... State motto: Պրոլետարներ բոլոր երկրների, միացեք! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... The military history of Armenia encompasses a period of several thousand years, as the Armenian people have existed as a nation since the Late Bronze Age. ... // 883 BC: Foundation of the Kingdom of Urartu with Aramé. 834-828 BC: Reign of Sarduri I who constructs Tushpa (Van). ...

Discovery

Urartian cuneiform tablet recording the foundation of Erebuni Fortress by Argishti.
Urartian cuneiform tablet recording the foundation of Erebuni Fortress by Argishti.

Friedrich Eduard Schulz travelled to the Van area in 1827 on behalf of the French Oriental Society, inspired by accounts of queen Šamiram) by the 5th century Armenian historian Moses of Chorene. Schulz discovered the ruins of a city and numerous inscriptions, partly in Assyrian, partly in a hitherto unknown language. Schulze also re-discovered the Kelišin, an Assyrian-Urartian bilingue located on the Kelišin pass on the Iraqi-Iranian border. Schulz was killed by Kurds in 1829 near Baskale and parts of his notes were lost. In 1828, British Assyriologist Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson attempted to copy the inscription on the stele, but failed because of the ice on the stele's face. German scholar R. Rosch made a similar attempt a few years later, but he and his party were assaulted and killed. Sir Austen Henry Layard in the late 1840s described the rock tombs of Van-Kelesi and the Argišti chamber. From the 1870s, local residents began to plunder the Toprakkale ruins, selling artefacts to European scholars. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2304, 3187 KB) Summary Erebuni museum, Yerevan, Armenia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2304, 3187 KB) Summary Erebuni museum, Yerevan, Armenia. ... Ruins of Erebuni Fortress Erebuni Fortress is a famous castle in Yerevan, the capital of Armenia. ... Argishtis I (Argishtish) was the fifth known king of the ancient country of Urartu (in Anatolia) from 785 to 763 BC. A son and successor of Menuas, he continued the series of conquests initiated by his predecessors. ... Semiramis is depicted as an armed Amazon in this eighteenth century Italian illustration. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Kelashin ( also spelled: Kel-a-Shin, Kel-a Shin, Kelishin, meaning blue holy stone in Kurdish. ... BaÅŸkale (38°10′ N 44°00′ E, also known as Bashkala) is a large town in south-eastern Turkey in the vilayet (province) of Van. ... Henry Rawlinson Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson, 1st Baronet (April 11, 1810 – March 5, 1895) was an English soldier, diplomat and orientalist. ... The Right Honourable Sir Austen Henry Layard (5 March 1817–5 July 1894) was a British author and diplomatist, best known as the excavator of Nineveh. ... // Events and Trends Technology First use of general anesthesia in an operation, by Crawford Long The first electrical telegraph sent by Samuel Morse on May 24, 1844 from Baltimore to Washington, D.C.. War, peace and politics First signing of the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) on February... Argishti may refer to: Argishtis I of Urartu - 785 to 763 BC Argishti II of Urartu - 714 B.C. - 685 B.C. Category: ... Toprakkale is a fortress built by the ancient kingdom of Urartu and located near the city of Van in southeastern Turkey. ...


The first systematic collection of Urartian inscriptions, and thus the beginning of Urartology as a specialized field[3] dates to the 1870s, with the campaign of Sir Archibald Henry Sayce. German engineer Karl Sester, discoverer of Mount Nemrut, collected more inscriptions in 1890/1. The Rev. ... Landscape view of the mountain Nemrut or Nemrud (Turkish: Nemrut Dağ or Nemrut Dağı, Armenian: նեմրութ) is a 2,134 meters (7000 ft. ...


Waldemar Belck visited the area in 1891, discovering the Rusa stele. A further expedition planned for 1893 was prevented by Turkish-Armenian hostilities. Belck together with Carl Ferdinand Friedrich Lehmann-Haupt visited the area again in 1898/9, excavating Toprakkale. On this expedition, Belck reached the Kelishin stele, but he was attacked by Kurds and barely escaped with his life. Belck and Lehmann-Haupt reached the stele again in a second attempt, but were again prevented from copying the inscription by weather conditions. After another assault on Belck provoked the diplomatic intervention of Wilhelm II, the regional ruler, Sultan Abdul Hamid II, agreed to pay Belck a sum of 80,000 gold marks in reparation. During World War I, the area came under Russian control. In 1916, Russian scholars Nikolay Yakovlevich Marr and Iosif Abgarovich Orbeli discovered a four-faced stele carrying the annals of Sarduri II. Boris Borisovich Piotrovsky in 1939 excavated Karmir-Blur, discovering Teišebai, the city of the god of war, Teišeba. In 1938-40, excavations by American scholars at Kirsoop and Silva Lake were cut short by World War II, and most of their finds were sunk when a German submarine torpedoed their ship. Athenia. The surviving documents were published by Manfred Korfmann in 1977. Following the war, excavations were at first restricted to Soviet Armenia. beginning in 1956 Charles Burney excavated in the Van area, and from 1959, Turkish expeditions under Tahsin Özgüç excavated Altintepe and Arif Erzen. Wilhelm II of Prussia and Germany, Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern (January 27, 1859 - June 4, 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and the last King (König) of Prussia from 1888 - 1918. ... Abdülhamid II (Ottoman Turkish: عبد الحميد ثانی , Turkish: Ä°kinci Abdülhamid) (September 21, 1842 – February 10, 1918) was the 34th sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz... Nikolay Yakovlevich Marr (1864-1934) was a controversial Soviet scholar whose monogenetic theory of language constituted the officially approved ideology of Soviet linguists until 1950, when Joseph Stalin personally slammed it as anti-scientific. ... Boris Borisovich Piotrovsky (Russian: ) (1908–1990) was a Russian academician, historian-orientalist and archaeologist who studied Urartu, Scythia, and Nubia. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Teishebaini was the capital of the Urartuian Transcaucasian provinces. ... An Urartian weather-god. ... Combatants Allied Powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Axis Powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Charles Burney by Sir Joshua Reynolds in 1781 Charles Burney (April 12, 1726 – April 12, 1814) was an English music historian and father of author Fanny Burney. ... Tahsin Özgüç, (1916- 2005) was an eminent Turkish field archaeologist. ...


In 1976, an Italian party led by Mirjo Salvini finally reached the Kelishin stele, accompanied by a massive military escort. The First Gulf War again closed the area to archaeological research. After the Gulf War, O. Belli resumed excavation on Turkish territory. In 1989, a 7th c. BC fortress built by Rusas II of Urartu was discovered 35 km north of Van. In spite of resumed excavations, only a third to half of the 300 known Urartian sites in Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Armenia have been examined by archeologists (Wartke 1993). Without protection of these sites, local residents will continue to plunder them, taking advantage of the lucrative black market trade. See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... Rusas II of Urartu Araratian king, (685 BC - 645 BC) a cuneiform inscription was made, in the occasion of the building the great water canal ordered by the King to channel water to the City of Quarlini from the Ildaruni Hrazdan River. ...


History

Origins (13th - 9th cc BC)

Urartu under Aramu
Urartu under Aramu

Assyrian inscriptions of Shalmaneser I (ca. 1270 BC) first mention Uruartri as one of the states of Nairi -- a loose confederation of small kingdoms and tribal states in Armenian Highland in the 13th - 11th centuries BC. Uruartri itself was in the region around Lake Van. The Nairi states were repeatedly subjected to attacks by the Assyrians, especially under Tukulti-Ninurta I (ca. 1240 BC), Tiglath-Pileser I (ca. 1100 BC), Ashur-bel-kala (ca. 1070 BC), Adad-nirari II (ca. 900), Tukulti-Ninurta II (ca. 890), and Ashurnasirpal II (883-859 BC). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1751x1250, 216 KB) Urartu from 860 BC to 840 BC catalanian wikipedia by Usuari:Jolle File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Urartu ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1751x1250, 216 KB) Urartu from 860 BC to 840 BC catalanian wikipedia by Usuari:Jolle File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Urartu ... Aramu was the first known king of Armenia). ... King Shalmaneser I, pouring out Dust of a Conquered City in front of an Assyrian Temple after returning victorious. ... (Redirected from 1270 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC - 1270s BC - 1260s BC 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC Events and Trends Significant People Categories: 1270s BC ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Armenian Highland (Armenian Upland) is part of the Transcaucasian Highland and constitutes the continuation of the Caucasus mountains. ... Lake Van from space, September 1996 Lake Van Landsat photo Lake Van (Turkish: Van Gölü, in Armenian: Վանա լիճ) is the largest lake in Turkey, located in the far east of the country. ... Tiglath-Pileser I (the Hebraic form of Tukulti-apil-Esharra, my trust is in the son of Esharra) was King of Assyria (1115 BC - 1076 BC). ... Adad-nirari II is generally considered to be the first King of Assyria in the Neo-Assyrian period. ... Tukulti-Ninurta II was King of Assyria from 891 to 883 BC. Categories: People stubs | 883 BC deaths | Assyrian kings ... Ashurnasirpal II, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, California Ashurnasirpal II was king of Assyria from 884 BC-859 BC. Ashurnasirpal succeeded his father, Tukulti-Ninurta II, in 884 BC. He conquered Mesopotamia and the territory of what is now the Lebanon, adding them to the growing Assyrian empire. ...


Urartu re-emerged in Assyrian inscriptions in the 9th c. BC as a powerful northern rival. The Nairi states and tribes became a unified kingdom under king Aramu (ca. 860-843 BC), whose capital at Arzashkun was captured by Shalmaneser III. Roughly contemporaries of the Uruartri, living just to the west along the southern shore of the Black Sea, were the Kaskas known from Hittite sources. Aramu was the first known king of Armenia). ... Shalmaneser III (Šulmānu-ašarēdu, the god Shulmanu is pre-eminent) was king of Assyria (859 BC-824 BC), and son of the previous ruler, Ashurnasirpal II. His long reign was a constant series of campaigns against the eastern tribes, the Babylonians, the nations of Mesopotamia and Syria... NASA satelite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Kaskas (also Kaskians or Gasgas) are an ancient people of Anatolia, known from Hittite sources. ...


Growth in power (9th c. - 714 BC)

Sardur I (ca. 832-820 BC), son of Lutipri, moved the capital to the ancient city of Tushpa (modern Van, on the shore of Lake Van), fortifying it. His son, Ispuini (ca. 820-800 BC) annexed the neighbouring state of Musasir and made his son Sarduri II viceroy; Ispuini was in turn attacked by Shamshi-Adad V. His successor Menua (ca. 800-785 BC) also enlarged the kingdom greatly and left inscriptions over a wide area. Urartu reached highest point of its military might under Menua's son Argishti I (ca. 785-760 BC), becoming one of the most powerful kingdoms of ancient Near East. Argishti I added more territories along the Araxes river and Lake Sevan, and frustrated Shalmaneser IV's campaigns against him. At some point the Urartuan armies reached all the way to Babylon, taking the city. Argishti also founded several new cities, most notably Erebuni in 782 BC, which grew to be the modern Armenian capital of Yerevan. This page lists the kings of Urartu an ancient kingdom in what is now eastern Turkey and Armenia. ... Van is a city in eastern Turkey with a population of 380 000 (2001). ... Lake Van from space, September 1996 Lake Van Landsat photo Lake Van (Turkish: Van Gölü, in Armenian: Վանա լիճ) is the largest lake in Turkey, located in the far east of the country. ... Shamshi-Adad V was the King of Assyria from 823 to 811 BC. He was the son and successor of Shalmaneser III, the husband of Sammuramat, and the father of Adad-nirari III, who succeeded him as king. ... Menuas was the fourth known king of Urartu, an ancient country in Anatolia, from ca 810 to 785 BC. A younger son of the preceding Urartan king Ishpuinis, he was made a co-ruler by his father in the last years of his reign. ... Shalmaneser IV was king of Assyria (783 - 772 BC). ...


At its height, the Urartu kingdom may have stretched North beyond the Aras River (Greek Araxes) and Lake Sevan, encompassing present-day Armenia and even the southern part of Georgia (e.g. Qulha) almost to the shores of the Black Sea; west to the sources of the Euphrates; east to present-day Tabriz, Lake Urmia, and beyond; and south to the sources of the Tigris. This became the first known Armenian empire. Aras, Araks, Arax, Araxes, or Araz (Persian: ارس, Azerbaijani: Araz), is a river rising in Anatolia in Turkey, flowing along the Turkey-Armenia border, then along the Azerbaijan-Iran border, entering Azerbaijan, and falling into Kura river as a right tributary. ... View of the lake from space Lake Sevan (Սևանա Õ¬Õ«Õ³ in Armenian), named Gegham Sea (Ô³Õ¥Õ²Õ¡Õ´Õ¡ Õ®Õ¸Õ¾) in ancient times, is the largest lake in Armenia and one of the largest high altitude lakes in the world. ... In ancient geography, Colchis (sometimes spelled also as Kolchis) (Greek: Κολχίς, kŏl´kĬs; Georgian: კოლხეთი, Kolkheti) was a nearly triangular district in Caucasus. ... NASA satelite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other being the Tigris). ... Tabriz City Hall, built in 1934, by Arfaol molk, with the aid of German engineers. ... Lake Urmia from space, October 1984 Satellite image of Lake Urmia, taken in November 2003 Lake Urmia (37. ... The Tigris (Old Persian: Tigr, Syriac Aramaic: Deqlath, Arabic: دجلة, Dijla, Turkish: Dicle; biblical Hiddekil) is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ...


Decline and recuperation (714 - 640 BC)

In 714 BC, the Urartu kingdom suffered heavily from Cimmerian raids and the campaigns of Sargon II. The main temple at Mushashir was sacked, and the Urartian king Rusa I was defeated by Sargon at Lake Urmia. Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 760s BC 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC - 710s BC - 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC Events and Trends Judah, Tyre and Sidon revolt against Assyria 719 BC - Zhou Huan Wang of the... The Cimmerians were an ancient people of Iranian origin, who lived in the south of modern-day Ukraine (Crimea and northern Black sea coast) and Russia (Black Sea coast and Caucasus), at least in the 8th and 7th century BC. Little is known about them, but they were mentioned in... Sargon II, captor of Samaria, with a dignitary Sargon II (r. ... Musasir (Persian: موساسیر ; also called Musri) was a city of ancient Mannaeans, acquired by Urartian king Ishpuini in ca. ...


The setback, however, was temporary, as Rusa's son Argisthi II (714 - 685 BC) restored Urartu's power, at the same time maintaining peace with Assyria. This in turn helped Urartu enter a long period of development and prosperity, which continued through the reign of Argishti's son Rusa II (685-645 BC).


After Rusa II, however, the Urartu grew weaker and dependent on Assyria, as evidenced by Rusa II's son Sardur III (645-635 BC) referring to the Assyrian king as his "father."


Later Period (640 - 580s BC)

Late Urartu under Rusa IV
Late Urartu under Rusa IV

Much like Urartu's ethnic composition, its later period and transformation to the Orontid Kingdom of Armenia are debated among scholars. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1714x1012, 143 KB) Urartu from 610 BC to 585 BC. The end of Urartu. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1714x1012, 143 KB) Urartu from 610 BC to 585 BC. The end of Urartu. ... The Orontid Dynasty was the first Armenian dynasty. ...


According to Urartian cuneiforms, Sarduri III was followed by three kings--Erimena (635 - 620 BC), his son Rusa III (620 - 609 BC), and the latter's son Rusa IV (609 - 590 BC). It is also known that in the late 600's BC (during or after Sardur III's reign), Urartu was invaded by Scythians and their allies--the Medes. In 612 BC, the Median king Cyaxares conquered Assyria. Many Urartian ruins of the period show evidence of destruction by fire. This would indicate two scenarios--either Media conquered Urartu, bringing about its subsequent demise; or Urartu/Armenia maintained its independence and power, going through a mere dynastic change, as a local Armenian dynasty (later to be called the Orontids) overthrew the ruling family with the help of the Median army. Ancient sources support the latter version: Scythian warriors, drawn after figures on an electrum cup from the KulOba kurgan burial near Kerch. ... Medea (Medea Proper), ca. ... The Orontid Dynasty was the first Armenian dynasty. ...

  • Xenophon, for example, states that Armenia, ruled by an Orontid king, was not conquered until the reign of Median king Astyages (585 - 550 BC) --long after Median invasion of the late 7th century BC. [4].
  • Similarly, Strabo (1st c. BC - 1st c AD) wrote that "[i]n ancient times Greater Armenia ruled the whole of Asia, after it broke up the empire of the Syrians, but later, in the time of Astyages, it was deprived of that great authority ..." [5].
  • Furthermore, according to the Old Testament, as late as 593 BC, prophet Jeremiah calls on the kingdom of Ararat and its Median allies to conquer Babylon (Jeremiah 51:27), suggesting that at the time Ararat/Urartu/Armenia was still powerful enough to conquer the Babylonian Empire.
  • Finally, early Armenian chronicles corroborate the Greek and Hebrew sources. In particular, Movses Khorenatsi writes that Armenian prince Paruyr Skayordi helped the Median king Cyaxares conquer Assyria, for which Cyaxares recognized him as the king of Armenia, while Media conquered Armenia only much later--under Astyages. [6]

Thus, various ancient sources support the conclusion that, following the reign of Sarduri III, the kingdom of Ararat/Urartu went through a dynastic change, as the Armenian Orontid family replaced the house of Aramu, receiving assistance from the Medes, and in return helped the Medes conquer Assyria. This would indicate that the kings Erimena, Rusa III, and Rusa IV were the Urartian names for the earliest Orontid kings of Urartu/Armenia. Under these early Orontids (late 7th - clearly 6th cc), Ararat/Urartu continued to be a powerful independent kingdom, being called Ararat, Urartu, and Armenia by different sources, all referring to the same state. The Orontid Dynasty was the first Armenian dynasty. ... Astyages (so-called by Herodotos; called Astyigas by Ctesias, and Aspadas by Diodorus; Akkadian: Ishtumegu) (reigned 585 BCE-550 BCE) was the son of King Cyaxares, and the last king of the Median Empire. ... Aramu was the first known king of Armenia). ... Medea (Medea Proper), ca. ... Medea (Medea Proper), ca. ...

Erebuni Fortress is an Urartian castle in Yerevan, the capital of Armenia.
Erebuni Fortress is an Urartian castle in Yerevan, the capital of Armenia.

Ruins of ancient Erebuni fortress in Yerevan I took this photo myself This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Ruins of ancient Erebuni fortress in Yerevan I took this photo myself This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Ruins of Erebuni Fortress Erebuni Fortress is a famous castle in Yerevan, the capital of Armenia. ... Location Location of Yerevan in Armenia Government Country Armenia Established 782 BC Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Geographical characteristics Area  - City 227 km² Population  - City (2004)    - Density 1226000   5196. ...

Economy and politics

The people of Urartu were mostly farmers. They were experts in stone architecture; they may have introduced the blind arch to the Near East, and their houses may have been the precursor of the Persian apadana layout. They were also experts in metalworking, and exported metal vessels to Phrygia and Etruria. Excavations have yielded two-storied residential houses with internal wall decorations, windows, and balconies. Their towns generally had well-developed water supply (often taken from far away) and sewage systems. The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and at times extending into central and mid-east Asia. ... See Apadāna for the Pali texts. ... Location of Phrygia - traditional region (yellow) - expanded kingdom (orange line) In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolian Highland, part of modern Turkey. ... The area covered by the Etruscan civilzation. ...


Their king was also the chief-priest or envoy of Khaldi, their major deity. Some temples to Khaldi were part of the royal palace complex while others were independent structures. Other deities included Teisheba, god of the heavens (the Teshshub of the Hurrians and Khurits), and Shiwini, the sun goddess. Khaldi is the supreme god of the Urartians. ... An Urartian weather-god. ... Teshub was the Hurrian god of sky and storm. ... The Hurrians were a people of the Ancient Near East, who lived in northern Mesopotamia and areas to the immediate east and west, beginning approximately 2500 BC. They probably originated in the Caucasus and entered from the north, but this is not certain. ... The solar god of Urartu. ...


Language

Urartian was an agglutinative language, which belongs to neither the Semitic nor the Indo-European families but to the Hurro-Urartian family. It survives in many inscriptions found in the area of the Urartu kingdom, written in the Assyrian cuneiform script. The Urartians also possessed a native hieroglyphic script, but in later Urartu this script was restricted to use in accounting and religion.[7] It has been suggested that Agglutination be merged into this article or section. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, the Americas as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The Hurro-Urartian languages are an extinct language family of the Ancient Near East, which comprises only two languages, Hurrian and Urartian (Asia Minor and the Caucasus). ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Cuneiform script The Cuneiform script is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. ... A logogram, or logograph, is a single grapheme which represents a word or a morpheme (a meaningful unit of language). ... It has been suggested that Accounting scholarship be merged into this article or section. ...


Overview

Urartian inscriptions use two scripts—locally-developed hieroglyphs, and cuneiform script borrowed from Assyrians and Hittites. A logogram, or logograph, is a single grapheme which represents a word or a morpheme (a meaningful unit of language). ... Cuneiform script The Cuneiform script is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. ... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite empire was...


The Urartian cuneiform inscriptions are further divided into two groups. A minority is written in Akkadian (the official language of Assyria). The bulk of the cuneiforms, however, is written in an agglutinative language, conventionally called Urartian, Khaldian, or neo-Hurrian, which was related to Hurrian in the Hurro-Urartian family, and was neither Semitic nor Indo-European. It had close linguistic similarities to Northeast Caucasian languages. Igor Diakonov even places it in the Alarodian family, based on linguistic similarities with Northeast Caucasian languages. A more distant connection between Urartian and the modern Georgian language has been postulated as well. Akkadian language city of Akkad or Agad Akkadian Empire Sargon of Akkad the Amarna letters and Amarna Letters EA 296(Yahtiru) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Urartian is the conventional name for the language spoken by the inhabitants of the ancient kingdom of Urartu in Northeast Anatolia (present-day Turkey), in the region of Lake Van. ... Hurrian is a conventional name for the language of the Hurrians (Khurrites), a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly vanished by 1000 BC. Hurrian was the language of the Mitanni kingdom in northern Mesopotamia, and was likely spoken at least initially in Hurrian settlements in... The Hurro-Urartian languages are an extinct language family of the Ancient Near East, which comprises only two languages, Hurrian and Urartian (Asia Minor and the Caucasus). ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, the Americas as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... Igor Mikhailovich Diakonov (Russian: ) (born December 30, 1914 in Petrograd) is a Russian historian who should be ranked among the greatest authorities on Ancient East and its languages. ... The Alarodian languages are a proposed language family that encompasses two language families of the Caucasus: Northeast or Dagestan (sometimes called Avar or Lezgian which are also the names of its most major members) and North-central or Vaynakh (which includes Chechen and Ingush), as well as the extinct Hurro_Urartian... The Northeast Caucasian languages, also called East Caucasian, Caspian, Nakh-Dagestanian, or Dagestanian, are a family of languages spoken mostly in the Dagestan, Chechnya, and Ingushetia regions of Russia, in Northern Azerbaijan, and in Georgia. ... Georgian (, kartuli ena) is the official language of Georgia, a country in the Caucasus. ...


Currently, the number of known Urartian cuneiform inscriptions is 500. They contain around 350-400 words, most of which are Urartian, while some are loan words from other languages. The greatest number of foreign loan words in Urartuan language is from Armenian--around 70 word-roots. [8]


The Urartians originally used the locally-developed hieroglyphs but later adapted the Assyrian cuneiform script for most purposes. After the 8th century BC, the hieroglyphic script was restricted to religious and accounting purposes. Currently, samples of Urartian written language have survived in many inscriptions found in the area of Urartu kingdom. A logogram, or logograph, is a single grapheme which represents a word or a morpheme (a meaningful unit of language). ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Cuneiform script The Cuneiform script is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. ... (2nd millennium BCE - 1st millennium BCE - 1st millennium) Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia, Greece. ...


Unlike cuneiform inscriptions, the Urartuan hieroglyphic texts have not been successfully deciphered. As a result, scholars disagree as to what language is used in the texts. In mid-1990s, Armenian scientist Artak Movsisyan published a partial attempted deciphering of Urartian hieroglyphs, suggesting that they were written in an early form of Armenian close to Grabar.[9] Grabar meaning literary, Armenian was very developed by the time it came to be written down at the beginning of the 5th century. ...


There appears to have been a pre-Indo-European substratum of speech which strongly influenced the Indo-European-Armenian. Professor N. Marr, a Khaldist authority, suspects that the language of the Vannic cuneiforms (Urartu cuneiforms) is of the type of several modern Caucasian dialects of the Japhetic class. However, the Aryo-Indo-European must have exerted great influence upon the Urartean, even long before the times of the Vannic Empire. Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... Nikolay Yakovlevich Marr Nikolay Yakovlevich Marr (Никола́й Я́ковлевич Марр; 6 January 1865 [ O.S. 25 December] in Kutaisi – 20 December 1934 in Leningrad) was a controversial Soviet scholar whose monogenetic theory of language constituted the officially approved ideology of Soviet linguists until 1950, when Joseph Stalin personally slammed it as anti-scientific. ... Look up Caucasian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ...


On the other hand, E. Meyer cites names of royal princes many centuries before Christ in the Taurus area and Palestine, and later in Commagene; names such as Arta-tama (king of Mitanni), Arta-skana and Artamana, and all bearing the Arta prefix which persists in Armenian names to this day. 1. ... Mitanni or Mittani (in Assyrian sources Hanilgalbat, Khanigalbat) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia (in what is today Syria) from ca. ...


The Subarean (Asianic-Hurri-Japhetic) language is the basic stratum of the various above-mentioned tongues; it was topped and strongly affected by the Aryan-Mitanni language, from which mixture the Urartean sprang up, it being related in turn to the old Hatti-Asianic, the new Caucasian and through Indo-European elements, to the Aryan languages. On this Indo-European-Armenian foundation was superimposed the Urartean speech, which was forced upon the conquered natives, from whose dialects also an additional stock of words was assimilated in the course of time. Traces of anthropological types of culture, religion and social customs are being discovered from time to time under the Armen stratum. The same may be said of the linguistic heritage of the past. In his analysis of the known Iso-Urartean root-words, Professor Ghapantsian of Erevan University identifies one-fourth as of Hittite character. [10] The land of Subar (Sumerian Su-bir4/Subar/Šubur) or Subartu (Akkadian Šubartum/Subartum/ina Šú-ba-ri, Assyrian mât Šubarri) was situated at the Tigris, north of Babylonia. ... Mitanni or Mittani (in Assyrian sources Hanilgalbat, Khanigalbat) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia (in what is today Syria) from ca. ... Look up Caucasian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... Hittite can refer to either: The ancient Anatolian people called the Hittites; or The Hittite language, an ancient Indo-European language they spoke. ...


Debate over spoken language

The linguistic and, therefore, ethnic make-up of Urartu's population has been subject to debate among scholars.


The majority view states that it was spoken by the royal elite, which ruled over a multi-ethnic, in late Urartian times largely Armenian-speaking population.[citation needed] Under this theory, the Armenian-speaking population werethe descendants of the proto-Armenians who migrated to the Armenian Highland in ca. the 7th century BC, mixing with the native Armenians who were called Armani or Armens mentioned in many ancient records. (i.e. the "Phrygian theory," first suggested by Herodotus). The earliest testimony of the Armenian language dates to the 5th century AD (the Bible translation of Mesrob Mashtots). ...


A minority view, advocated primarily by the official historiography of Armenia, suggests that Urartian was solely the formal written language of the state, while its inhabitants, including the royal family, spoke Armenian. The theory primarily hinges on the language the Urartian cuneiform inscriptions being very repetitive and scant in vocabulary (having as little as 350-400 roots). Furthermore, over 250 years of usage, it shows no development, which is taken to indicate that the language had ceased to be spoken before the time of the inscriptions.[11] This view is compatible with the "Armenian hypothesis" suggested by V. Ivanov and T. Gamkrelidze, postulating the Armenian language as an in situ development of a 3rd millennium BC Proto-Indo-European language[12] The Armenian hypothesis of the Proto-Indo-European Urheimat, based on the Glottalic theory assumes that the Proto-Indo-European language was spoken during the 3rd millennium BC in the Armenian Highland. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. ...


Ethnic Composition

On linguistic grounds (see Hurro-Urartian), the majority of scholars believe that the Urartians were related to the earlier Hurrians.[13] A minority view states that Urartu was populated and ruled by Armenians (see below for more on the linguistic debate).[14] The Hurro-Urartian languages are an extinct language family of the Ancient Near East, which comprises only two languages, Hurrian and Urartian (Asia Minor and the Caucasus). ... The Hurrians were a people of the Ancient Near East, who lived in northern Mesopotamia and areas to the immediate east and west, beginning approximately 2500 BC. They probably originated in the Caucasus and entered from the north, but this is not certain. ...


The Urartians were succeeded in the area in the 6th century BC by the Armenians,[15], who in the view of the majority of scholars had been present in Anatolia from around 1200 BC, and over the following centuries spread east to the Armenian Highland [16] This scenario could place Armenians in their traditional homeland of eastern Asia Minor anywhere from around 1200 BC to around 700 BC (pushed eastward from Phrygia by the invasions of the Cimmerians in 696 BC).[17] A competing view suggested by Thomas Gamkrelidze and Vyacheslav V. Ivanov in 1984 places the Proto-Indo-European homeland in the Armenian Highland, see Armenian hypothesis, which would entail the presence of (pre-)Proto-Armenians in the area during the entire lifetime of the Urartian state. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... (Redirected from 1200 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after... Armenian Highland (Armenian Upland) is part of the Transcaucasian Highland and constitutes the continuation of the Caucasus mountains. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC - 700s BC - 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC Events and Trends 708 BC - Spartan immigrants found Taras (Tarentum, the modern Taranto) colony in southern Italy. ... Location of Phrygia - traditional region (yellow) - expanded kingdom (orange line) In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolian Highland, part of modern Turkey. ... The Cimmerians (Greek Κιμμέριοι, Kimmerioi) were ancient equestrian nomads who, according to Herodotus, originally inhabited the region north of the Caucasus and the Black Sea, in what is now Russia and Ukraine, in the 8th and 7th century BC. Assyrian records, however, first place them in the region of Azerbaijan in... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC - 690s BC - 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC Events and Trends 699 BC - Khallushu succeeds Shuttir-Nakhkhunte as king of the Elamite Empire 697 BC... Tamaz (Thomas) V. Gamkrelidze (born October 23, 1929) is a distinguished Georgian linguist, orientalist and public benefactor, Academician (since 1974) and President (since February, 2005) of the Georgian Academy of Sciences (GAS), Director of the Tsereteli Institute of Oriental Studies of GAS (since 1973), Dr.Sci. ... Vyacheslav Vsevolodovich Ivanov is a prominent Russian philologist and Indo-Europeanist probably best known for his glottalic theory of Indo-European consonantism and for placing the Indo-European urheimat in the area of the Lake Urmia. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... The Armenian hypothesis of the Proto-Indo-European Urheimat, based on the Glottalic theory assumes that the Proto-Indo-European language was spoken during the 3rd millennium BC in the Armenian Highland. ... The earliest testimony of the Armenian language dates to the 5th century AD (the Bible translation of Mesrob Mashtots). ...


After the disappearance of Urartu as a political entity, the Armenians dominated the highlands, absorbing portions of the previous Urartian culture in the process.[18]


Urartu and Armenian ethnogenesis

Red and dark tuff monument of king Argishtis I riding a chariot with two horses in Yerevan, Armenia in front of the Erebuni Museum.
Red and dark tuff monument of king Argishtis I riding a chariot with two horses in Yerevan, Armenia in front of the Erebuni Museum.

Although weakened by incursions, the southeastern parts where Hays lived remained intact. The Hay took over the rule of that part of Urartu’s territory, remained a viable political entity and regained strength under their own name of "the land of Hays" – Hayq, Hayastan. The western territory remained under the control of the Armens, and was known as Armenia, the name by which it came to be known to the rest of the world. The ancient Armenian civilization was a direct continuation of the Urartian civilization.[19] Thus the relationship between the Armenians and the Hurro-Urartians is similar to that of the Romans with the Etruscans, or that of the Greeks with the Minoans and other Pelasgians [20]. The language and mythology of Urartu had important influence over the languages and cultures of Armenia and Georgia. According to the Armenian Encyclopedia, modern Armenians claim descent from the Urartians [21]. It is particularly wide-spread belief among nationalist historians. [22] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 474 KB) Summary Red and dark tufa monument of king Argishti riding a chariot with two horses in Yerevan, Armenia in front of the Erebuni Museum. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 474 KB) Summary Red and dark tufa monument of king Argishti riding a chariot with two horses in Yerevan, Armenia in front of the Erebuni Museum. ... Welded tuff at Golden Gate in Yellowstone National Park Tuff (from the Italian tufo) is a type of rock consisting of consolidated volcanic ash ejected from vents during a volcanic eruption. ... Argishtis I (Argishtish) was the fifth known king of the ancient country of Urartu (in Anatolia) from 785 to 763 BC. A son and successor of Menuas, he continued the series of conquests initiated by his predecessors. ... Location Location of Yerevan in Armenia Government Country Armenia Established 782 BC Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Geographical characteristics Area  - City 227 km² Population  - City (2004)    - Density 1226000   5196. ... Motto: Armenian: Õ„Õ¥Õ¯ Ô±Õ¦Õ£ , Õ„Õ¥Õ¯ Õ„Õ·Õ¡Õ¯Õ¸Ö‚ÕµÕ© Transliteration: Mek Azg, Mek Mshakowyt One Nation, One Culture Anthem: Mer Hayrenik (Our Fatherland) Patron saint(s): Saint Bartholomew the Apostle Saint Jude Thaddeus the Apostle Saint Gregory the Illuminator Capital  Yerevan1 Largest city Yerevan Armenian Government Unitary republic  - President Robert Kocharian  - Prime Minister Andranik Margaryan Independence from... Area under Roman control  Roman Republic  Roman Empire  Western Empire  Eastern Empire Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a city-state founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic. ... The Minoans were an ancient pre-Hellenic civilization on what is now Crete (in the Mediterranean), during the Bronze Age, prior to classical Greek culture. ... Ancient Greek writers used the name Pelasgians (Greek: Pelasgoí, s. ...

See also

Ethno-Linguistic groups in the Caucasus region Russia Georgia Azerbaijan (Azer. ... The Hurro-Urartian languages are an extinct language family of the Ancient Near East, which comprises only two languages, Hurrian and Urartian (Asia Minor and the Caucasus). ... Urartian is the conventional name for the language spoken by the inhabitants of the ancient kingdom of Urartu in Northeast Anatolia (present-day Turkey), in the region of Lake Van. ... This page lists the kings of Urartu an ancient kingdom in what is now eastern Turkey and Armenia. ...

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia, v. 12, Yerevan 1987, p. 280
  2. ^ The Kingdom of Armenia By Mack Chahin - Page 105
  3. ^ Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia, v. 12, Yerevan 1987
  4. ^ Xenophon, "Cyropedia," III.7
  5. ^ Strabo, "Geography," 11.3.5; http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus:text:1999.01.0198&loc=11.13.1
  6. ^ Movses Khorenatsi, "History of Armenia"
  7. ^ A. Sayce, The Kingdom of Van (Urartu), Cambridge Ancient History, vol. II, p. 172 See also C. F. Lehman-Haupt, Armenien Einst und Jetzt, Berlin, 1931, vol. II, p. 497
  8. ^ Encyclopedia Americana, v. 2, USA 1980, pgs. 539, 541; Hovick Nersessian, "Highlands of Armenia," Los Angeles, 2000. Mr. Nersessian is in the New York Academy of Sciences.
  9. ^ A. Movsisyan, "Hieroglyphics of the Kingdom of Van," Yerevan, 1998
  10. ^ Vahan Kurkjian, "History of Armenia," Michigan, 1968, [1]
  11. ^ Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia, v. 12, Yerevan 1987, pp. 274-282
  12. ^ C. Walker, "Armenia--Survival of a Nation," London, 1990.
  13. ^ Boris B. Piotrovsky, The Ancient Civilization of Urartu, Cowles Book Co., Inc., New York, NY, 1969; Diakonov I.M., Starostin S.A. Hurro-Urartian as an Eastern Caucasian Languages. Münchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft, R. Kitzinger, München, 1986; Ancient Hurrians
  14. ^ Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia, v. 12, Yerevan 1986
  15. ^ Urartu on Britannica
  16. ^ http://historic.ru/books/item/f00/s00/z0000002/st21.shtml I.M. Dyakonov, V.D. Neronova, I.S. Sventsitskaya, "History of the Ancient World," v. 2, Moscow 1983
  17. ^ Herodotus - The Histories, Book 7, Chapter 73; The Armenians - by Elizabeth Redgate, A. E. (Anne Elizabeth)
  18. ^ Star Spring Urartu
  19. ^ http://historic.ru/books/item/f00/s00/z0000002/st03.shtml I.M. Dyakonov, V.D. Neronova, I.S. Sventsitskaya, "History of the Ancient World," v. 2, Moscow 1983
  20. ^ http://historic.ru/books/item/f00/s00/z0000002/st03.shtml I.M. Dyakonov, V.D. Neronova, I.S. Sventsitskaya, "History of the Ancient World," v. 2, Moscow 1983
  21. ^ Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia, v. 12, Yerevan 1986
  22. ^ Philip L. Kohl, Clare Fawcett. Nationalism, Politics and the Practice of Archaeology (New Directions in Archaeology). Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp. 157-158

Literature

  • M. Chahin, The Kingdom of Armenia: A History, Routledge, London, 2001.
  • C. F. Lehmann-Haupt, Armenien - Einst und Jetzt, Berlin 1910.
  • Giorgi Melikishvili, Nairi-Urartu (a monograph in Russian), Tbilisi, 1955.
  • Giorgi Melikishvili, About the history of ancient Georgia (a monograph in Russian), Tbilisi, 1959.
  • Boris B. Piotrovsky, The Ancient Civilization of Urartu (translated from Russian by James Hogarth), New York:Cowles Book Company, 1969.
  • M. Salvini, Geschichte und Kultur der Urartäer, Darmstadt 1995.
  • R.-B. Wartke, Urartu - Das Reich am Ararat In: Kulturgeschichte der Antiken Welt, Bd. 59, Mainz 1993.
  • P.E. Zimansky, Ecology and Empire: The Structure of the Urartian State, [Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization], Chicago: Oriental Institute, 1985.
  • P.E. Zimansky, Ancient Ararat. A Handbook of Urartian Studies, New York 1998.

    Boris B. Piotrovsky (1908-1990) was a Russian academician and archaeologist. ...

    External links

    • Historical Maps of Urartu by WikiMedia Commons
    • An Urartian Ozymandias - article by Paul Zimansky, Biblical Archaeologist
    • Nairi/Urartu (A very detailed site)
    • Urartu Civilization
    • Urartu (Greek Ararat)
    • In war and peace The Urartians
    • Capital and Periphery in the Kingdom of Urartu, Yehuda Dagan, Israel Antiquities Authority
    Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
    Urartu

      Results from FactBites:
     
    Urartu civilization - All About Turkey (734 words)
    The frontiers of Urartu were threatened on several occasions, and to combat this, the Urartu built buffer towns on the edges of their territory that were abandoned in times of danger, and later inhabited.
    One feature of Urartu architecture that was to be very influential in the Near East was the blind arch, and we can see that the layout of Urartu buildings was the precursor to that of the Iranian apadana layouts.
    The art of metalwork was certainly highly advanced in Urartu, and perhaps the greatest proof of this was the fact that Urartu artifacts were exported to Phrygia and Etruria.
    Kaucasian Knot : Encyclopedia (664 words)
    Urartu conquered the districts south of the lake Van and the districts around Urmia lake.
    Urartu lost a big part of its territory due to the wars with Assyria and other states and due to the revolts of the heads of the districts of Urartu.
    Arutunyan N.V. - New Urartu inscriptions of Karmir-Blur.
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