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Encyclopedia > Uranium
92 protactiniumuraniumneptunium
Nd

U

(Uqb)
General
Name, symbol, number uranium, U, 92
Chemical series actinides
Group, period, block n/a, 7, f
Appearance silvery gray metallic;
corrodes to a spalling
black oxide coat in air
Standard atomic weight 238.02891(3) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Rn] 5f3 6d1 7s2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 21, 9, 2
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 19.1 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 17.3 g·cm−3
Melting point 1405.3 K
(1132.2 °C, 2070 °F)
Boiling point 4404 K
(4131 °C, 7468 °F)
Heat of fusion 9.14 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 417.1 kJ·mol−1
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) 27.665 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 2325 2564 2859 3234 3727 4402
Atomic properties
Crystal structure orthorhombic
Oxidation states 3+,4+,5+,6+[1]
(weakly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.38 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 597.6 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1420 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 175 pm
Van der Waals radius 186 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic
Electrical resistivity (0 °C) 0.280 µΩ·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 27.5 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 13.9 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 3155 m/s
Young's modulus 208 GPa
Shear modulus 111 GPa
Bulk modulus 100 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.23
CAS registry number 7440-61-1
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of uranium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
232U syn 68.9 y α & SF 5.414 228Th
233U syn 159,200 y SF & α 4.909 229Th
234U 0.0054% 245,500 y SF & α 4.859 230Th
235U 0.7204% 7.038×108 y SF & α 4.679 231Th
236U syn 2.342×107 y SF & α 4.572 232Th
238U 99.2742% 4.468×109 y SF & α 4.270 234Th
References
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Uranium (pronounced /jʊˈreɪniəm/) is a silver-gray metallic chemical element in the actinide series of the periodic table that has the symbol U and atomic number 92. It has 92 protons and electrons, 6 of them valence electrons. It can have between 141 and 146 neutrons, with 143 and 146 in its most common isotopes. Uranium has the highest atomic weight of the naturally occurring elements. Uranium is approximately 70% more dense than lead and is weakly radioactive. It occurs naturally in low concentrations (a few parts per million) in soil, rock and water, and is commercially extracted from uranium-bearing minerals such as uraninite (see uranium mining). Uranium may refer to: Uranium, the chemical element Uranium-232 Uranium-233 Uranium-234 Uranium-235 Uranium-238 Uranium-239 Uranium-240 Uranium City, Saskatchewan, a Canadian settlement Uranium (TV series), a music-video television series Category: ... General Name, Symbol, Number protactinium, Pa, 91 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance bright, silvery metallic luster Standard atomic weight 231. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neptunium, Np, 93 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight (237) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Standard atomic weight 144. ... From the French Wikipedia. ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... Categories: Chemical elements ... sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex... The actinide (or actinoid) series encompasses the 15 chemical elements that lie between actinium and lawrencium on the periodic table, with atomic numbers 89 - 103[1]. The actinide series derives its name from the first element in the series, actinium. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... 6 *Lanthanides 7 **Actinides IUPAC has not recommended a specific format for the periodic table, so different conventions are permitted and are often used for the group number of lanthanides and actinides. ... A period 7 element is one of the chemical elements in the seventh row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... The f-block of the periodic table of elements consists of those elements for which, in the atomic ground state, the highest-energy electrons occupy f-orbitals. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Spall are flakes of a material that are broken off a larger solid body. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3200 × 2560 pixel, file size: 1. ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various mass levels between 10−36 kg and 1053 kg. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... For other uses, see Radon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... This box:      For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... Kilogram per cubic metre is the SI measure of density and is represented as kg/m³, where kg stands for kilogram and m³ stands for cubic metre. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... The heat of vaporization is a physical property of substances. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Specific heat capacity, also known simply as specific heat, is the measure of the heat energy required to increase the temperature of a unit quantity of a substance by a certain temperature interval. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... Not to be confused with oxidation state. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... The van der Waals radius of an atom is the radius of an imaginary hard sphere which can be used to model the atom for many purposes. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... Simple Illustration of a paramagnetic probe made up from miniature magnets. ... // Headline text POOP!! Danny Hornsby (also known as Gnome) is a measure indicating how strongly a Gnome can opposes the flow of electric current. ... K value redirects here. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... For other uses, see Speed of sound (disambiguation). ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... Shear strain In materials science, shear modulus or modulus of rigidity, denoted by G, or sometimes S or μ, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain:[1] where = shear stress; is the force which acts is the area on which the force acts = shear strain; is... The bulk modulus (K) of a substance essentially measures the substances resistance to uniform compression. ... Figure 1: Rectangular specimen subject to compression, with Poissons ratio circa 0. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Isotopes of uranium - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 109 seconds (a gigasecond) and 1010 seconds (32 years and 320 years). ... Alpha decay Alpha decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atom emits an alpha particle (two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium nucleus) and transforms (or decays) into an atom with a mass number 4 less and atomic number 2... Spontaneous fission (SF) is a form of radioactive decay characteristic of very heavy isotopes, and is theoretically possible for any atomic nucleus whose mass is greater than or equal to 100 amu (elements near ruthenium). ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 32 000 years and 320 000 years (1012 seconds—a terasecond—and 1013 seconds). ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 1016 seconds (320 million years) and 1017 seconds (3200 million years). ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 3. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 1017 seconds and 1018 seconds (3. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is distinguished by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... The actinide (or actinoid) series encompasses the 15 chemical elements that lie between actinium and lawrencium on the periodic table, with atomic numbers 89 - 103[1]. The actinide series derives its name from the first element in the series, actinium. ... The Periodic Table redirects here. ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... For other uses, see Proton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, valence electrons are the electrons contained in the outermost, or valence, electron shell of an atom. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... The parts-per notations are used to denote low concentrations of chemical elements. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... For the band, see Pitchblende (band). ... The Ranger Uranium Mine in Australia. ...


In nature, uranium atoms exist as uranium-238 (99.284%), uranium-235 (0.711%)[2], and a very small amount of uranium-234 (0.0058%). Uranium decays slowly by emitting an alpha particle. The half-life of uranium-238 is about 4.47 billion years and that of uranium-235 is 704 million years,[3] making them useful in dating the age of the Earth (see uranium-thorium dating, uranium-lead dating and uranium-uranium dating). Many contemporary uses of uranium exploit its unique nuclear properties. Uranium-235 has the distinction of being the only naturally occurring fissile isotope. Uranium-238 is both fissionable by fast neutrons, and fertile (capable of being transmuted to fissile plutonium-239 in a nuclear reactor). An artificial fissile isotope, uranium-233, can be produced from natural thorium and is also important in nuclear technology. While uranium-238 has a small probability to fission spontaneously or when bombarded with fast neutrons, the much higher probability of uranium-235 and to a lesser degree uranium-233 to fission when bombarded with slow neutrons generates the heat in nuclear reactors used as a source of power, and provides the fissile material for nuclear weapons. Both uses rely on the ability of uranium to produce a sustained nuclear chain reaction. Depleted uranium (uranium-238) is used in kinetic energy penetrators and armor plating.[4] There are two objects with this name: Unterseeboot 238 Uranium-238, the most common isotope of uranium This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Uranium-235 is an isotope of uranium that differs from the elements other common isotope, uranium-238, by its ability to cause a rapidly expanding fission chain reaction. ... U-234 is an isotope of uranium. ... An alpha particle is deflected by a magnetic field Alpha radiation consists of helium-4 nuclei and is readily stopped by a sheet of paper. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... Look up million in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Earth as seen from Apollo 17 Modern geologists consider the age of the Earth to be around 4. ... Uranium-thorium dating, also often referred to as thorium-230 dating, uranium-series disequilibrium dating or uranium-series dating, is a radiometric dating technique commonly used to determine the age of carbonate materials such as speleothem or coral. ... Radiometric dating is a technique used to date materials based on a knowledge of the decay rates of naturally occurring isotopes, and the current abundances. ... Uranium-uranium dating is a radiometric dating technique utilizing the comparison of two isotopes of uranium in a sample: uranium-238 and uranium-234. ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... This article or section should include material from Fissile material In nuclear engineering, a fissile material is one that is capable of sustaining a chain reaction of nuclear fission. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Fertile material is a term used to describe nuclides which generally themselves do not undergo induced fission (fissionable by thermal neutrons) but from which fissile material is generated by neutron absorption and subsequent nuclei conversions. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass (244) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... Uranium-233 is a fissile artificial isotope of uranium, which is proposed as a nuclear fuel. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... Spontaneous fission (SF) is a form of radioactive decay characteristic of very heavy isotopes, and is theoretically possible for any atomic nucleus whose mass is greater than or equal to 100 amu (elements near ruthenium). ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... A schematic nuclear fission chain reaction. ... Depleted uranium storage yard. ... French anti-tank round with its sabot APFSDS at point of separation of sabot. ... Military vehicles are commonly armoured to withstand the impact of shrapnel, bullets or shells, protecting the soldiers inside from enemy fire. ...


Uranium is used as a colorant in uranium glass, producing orange-red to lemon yellow hues. It was also used for tinting and shading in early photography. The 1789 discovery of uranium in the mineral pitchblende is credited to Martin Heinrich Klaproth, who named the new element after the planet Uranus. Eugène-Melchior Péligot was the first person to isolate the metal, and its radioactive properties were uncovered in 1896 by Antoine Becquerel. Research by Enrico Fermi and others starting in 1934 led to its use as a fuel in the nuclear power industry and in Little Boy, the first nuclear weapon used in war. An ensuing arms race during the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union produced tens of thousands of nuclear weapons that used enriched uranium and uranium-derived plutonium. The security of those weapons and their fissile material following the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991 is a concern for public health and safety. Missing image A selection of uranium glasses Uranium farce, also known as vaseline farce, is a pale yellow or yellow-green glass made by the inclusion of uranium. ... Photography [fÓ™tÉ‘grÓ™fi:],[foÊŠtÉ‘grÓ™fi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ... This article or section should be merged with Timeline of chemical element discovery The story of the discoveries of the chemical elements is presented here in chronological order. ... For the band, see Pitchblende (band). ... Martin Heinrich Klaproth Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1 December 1743 – 1 January 1817) was a German chemist. ... For other uses, see Uranus (disambiguation). ... Eugène-Melchior Péligot (born 1811[1], died 1890[1]), also known as Eugene Peligot, was a French chemist who isolated the first sample of uranium metal in 1841[1]. Peligot proved that the black powder of Martin Heinrich Klaproth was not a pure metal (it was an oxide... Henri Becquerel Antoine Henri Becquerel (December 15, 1852 – August 25, 1908) was a French physicist, Nobel laureate, and one of the discoverers of radioactivity. ... Fermi redirects here. ... Little Boy was the codename of the atomic bomb which was dropped on Hiroshima, on August 6, 1945 by the 12-man crew of the B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay, piloted by Colonel Paul Tibbets (Tibbets, age 92, died Nov. ... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... The term arms race in its original usage, describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... These pie-graphs showing the relative proportions of uranium-238 (blue) and uranium-235 (red) at different levels of enrichment. ... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ...

Contents

Characteristics

An induced nuclear fission event involving uranium-235
An induced nuclear fission event involving uranium-235

When refined, uranium is a silvery white, weakly radioactive metal, which is slightly softer than steel,[5] strongly electropositive and a poor electrical conductor.[6] It is malleable, ductile, and slightly paramagnetic.[5] Uranium metal has very high density, being approximately 70% more dense than lead, but slightly less dense than gold. Image File history File links Nuclear_fission. ... Image File history File links Nuclear_fission. ... Refining (as in non-metallurgical uses) consists of purifying an impure material, in this case a metal. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... Not to be confused with electrical conductance, a measure of an objects or circuits ability to conduct an electric current between two points, which is dependent on the electrical conductivity and the geometric dimensions of the conducting object. ... Look up malleability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Gold is a highly ductile metal Ductility is a mechanical property which describes how much plastic deformation a material can sustain before fracture occurs. ... Simple Illustration of a paramagnetic probe made up from miniature magnets. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ...


Uranium metal reacts with almost all nonmetallic elements and their compounds, with reactivity increasing with temperature.[7] Hydrochloric and nitric acids dissolve uranium, but nonoxidizing acids attack the element very slowly.[6] When finely divided, it can react with cold water; in air, uranium metal becomes coated with a dark layer of uranium oxide.[5] Uranium in ores is extracted chemically and converted into uranium dioxide or other chemical forms usable in industry. Look up chemical compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... UO2 A black, radioactive, crystalline powder, once used in the late 1800s to mid-1900s in ceramic glazes. ...


Uranium was the first element that was found to be fissile. Upon bombardment with slow neutrons, its uranium-235 isotope will most of the time divide into two smaller nuclei, releasing nuclear binding energy and more neutrons. If these neutrons are absorbed by other uranium-235 nuclei, a nuclear chain reaction occurs and, if there is nothing to absorb some neutrons and slow the reaction, the reaction is explosive. As little as 15 lb (7 kg) of uranium-235 can be used to make an atomic bomb.[8] The first atomic bomb worked by this principle (nuclear fission). For the generation of electrical power by fission, see Nuclear power plant. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Uranium-235 is an isotope of uranium that differs from the elements other common isotope, uranium-238, by its ability to cause a rapidly expanding fission chain reaction. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... Binding energy is the energy required to disassemble a whole into separate parts. ... A schematic nuclear fission chain reaction. ...


Applications

Military

Depleted uranium is used by various militaries as high-density penetrators.
Depleted uranium is used by various militaries as high-density penetrators.

The major application of uranium in the military sector is in high-density penetrators. This ammunition consists of depleted uranium (DU) alloyed with 1–2% other elements. At high impact speed, the density, hardness, and flammability of the projectile enable destruction of heavily armored targets. Tank armor and the removable armor on combat vehicles are also hardened with depleted uranium (DU) plates. The use of DU became a contentious political-environmental issue after the use of DU munitions by the US, UK and other countries during wars in the Persian Gulf and the Balkans raised questions of uranium compounds left in the soil (see Gulf War Syndrome).[8] Image File history File links 30mm_DU_slug. ... Image File history File links 30mm_DU_slug. ... Depleted uranium storage yard. ... Depleted uranium storage yard. ... Gulf War syndrome (GWS) or Gulf War illness (GWI) is the name given to an illness with symptoms including increases in the rate of immune system disorders and birth defects, reported by combat veterans of the 1991 Persian Gulf War. ...


Depleted uranium is also used as a shielding material in some containers used to store and transport radioactive materials.[6] Other uses of DU include counterweights for aircraft control surfaces, as ballast for missile re-entry vehicles and as a shielding material.[5] Due to its high density, this material is found in inertial guidance devices and in gyroscopic compasses.[5] DU is preferred over similarly dense metals due to its ability to be easily machined and cast as well as its relatively low cost.[9] Counter to popular belief, the main risk of exposure to DU is chemical poisoning by uranium oxide rather than radioactivity (uranium being only a weak alpha emitter). “Reentry” redirects here. ... An inertial guidance system consists of an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) combined with a set of guidance algorithms and control mechanisms, allowing the path of a vehicle to be controlled according to the position determined by the inertial navigation system. ... A gyroscope For other uses, see Gyroscope (disambiguation). ... This article is about the navigational instrument. ... Alpha decay Alpha decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atom emits an alpha particle (two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium nucleus) and transforms (or decays) into an atom with a mass number 4 less and atomic number 2...


During the later stages of World War II, the entire Cold War, and to a much lesser extent afterwards, uranium was used as the fissile explosive material to produce nuclear weapons. Two major types of fission bombs were built: a relatively simple device that uses uranium-235 and a more complicated mechanism that uses uranium-238-derived plutonium-239. Later, a much more complicated and far more powerful fusion bomb that uses a plutonium-based device in a uranium casing to cause a mixture of tritium and deuterium to undergo nuclear fusion was built.[10] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Uranium-235 is an isotope of uranium that differs from the elements other common isotope, uranium-238, by its ability to cause a rapidly expanding fission chain reaction. ... There are two objects with this name: Unterseeboot 238 Uranium-238, the most common isotope of uranium This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass (244) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Tritium (symbol T or ³H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ... Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of Earth of approximately one atom in 6500 of hydrogen (~154 PPM). ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing sustainable fusion power. ...


Civilian

The most visible civilian use of uranium is as the thermal power source used in nuclear power plants.
The most visible civilian use of uranium is as the thermal power source used in nuclear power plants.

The main use of uranium in the civilian sector is to fuel commercial nuclear power plants; by the time it is completely fissioned, one kilogram of uranium-235 can theoretically produce about 20 trillion joules of energy (20×1012 joules); as much electricity as 1500 tonnes of coal.[4] Image File history File linksMetadata Nuclear_Power_Plant_2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Nuclear_Power_Plant_2. ... A nuclear power station. ... A nuclear power station. ... One million million (1,000,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,000,001. ... The joule (IPA: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... This article is about the metric tonne. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ...


Commercial nuclear power plants use fuel that is typically enriched to around 3% uranium-235,[4] the CANDU reactor is the only commercial reactor capable of using unenriched uranium fuel. Fuel used for United States Navy reactors is typically highly enriched in uranium-235 (the exact values are classified). In a breeder reactor, uranium-238 can also be converted into plutonium through the following reaction:[5] 238U (n, gamma) → 239U -(beta) → 239Np -(beta) → 239Pu. This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... Qinshan Phase III Units 1 & 2, located in Zhejiang China: Two CANDU 6 reactors, designed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), owned and operated by the Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Company Limited. ... USN redirects here. ... A typical classified document. ... A breeder reactor is a nuclear reactor that breeds fuel. ... This article is about the radioactive element. ...

Uranium glass used as lead-in seals in a vacuum capacitor
Uranium glass used as lead-in seals in a vacuum capacitor

Prior to the discovery of radiation, uranium was primarily used in small amounts for yellow glass and pottery glazes (such as uranium glass and in Fiestaware). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 899 KB) A picture of Uranium Glass florescing under Ultraviolet light. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 899 KB) A picture of Uranium Glass florescing under Ultraviolet light. ... Missing image A selection of uranium glasses Uranium farce, also known as vaseline farce, is a pale yellow or yellow-green glass made by the inclusion of uranium. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 796 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,360 × 1,024 pixels, file size: 626 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 796 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,360 × 1,024 pixels, file size: 626 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Missing image A selection of uranium glasses Uranium farce, also known as vaseline farce, is a pale yellow or yellow-green glass made by the inclusion of uranium. ... See Capacitor (component) for a discussion of specific types. ... For other uses, see Radiation (disambiguation). ... Missing image A selection of uranium glasses Uranium farce, also known as vaseline farce, is a pale yellow or yellow-green glass made by the inclusion of uranium. ... An assortment of Fiesta plates. ...


After Marie Curie discovered radium in uranium ore, a huge industry developed to mine uranium so as to extract the radium, which was used to make glow-in-the-dark paints for clock and aircraft dials[2]. This left a prodigious quantity of uranium as a 'waste product', since it takes three metric tons of uranium to extract one gram of radium, which is also one curie of radioactivity. This 'waste product' was diverted to the glazing industry, making uranium glazes very inexpensive and abundant. In addition to the pottery glazes, uranium tile glazes accounted for the bulk of the use, including common bathroom and kitchen tiles which can be colored green, yellow, mauve, black, blue, red and other colors with uranium. This article is about the chemist and physicist. ... For other uses, see Radium (disambiguation). ... A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... The curie (symbol Ci) is a former unit of radioactivity, defined as 3. ...


Uranium was also used in photographic chemicals (esp. uranium nitrate as a toner),[5] in lamp filaments, to improve the appearance of dentures, and in the leather and wood industries for stains and dyes. Uranium salts are mordants of silk or wool. Uranyl acetate and uranyl formate are used as stains in transmission electron microscopy, to increase the contrast of biological specimens in ultrathin sections and in negative staining of viruses, isolated cell organelles and macromolecules. Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ... Uranium nitrate - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A color toner bottle Toner is a powder used in laser printers and photocopiers to form the text and images on the printed paper. ... A maxillary denture. ... Look up Mordant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... TEM redirects here. ... Negative staining is an established method, often used in diagnostic microscopy, for contrasting a thin specimen with an optically opaque fluid. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... In cell biology, an organelle is one of several structures with specialized functions, suspended in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell. ... Illustration of a polypeptide macromolecule The term macromolecule by definition implies large molecule. In the context of biochemistry, the term may be applied to the four conventional biopolymers (nucleotides, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids), as well as non-polymeric molecules with large molecular mass such as macrocycles. ...


The discovery of the radioactivity of uranium ushered in additional scientific and practical uses of the element. The long half-life of the isotope uranium-238 (4.51×109 years) makes it well-suited for use in estimating the age of the earliest igneous rocks and for other types of radiometric dating (including uranium-thorium dating and uranium-lead dating). Uranium metal is used for X-ray targets in the making of high-energy X-rays.[5] Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Igneous rocks (etymology from Latin ignis, fire) are rocks formed by solidification of cooled magma (molten rock), with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... Radiometric dating (often called radioactive dating) is a technique used to date materials, based on a comparison between the observed abundance of particular naturally occurring radioactive isotopes and their known decay rates. ... Uranium-thorium dating, also often referred to as thorium-230 dating, uranium-series disequilibrium dating or uranium-series dating, is a radiometric dating technique commonly used to determine the age of carbonate materials such as speleothem or coral. ... Radiometric dating is a technique used to date materials based on a knowledge of the decay rates of naturally occurring isotopes, and the current abundances. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz...


History

Pre-discovery use

The use of uranium in its natural oxide form dates back to at least the year 79, when it was used to add a yellow color to ceramic glazes.[5] Yellow glass with 1% uranium oxide was found in a Roman villa on Cape Posillipo in the Bay of Naples, Italy by R. T. Gunther of the University of Oxford in 1912.[11] Starting in the late Middle Ages, pitchblende was extracted from the Habsburg silver mines in Joachimsthal, Bohemia (now Jáchymov in the Czech Republic) and was used as a coloring agent in the local glassmaking industry.[12] In the early 19th century, the world's only known source of uranium ores were these old mines. An oxide is a chemical compound containing at least one oxygen atom and other elements. ... This article is about ceramic materials. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Mount Vesuvius as seen from Posillipo Posillipo is a residential quarter of Naples, called Pusilleco in the Neapolitan language. ... Gulf of Naples The Gulf of Naples is located off the southwestern coast of Italy. ... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... For the band, see Pitchblende (band). ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Spa at the beginning of 20th century, photographed by Å echtl and Voseček For other places called Joachimsthal, see Joachimsthal (disambiguation) Jáchymov (IPA: ; in German originally Thal, later Sankt Joachimsthal or Joachimsthal, as it is also known in English) is a spa town in north-west Bohemia in the... For other uses, see Bohemia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the material. ...


Discovery

Antoine Henri Becquerel discovered the phenomenon of radioactivity by exposing a photographic plate to uranium (1896).
Antoine Henri Becquerel discovered the phenomenon of radioactivity by exposing a photographic plate to uranium (1896).

The discovery of the element is credited to the German chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth. While he was working in his experimental laboratory in Berlin in 1789, Klaproth was able to precipitate a yellow compound (likely sodium diuranate) by dissolving pitchblende in nitric acid and neutralizing the solution with sodium hydroxide.[12] Klaproth mistakenly assumed the yellow substance was the oxide of a yet-undiscovered element and heated it with charcoal to obtain a black powder, which he thought was the newly discovered metal itself (in fact, that powder was an oxide of uranium).[12][13] He named the newly discovered element after the planet Uranus, which had been discovered eight years earlier by William Herschel.[14] Photographic plate made by Henri Becquerel showing effects of exposure to radioactivity. ... Photographic plate made by Henri Becquerel showing effects of exposure to radioactivity. ... For the SI unit of radioactivity, see Becquerel. ... Radioactivity may mean: Look up radioactivity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Photographic plates were one of the earliest forms of photographic film, in which a light-sensitive emulsion of silver salts was applied to a glass plate. ... This article or section should be merged with Timeline of chemical element discovery The story of the discoveries of the chemical elements is presented here in chronological order. ... Martin Heinrich Klaproth Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1 December 1743 – 1 January 1817) was a German chemist. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Sodium diuranate, Na2U2O7·6H2O, is a uranium salt also known as the yellow oxide of uranium. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature)[1] sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ... For other uses, see Uranus (disambiguation). ... For other persons named William Herschel, see William Herschel (disambiguation). ...


In 1841, Eugène-Melchior Péligot, who was Professor of Analytical Chemistry at the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (Central School of Arts and Manufactures) in Paris, isolated the first sample of uranium metal by heating uranium tetrachloride with potassium.[15][12] Uranium was not seen as being particularly dangerous during much of the 19th century, leading to the development of various uses for the element. One such use for the oxide was the aforementioned but no longer secret coloring of pottery and glass. Eugène-Melchior Péligot (born 1811[1], died 1890[1]), also known as Eugene Peligot, was a French chemist who isolated the first sample of uranium metal in 1841[1]. Peligot proved that the black powder of Martin Heinrich Klaproth was not a pure metal (it was an oxide... The Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (CNAM) is a higher education establishment operated by the French government dedicated to providing education and conducting research for the promotion of science and industry. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Uranium tetrachloride (UCl4) is a compound of uranium it presents as a dark green octahedral crystal solid. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ...


Antoine Henri Becquerel discovered radioactivity by using uranium in 1896.[7] Becquerel made the discovery in Paris by leaving a sample of a uranium salt on top of an unexposed photographic plate in a drawer and noting that the plate had become 'fogged'.[16] He determined that a form of invisible light or rays emitted by uranium had exposed the plate. For the SI unit of radioactivity, see Becquerel. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... Photographic plates were one of the earliest forms of photographic film, in which a light-sensitive emulsion of silver salts was applied to a glass plate. ...


Fission research

Enrico Fermi (bottom left) and the rest of the team that initiated the first artificial nuclear chain reaction (1942).
Enrico Fermi (bottom left) and the rest of the team that initiated the first artificial nuclear chain reaction (1942).

A team led by Enrico Fermi in 1934 observed that bombarding uranium with neutrons produces the emission of beta rays (electrons or positrons; see beta particle).[17] The fission products were at first mistaken for new elements of atomic numbers 93 and 94, which the Dean of the Faculty of Rome, Orso Mario Corbino, christened ausonium and hesperium, respectively.[18][19][20][21] The experiments leading to the discovery of uranium's ability to fission (break apart) into lighter elements and release binding energy were conducted by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann[17] in Hahn's laboratory in Berlin. Lise Meitner and her nephew, physicist Otto Robert Frisch, published the physical explanation in February 1939 and named the process 'nuclear fission'.[22] Soon after, Fermi hypothesized that the fission of uranium might release enough neutrons to sustain a fission reaction. Confirmation of this hypothesis came in 1939, and later work found that on average about 2 1/2 neutrons are released by each fission of the rare uranium isotope uranium-235.[17] Further work found that the far more common uranium-238 isotope can be transmuted into plutonium, which, like uranium-235, is also fissionable by thermal neutrons. Reactor team from University of Chicago. ... Reactor team from University of Chicago. ... Fermi redirects here. ... A schematic nuclear fission chain reaction. ... Fermi redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... The first detection of the positron in 1932 by Carl D. Anderson The positron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron. ... Alpha radiation consists of helium nuclei and is readily stopped by a sheet of paper. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neptunium, Np, 93 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery metallic Atomic mass (237) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Hesperium (also known as esperium; atomic symbol Es) was the name assigned to the element with atomic number 94, now known as plutonium. ... For the generation of electrical power by fission, see Nuclear power plant. ... Binding energy is the energy required to disassemble a whole into separate parts. ... Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner, 1913, at the KWI for Chemistry in Berlin Otto Hahn (March 8, 1879 – July 28, 1968) was a German chemist and received the 1944 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. ... Fritz Strassman (February 22, 1902 - April 22, 1980) was a German physical chemist who, along with Otto Hahn, discovered the nuclear fission of uranium in 1938. ... Lise Meitner ca. ... Otto Robert Frisch (1 October 1904–22 September 1979), Austrian-British physicist. ... For the generation of electrical power by fission, see Nuclear power plant. ... Uranium-235 is an isotope of uranium that differs from the elements other common isotope, uranium-238, by its ability to cause a rapidly expanding fission chain reaction. ... There are two objects with this name: Unterseeboot 238 Uranium-238, the most common isotope of uranium This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or isotope into another, which occurs through nuclear reactions. ... This article is about the radioactive element. ...


On 2 December 1942, another team led by Enrico Fermi was able to initiate the first artificial nuclear chain reaction, Chicago Pile-1. Working in a lab below the stands of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago, the team created the conditions needed for such a reaction by piling together 400 tons (360 tonnes) of graphite, 58 tons (53 tonnes) of uranium oxide, and six tons (five and a half tonnes) of uranium metal.[17] Later researchers found that such a chain reaction could either be controlled to produce usable energy or could be allowed to go out of control to produce an explosion more violent than anything possible using chemical explosives. is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A schematic nuclear fission chain reaction. ... On December 2, 1942, the worlds first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction, Chicago Pile-1, took place on a squash court beneath Stagg Field on the University of Chicago campus. ... Stagg Field was a stadium in Chicago, Illinois. ... For other uses, see University of Chicago (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Graphite (disambiguation). ... Uranium oxide is an oxide of the element uranium. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ...


Bombs and reactors

The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of the uranium-based atomic bomb nicknamed 'Little Boy' (1945)
The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of the uranium-based atomic bomb nicknamed 'Little Boy' (1945)

Two major types of atomic bomb were developed in the Manhattan Project during World War II: a plutonium-based device (see Trinity test and 'Fat Man') whose plutonium was derived from uranium-238, and a uranium-based device (nicknamed 'Little Boy') whose fissile material was highly enriched uranium. The uranium-based Little Boy device became the first nuclear weapon used in war when it was detonated over the Japanese city of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945. Exploding with a yield equivalent to 12,500 tonnes of TNT, the blast and thermal wave of the bomb destroyed nearly 50,000 buildings and killed approximately 75,000 people (see Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki).[16] Image File history File links Description: At the time this photo was made, smoke billowed 20,000 feet above Hiroshima while smoke from the burst of the first atomic bomb had spread over 10,000 feet on the target at the base of the rising column. ... Image File history File links Description: At the time this photo was made, smoke billowed 20,000 feet above Hiroshima while smoke from the burst of the first atomic bomb had spread over 10,000 feet on the target at the base of the rising column. ... The atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan on August 9, 1945 A mushroom cloud is a distinctive mushroom-shaped cloud of smoke, flame, or debris resulting from a very large explosion. ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... Little Boy was the codename of the atomic bomb which was dropped on Hiroshima, on August 6, 1945 by the 12-man crew of the B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay, piloted by Colonel Paul Tibbets (Tibbets, age 92, died Nov. ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the radioactive element. ... The Trinity test was the first test of a nuclear weapon, conducted by the United States on July 16, 1945 at , thirty miles (48 km) southeast of Socorro on what is now White Sands Missile Range, headquartered near Alamogordo, New Mexico. ... This article is about the nuclear weapon used in World War II. For other uses, see Fat Man (disambiguation). ... Little Boy was the codename of the atomic bomb which was dropped on Hiroshima, on August 6, 1945 by the 12-man crew of the B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay, piloted by Colonel Paul Tibbets (Tibbets, age 92, died Nov. ... These pie-graphs showing the relative proportions of uranium-238 (blue) and uranium-235 (red) at different levels of enrichment. ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... R-phrases S-phrases Related Compounds Related compounds picric acid hexanitrobenzene Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. ... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ...

Four light bulbs lit with electricity generated from the first artificial electricity-producing nuclear reactor, EBR-I (1951)
Four light bulbs lit with electricity generated from the first artificial electricity-producing nuclear reactor, EBR-I (1951)

Experimental Breeder Reactor I at the Idaho National Laboratory(INL) near Arco, Idaho became the first functioning artificial nuclear reactor on 20 December 1951. Initially, four 150-watt light bulbs were lit by the reactor, but improvements eventually enabled it to power the whole facility (later, the whole town of Arco became the first in the world to have all its electricity come from nuclear power).[23] The world's first commercial scale nuclear power station, Obninsk in the Soviet Union, began generation with its reactor AM-1 on 27 June 1954. Other early nuclear power plants were Calder Hall in England which began generation on 17 October 1956[24] and the Shippingport Atomic Power Station in Pennsylvania which began on 26 May 1958. Nuclear power was used for the first time for propulsion by a submarine, the USS Nautilus, in 1954.[17] Image File history File links First_four_nuclear_lit_bulbs. ... Image File history File links First_four_nuclear_lit_bulbs. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... Experimental Breeder Reactor Number 1 in Idaho, the first power reactor. ... Experimental Breeder Reactor Number 1 in Idaho, the first power reactor. ... The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is an 890 square mile (2,300 km²) complex located in the Idaho desert between the towns of Arco and Idaho Falls. ... Arco, Idaho Arco is a city located in Butte County, Idaho. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... The Nuclear power station Obninsk Russian: was apart of the science city Obninsk, about 110 km southwest from Moscow. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... The Sellafield facility on the Cumbrian coast, United Kingdom Sellafield is the name of a nuclear site, close to the village and railway station of Seascale, operated by Sellafield Ltd, but owned since 1 April 2005 by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Shippingport reactor was the first full-scale nuclear power plant in the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... USS Nautilus (SSN-571) was the worlds first operational nuclear-powered submarine and the first vessel to complete a submerged transit across the North Pole. ...


Fifteen ancient and no longer active natural nuclear fission reactors were found in three separate ore deposits at the Oklo mine in Gabon, West Africa in 1972. Discovered by French physicist Francis Perrin, they are collectively known as the Oklo Fossil Reactors. The ore they exist in is 1.7 billion years old; at that time, uranium-235 constituted about three percent of the total uranium on Earth.[25] This is high enough to permit a sustained nuclear fission chain reaction to occur, providing other conditions are right. The ability of the surrounding sediment to contain the nuclear waste products in less than ideal conditions has been cited by the U.S. federal government as evidence of their claim that the Yucca Mountain facility could safely be a repository of waste for the nuclear power industry.[25] Natural Reactors refer to a handful of Uranium deposits that have been discovered, mostly in Oklo, Gabon. ... Oklo is a place in the West African state of Gabon. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Francis Perrin (Paris, 1901 - id. ... Natural Reactors refer to a handful of Uranium deposits that have been discovered, mostly in Oklo, Gabon. ... Political Punk band from Victorville, Ca WWW.MYSPACE.COM/NUCLEARWASTEX ... Yucca Mountain Yucca Mountain is a ridge line in the south-central part of the U.S. state of Nevada. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ...


Cold War legacy and waste

U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945–2006
U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945–2006

During the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, huge stockpiles of uranium were amassed and tens of thousands of nuclear weapons were created using enriched uranium and plutonium made from uranium. Image File history File links US_and_USSR_nuclear_stockpiles. ... Image File history File links US_and_USSR_nuclear_stockpiles. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Since the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991, an estimated 600 tons (540 tonnes) of highly enriched weapons grade uranium (enough to make 40,000 nuclear warheads) have been stored in often inadequately guarded facilities in the Russian Federation and several other former Soviet states.[8] Police in Asia, Europe, and South America on at least 16 occasions from 1993 to 2005 have intercepted shipments of smuggled bomb-grade uranium or plutonium, most of which was from ex-Soviet sources.[8] From 1993 to 2005 the Material Protection, Control, and Accounting Program, operated by the federal government of the United States, spent approximately US $550 million to help safeguard uranium and plutonium stockpiles in Russia.[8] The improvements made provided repairs and security enhancements at research and storage facilities. Scientific American reported in February of 2006 that some of the facilities had been protected only by chain link fences which were in severe states of disrepair. According to an interview from the article, one facility had been storing samples of enriched (weapons grade) uranium in a broom closet prior to the improvement project; another had been keeping track of its stock of nuclear warheads using index cards kept in a shoe box.[26] This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Nuclear espionage is the purposeful giving of state secrets regarding nuclear weapons to other states without authorization (espionage). ... United States Government redirects here. ... USD redirects here. ...


Above-ground nuclear tests by the Soviet Union and the United States in the 1950s and early 1960s and by France into the 1970s and 1980s[9] spread a significant amount of fallout from uranium daughter isotopes around the world.[27] Additional fallout and pollution occurred from several nuclear accidents. Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... This article is about radiation accidents in general. ...


The Windscale fire at the Sellafield nuclear plant in 1957 spread iodine-131, a short lived radioactive isotope, over much of Northern England. On October 10, 1957, the graphite core of a British nuclear reactor at Windscale, Cumbria, caught fire, releasing substantial amounts of radioactive contamination into the surrounding area. ... The Sellafield facility on the Cumbrian coast, United Kingdom Sellafield is the name of a nuclear site, close to the village and railway station of Seascale, operated by Sellafield Ltd, but owned since 1 April 2005 by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority. ... Iodine-131 (131I), also called radioiodine, is a radioisotope of iodine which has medical and pharmaceutical uses. ... Northern England, The North or North of England is a rather ill-defined term, with no universally accepted definition. ...


The Three Mile Island accident in 1979 released a small amount of iodine-131. The amounts released by the partial meltdown of the Three Mile Island power plant were minimal, and an environmental survey only found trace amounts in a few field mice dwelling nearby. As I-131 has a half life of slightly more than eight days, any danger posed by the radioactive material has long since passed for both of these incidents. For details on this station, see Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station. ... Iodine-131 (131I), also called radioiodine, is a radioisotope of iodine which has medical and pharmaceutical uses. ...


The Chernobyl disaster in 1986, however, was a complete core breach meltdown and partial detonation of the reactor, which ejected iodine-131 and strontium-90 over a large area of Europe. The 28 year half-life of strontium-90 means that only recently has some of the surrounding countryside around the reactor been deemed safe enough to be habitable.[9] Chernobyl reactor number four after the disaster, showing the extensive damage to the main reactor hall (image center) and turbine building (image lower left) The Chernobyl disaster, reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, or simply Chernobyl, was the worst nuclear power plant accident in history and the only... General Name, Symbol, Number Strontium, Sr, 38 Series Alkaline earth metal Group, Period, Block 2 (IIA), 5, s Density, Hardness 2630 kg/m3, 1. ...


Occurrence

Biotic and abiotic

Uraninite, also known as Pitchblende, is the most common ore mined to extract uranium.
Uraninite, also known as Pitchblende, is the most common ore mined to extract uranium.

Uranium is a naturally occurring element that can be found in low levels within all rock, soil, and water. Uranium is also the highest-numbered element to be found naturally in significant quantities on earth and is always found combined with other elements.[5] Along with all elements having atomic weights higher than that of iron, it is only naturally formed in supernova explosions.[28] The decay of uranium, thorium and potassium-40 in the Earth's mantle is thought to be the main source of heat[29][30] that keeps the outer core liquid and drives mantle convection, which in turn drives plate tectonics. Uranium in the environment, this page is devoted to the science of uranium in the environment and in animals (including humans). ... Image File history File links Pichblende. ... Image File history File links Pichblende. ... For the band, see Pitchblende (band). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For other uses, see Supernova (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... Mantle convection is the slow creeping motion of Earths rocky mantle in response to perpetual gravitationally unstable variations in its density. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ...


Its average concentration in the Earth's crust is (depending on the reference) 2 to 4 parts per million,[6][9] or about 40 times as abundant as silver.[7] The Earth's crust from the surface to 25 km (15 mi) down is calculated to contain 1017 kg (2×1017 lb) of uranium while the oceans may contain 1013 kg (2×1013 lb).[6] The concentration of uranium in soil ranges from 0.7 to 11 parts per million (up to 15 parts per million in farmland soil due to use of phosphate fertilizers), and 3 parts per billion of sea water is composed of the element.[9] This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Geologic provinces of the world (USGS) In geology, a crust is the outermost solid shell of a planet or moon. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either through the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ...


It is more plentiful than antimony, tin, cadmium, mercury, or silver, and it is about as abundant as arsenic or molybdenum.[5][9] It is found in hundreds of minerals including uraninite (the most common uranium ore), autunite, uranophane, torbernite, and coffinite.[5] Significant concentrations of uranium occur in some substances such as phosphate rock deposits, and minerals such as lignite, and monazite sands in uranium-rich ores[5] (it is recovered commercially from these sources with as little as 0.1% uranium[7]). This article is about the element. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... For the band, see Pitchblende (band). ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... Categories: Phosphate minerals | Mineral stubs ... Uranophane Ca(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2·5H2O is a rare calcium uranium silicate hydrate mineral that forms from the oxidation of uranium bearing minerals. ... Torbernite is a radioactive, green phosphate mineral containing about 48% Uranium and 37% Oxygen. ... Coffinite is a uranium bearing silicate mineral: U(SiO4)1_x(OH)4x. ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... Strip mining lignite at Garzweiler, Germany Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is the lowest rank of coal and used almost exclusively as fuel for steam-electric power generation. ... Monazite powder In geology, the mineral monazite is a reddish-brown phosphate containing rare earth metals and an important source of thorium, lanthanum, and cerium. ...

Citrobacter species can have concentrations of uranium in their bodies 300 times higher than in the surrounding environment.
Citrobacter species can have concentrations of uranium in their bodies 300 times higher than in the surrounding environment.

Some organisms, such as the lichen Trapelia involuta or microorganisms such as the bacterium Citrobacter, can absorb concentrations of uranium that are up to 300 times higher than in their environment.[31] Citrobacter species absorb uranyl ions when given glycerol phosphate (or other similar organic phosphates). After one day, one gram of bacteria will encrust themselves with nine grams of uranyl phosphate crystals; this creates the possibility that these organisms could be used in bioremediation to decontaminate uranium-polluted water.[12][32] Image File history File links Citrobacter_freundii. ... Image File history File links Citrobacter_freundii. ... Species aka C. diversus Citrobacter is a genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family of the Enterobacteriaceae. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Species aka C. diversus Citrobacter is a genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family of the Enterobacteriaceae. ... The uranyl ion, showing the U-O bond order of 3 Diagram of a uranyl ion. ... Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. ... The radiation warning symbol (trefoil). ...


Plants absorb some uranium from the soil they are rooted in. Dry weight concentrations of uranium in plants range from 5 to 60 parts per billion, and ash from burnt wood can have concentrations up to 4 parts per million.[12] Dry weight concentrations of uranium in food plants are typically lower with one to two micrograms per day ingested through the food people eat.[12] For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ...


Production and mining

Main article: Uranium mining

The worldwide production of uranium in 2003 amounted to 41 429 tonnes, of which 25% was mined in Canada. Other important uranium mining countries are Australia, Russia, Niger, Namibia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, South Africa, and the USA. The Ranger Uranium Mine in Australia. ... This article is about the metric tonne. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...

Yellowcake is a concentrated mixture of uranium oxides that is further refined to extract pure uranium.
Yellowcake is a concentrated mixture of uranium oxides that is further refined to extract pure uranium.

Uranium ore is mined in several ways: by open pit, underground, in-situ leaching, and borehole mining (see uranium mining).[4] Low-grade uranium ore typically contains 0.1 to 0.25% of actual uranium oxides, so extensive measures must be employed to extract the metal from its ore.[33] High-grade ores found in Athabasca Basin deposits in Saskatchewan, Canada can contain up to 70% uranium oxides, and therefore must be diluted with waste rock prior to milling, as the undilute stockpiled ore could become critical and start a nuclear reaction. Uranium ore is crushed and rendered into a fine powder and then leached with either an acid or alkali. The leachate is then subjected to one of several sequences of precipitation, solvent extraction, and ion exchange. The resulting mixture, called yellowcake, contains at least 75% uranium oxides. Yellowcake is then calcined to remove impurities from the milling process prior to refining and conversion. Yellowcake (refined uranium oxide). ... Yellowcake (refined uranium oxide). ... Powdered yellowcake in a drum Yellowcakes (also known as urania) are uranium concentrates obtained from leach solutions. ... El Chino, located near Silver City, New Mexico, is an open-pit copper mine Open-pit mining, or opencast mining, refers to a method of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow. ... Sub-surface mining or underground mining refers to a group of techniques used for the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth. ... Leaching may refer to: Leaching (agriculture) Leaching (chemical science) Leaching (metallurgy) Dump leaching Heap leaching Tank leaching Leaching (pedology) Bioleaching Parboiling, also known as leaching Categories: ... Borehole Mining (BHM) is a remote operated method of extracting (mining) of mineral resources through boreholes by means of high pressure water jets. ... The Ranger Uranium Mine in Australia. ... The Athabasca Basin is a region of Northern Saskatchewan and Alberta Canada that is best known as the worlds leading source of uranium. ... For other uses, see Saskatchewan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... Alkaline redirects here. ... Powdered yellowcake in a drum Yellowcakes (also known as urania) are uranium concentrates obtained from leach solutions. ... Calcination (also referred to as Calcining) is thermal treatment process applied to ores and other solid materials in order to bring about a thermal decomposition, phase transition, or removal of a volatile fraction. ...


Commercial-grade uranium can be produced through the reduction of uranium halides with alkali or alkaline earth metals.[5] Uranium metal can also be made through electrolysis of KUF5 or UF4, dissolved in a molten calcium chloride (CaCl2) and sodium chloride (NaCl) solution.[5] Very pure uranium can be produced through the thermal decomposition of uranium halides on a hot filament.[5] ed|other uses|reduction}} Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... A halide is a binary compound, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, or astatide compound. ... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... The alkaline earth metals are a series of elements comprising Group 2 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). ... In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... Distinguished from fluorene and fluorone. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , Related Compounds Other anions calcium fluoride calcium bromide calcium iodide Other cations magnesium chloride strontium chloride Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... Thermal decomposition is a chemical reaction where a chemical substance breaks up into at least two chemical substances when heated. ...


Resources and reserves

It is estimated that 4.7 million tons of uranium ore reserves are economically available, while 35 million tons are classed as mineral resources (reasonable prospects for eventual economic extraction).[34] An additional 4.6 billion tonnes of uranium are estimated to be in sea water (Japanese scientists in the 1980s showed that extraction of uranium from sea water using ion exchangers was feasible).[35][36] Sea water is water from a sea or ocean. ... Ion exchange is defined as an exchange of ions between two electrolytes. ...


Exploration for uranium is continuing to increase with US$200 million being spent world wide in 2005, a 54% increase on the previous year.[34]


Australia has 40% of the world's uranium ore reserves[37] and the world's largest single uranium deposit, located at the Olympic Dam Mine in South Australia.[38] Almost all of the uranium production is exported, under strict International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards against use in nuclear weapons. Olympic Dam ( ) is a mining centre in South Australia located some 550 km NNW of Adelaide the capital city of South Australia. ... For the song, see South Australia (song). ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ...


The largest single source of uranium ore in the United States was the Colorado Plateau located in Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona. The U.S. federal government paid discovery bonuses and guaranteed purchase prices to anyone who found and delivered uranium ore, and was the sole legal purchaser of the uranium. The economic incentives resulted in a frenzy of exploration and mining activity throughout the Colorado Plateau from 1947 through 1959 that left thousands of miles of crudely graded roads spider-webbing the remote deserts of the Colorado Plateau, and thousands of abandoned uranium mines, exploratory shafts, and tailings piles. The frenzy ended as suddenly as it had begun, when the U.S. government stopped purchasing the uranium. The Colorado Plateau, also called the Colorado Plateaus Province, is a physiographic region of the Intermontane Plateaus, roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States. ...


Supply

Uranium output in 2005
Uranium output in 2005

In 2005, seventeen countries produced concentrated uranium oxides, with Canada (27.9% of world production) and Australia (22.8%) being the largest producers and Kazakhstan (10.5%), Russia (8.0%), Namibia (7.5%), Niger (7.4%), Uzbekistan (5.5%), the United States (2.5%), Ukraine (1.9%) and China (1.7%) also producing significant amounts.[39] The ultimate supply of uranium is believed to be very large and sufficient for at least the next 85 years[34] although some studies indicate underinvestment in the late twentieth century may produce supply problems in the 21st century.[40] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixels Full resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png) This bubble map shows the global distribution of uranium output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Canada - 11,627 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixels Full resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png) This bubble map shows the global distribution of uranium output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Canada - 11,627 tonnes). ...


Some claim that production of uranium will peak similar to peak oil. Kenneth S. Deffeyes and Ian D. MacGregor point out that uranium deposits seem to be log-normal distributed. There is a 300-fold increase in the amount of uranium recoverable for each tenfold decrease in ore grade." [41] In another words, there is very little high grade ore and proportionately much more low grade ore. For other uses, see Peak oil (disambiguation). ...


Compounds

Oxidation states and oxides

Oxides

Triuranium octaoxide (diagram pictured) and uranium dioxide are the two most common uranium oxides.
Triuranium octaoxide (diagram pictured) and uranium dioxide are the two most common uranium oxides.

Calcined uranium yellowcake as produced in many large mills contains a distribution of uranium oxidation species in various forms ranging from most oxidized to least oxidized. Particles with short residence times in a calciner will generally be less oxidized than particles that have long retention times or are recovered in the stack scrubber. While uranium content is referred to for U3O8 content, to do so is inaccurate and dates to the days of the Manhattan project when U3O8 was used as an analytical chemistry reporting standard. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (817x493, 111 KB) Lattice of U3O8 solid, drawn by cadmium using POVray using public domain data to drive the software used to write the pov file. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (817x493, 111 KB) Lattice of U3O8 solid, drawn by cadmium using POVray using public domain data to drive the software used to write the pov file. ... Triuranium octaoxide (U3O8) is a compound of uranium. ... UO2 A black, radioactive, crystalline powder, once used in the late 1800s to mid-1900s in ceramic glazes. ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ...


Phase relationships in the uranium-oxygen system are highly complex. The most important oxidation states of uranium are uranium(IV) and uranium(VI), and their two corresponding oxides are, respectively, uranium dioxide (UO2) and uranium trioxide (UO3).[42] Other uranium oxides such as uranium monoxide (UO), diuranium pentoxide (U2O5), and uranium peroxide (UO4•2H2O) are also known to exist. In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... An oxide is a chemical compound containing at least one oxygen atom and other elements. ... UO2 A black, radioactive, crystalline powder, once used in the late 1800s to mid-1900s in ceramic glazes. ... Uranium trioxide (UO3), also called uranyl oxide, uranium(VI) oxide, and uranic oxide, is the hexavalent oxide of uranium. ... Uranium oxide is an oxide of the element uranium. ...


The most common forms of uranium oxide are triuranium octaoxide (U3O8) and the aforementioned UO2.[43] Both oxide forms are solids that have low solubility in water and are relatively stable over a wide range of environmental conditions. Triuranium octaoxide is (depending on conditions) the most stable compound of uranium and is the form most commonly found in nature. Uranium dioxide is the form in which uranium is most commonly used as a nuclear reactor fuel.[43] At ambient temperatures, UO2 will gradually convert to U3O8. Because of their stability, uranium oxides are generally considered the preferred chemical form for storage or disposal.[43] Triuranium octaoxide (U3O8) is a compound of uranium. ...


Aqueous chemistry

Ions that represent the four different oxidation states of uranium are soluble and therefore can be studied in aqueous solutions. They are: U3+ (red), U4+ (green), UO2+ (unstable), and UO22+ (yellow).[44] A few solid and semi-metallic compounds such as UO and US exist for the formal oxidation state uranium(II), but no simple ions are known to exist in solution for that state. Ions of U3+ liberate hydrogen from water and are therefore considered to be highly unstable. The UO22+ ion represents the uranium(VI) state and is known to form compounds such as the carbonate, chloride and sulfate. UO22+ also forms complexes with various organic chelating agents, the most commonly encountered of which is uranyl acetate.[44] This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... In chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. ... Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... The first solvation shell of a sodium ion dissolved in water An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... The uranyl ion, showing the U-O bond order of 3 Diagram of a uranyl ion. ... This box:      For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Uranium carbonate or uranyl carbonate UO2(CO3) is a carbonate of uranium that forms the backbone of several uranyl mineral species such as Andersonite, McKelveyite and Wyartite. ... Uranyl chloride, UO2Cl2 is an unstable, bright yellow coloured chemical compound of uranium. ... Uranyl sulfate (U02S04) a sulfate of uranium presents as an odorless lemon-yellow sand-like solid in its pure crystaline form. ... Synthesis of copper(II)-tetraphenylporphine, a metal complex, from tetraphenylporphine and copper(II) acetate monohydrate. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... Chelation (from Greek χηλή, chelè, meaning claw; pronounced ) is the binding or complexation of a bi- or multidentate ligand. ... Uranyl acetate (UO2(CH3COO)2Ë‘22H2O) or Uranium bis(acetato)-O)dioxo-dihydrate, is a yellow free-flowing crystalline solid of yellow rhombic crystals with a slight acetic odor. ...


Carbonates

The Pourbaix diagram for uranium in a non-complexing aqueous medium (eg perchloric acid / sodium hydroxide).
The Pourbaix diagram for uranium in a non-complexing aqueous medium (eg perchloric acid / sodium hydroxide).[45]
The Pourbaix diagram for uranium in carbonate solution
The Pourbaix diagram for uranium in carbonate solution[45]

The interactions of carbonate anions with uranium(VI) cause the Pourbaix diagram to change greatly when the medium is changed from water to a carbonate containing solution. It is interesting to note that while the vast majority of carbonates are insoluble in water (students are often taught that all carbonates other than those of alkali metals are insoluble in water), uranium carbonates are often soluble in water. This is due to the fact that a U(VI) cation is able to bind two terminal oxides and three or more carbonates to form anionic complexes. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A Pourbaix diagram, also known as a potential/pH diagram, maps out possible stable (equilibrium) phases of an aqueous electrochemical system. ... Perchloric acid has the formula HClO4 and is a colorless liquid soluble in water. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A Pourbaix diagram, also known as a potential/pH diagram, maps out possible stable (equilibrium) phases of an aqueous electrochemical system. ... A Pourbaix diagram, also known as a potential/pH diagram, maps out possible stable (equilibrium) phases of an aqueous electrochemical system. ...


The fraction digrams explain this further, it can be seen that when the pH of a uranium(VI) solution is increased that the uranium is converted to a hydrated uranium oxide hydroxide and then at high pHs to an anionic hydroxide complex.

A diagram showing the relative concentrations of the different chemical forms of uranium in a non-complexing aqueous medium (eg perchloric acid / sodium hydroxide).
A diagram showing the relative concentrations of the different chemical forms of uranium in a non-complexing aqueous medium (eg perchloric acid / sodium hydroxide).[45]

On addition of carbonate to the system the uranium is converted to a series of carbonate complexes when the pH is increased, one important overall effect of these reactions is to increase the solubility of the uranium in the range pH 6 to 8. This is important when considering the long term stability of used uranium dioxide nuclear fuels. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Perchloric acid has the formula HClO4 and is a colorless liquid soluble in water. ...

A diagram showing the relative concentrations of the different chemical forms of uranium in an aqueous carbonate solution.
A diagram showing the relative concentrations of the different chemical forms of uranium in an aqueous carbonate solution.[45]

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Hydrides, carbides and nitrides

Uranium metal heated to 250 to 300 °C (482 to 572 °F) reacts with hydrogen to form uranium hydride. Even higher temperatures will reversibly remove the hydrogen. This property makes uranium hydrides convenient starting materials to create reactive uranium powder along with various uranium carbide, nitride, and halide compounds.[46] Two crystal modifications of uranium hydride exist: an α form that is obtained at low temperatures and a β form that is created when the formation temperature is above 250 °C.[46] For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Calcium carbide. ... Definition The nitride ion is very very gay and retarded A nitride (compound) is a compound that has nitrogen with more electropositive elements. ... A halide is a binary compound, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, or astatide compound. ...


Uranium carbides and uranium nitrides are both relatively inert semimetallic compounds that are minimally soluble in acids, react with water, and can ignite in air to form U3O8.[46] Carbides of uranium include uranium monocarbide (UC), uranium dicarbide (UC2), and diuranium tricarbide (U2C3). Both UC and UC2 are formed by adding carbon to molten uranium or by exposing the metal to carbon monoxide at high temperatures. Stable below 1800 °C, U2C3 is prepared by subjecting a heated mixture of UC and UC2 to mechanical stress.[47] Uranium nitrides obtained by direct exposure of the metal to nitrogen include uranium mononitride (UN), uranium dinitride (UN2), and diuranium trinitride (U2N3).[47] Uranium carbide, a carbide of uranium, is a hard refractive ceramic material. ... Uranium nitride (U2N3) is a ceramic compound used as nuclear fuel in nuclear test reactors, because it has properties similar to uranium dioxide or uranium carbide. ... In English, to be inert is to be in a state of doing little or nothing. ... Together with the metals and nonmetals, the metalloids (in Greek metallon = metal and eidos = sort - also called semimetals) form one of the three categories of chemical elements as classified by ionization and bonding properties. ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... Look up air in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ...


Halides

Uranium hexafluoride is the feedstock used to separate uranium-235 from natural uranium.
Uranium hexafluoride is the feedstock used to separate uranium-235 from natural uranium.

All uranium fluorides are created using uranium tetrafluoride (UF4); UF4 itself is prepared by hydrofluorination of uranium dioxide.[46] Reduction of UF4 with hydrogen at 1000 °C produces uranium trifluoride (UF3). Under the right conditions of temperature and pressure, the reaction of solid UF4 with gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF6) can form the intermediate fluorides of U2F9, U4F17, and UF5.[46] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (993x1079, 8 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Uranium hexafluoride ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (993x1079, 8 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Uranium hexafluoride ... Uranium hexafluoride (UF6), referred to as hex in industry, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. ... Uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) is a green crystalline solid that melts at about 1,760°F (960°C) and has an insignificant vapor pressure and is very slightly soluble in water. ... Uranium hexafluoride (UF6), referred to as hex in industry, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. ...


At room temperatures, UF6 has a high vapor pressure, making it useful in the gaseous diffusion process to separate highly valuable uranium-235 from the far more common uranium-238 isotope. This compound can be prepared from uranium dioxide and uranium hydride by the following process:[46] Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... -1...

UO2 + 4HF + heat (500 °C) → UF4 + 2H2O
UF4 + F2 + heat (350 °C) → UF6

The resulting UF6 white solid is highly reactive (by fluorination), easily sublimes (emitting a nearly perfect gas vapor), and is the most volatile compound of uranium known to exist.[46] For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An ideal gas or perfect gas is a hypothetical gas consisting of identical particles of zero volume, with no intermolecular forces, where the constituent atoms or molecules undergo perfectly elastic collisions with the walls of the container and each other and are in constant random motion. ...


One method of preparing uranium tetrachloride (UCl4) is to directly combine chlorine with either uranium metal or uranium hydride. The reduction of UCl4 by hydrogen produces uranium trichloride (UCl3) while the higher chlorides of uranium are prepared by reaction with additional chlorine.[46] All uranium chlorides react with water and air. Uranium tetrachloride (UCl4) is a compound of uranium it presents as a dark green octahedral crystal solid. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ...


Bromides and iodides of uranium are formed by direct reaction of, respectively, bromine and iodine with uranium or by adding UH3 to those element's acids.[46] Known examples include: UBr3, UBr4, UI3, and UI4. Uranium oxyhalides are water-soluble and include UO2F2, UOCl2, UO2Cl2, and UO2Br2. Stability of the oxyhalides decrease as the atomic weight of the component halide increases.[46] A bromide is a phrase, or person who uses phrases, which have been used and repeated so many times as to become either insincere in their meaning, or seem like an attempt at trying to explain the obvious. ... An iodide ion is an iodine atom with a −1 (negative one) charge. ... Bromo redirects here. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... ...


Isotopes

Pie-graphs showing the relative proportions of uranium-238 (blue) and uranium-235 (red) at different levels of enrichment
Pie-graphs showing the relative proportions of uranium-238 (blue) and uranium-235 (red) at different levels of enrichment

Image File history File links Uranium_enrichment_proportions. ... Image File history File links Uranium_enrichment_proportions. ...

Natural concentrations

Main article: Isotopes of uranium

Naturally occurring uranium is composed of three major isotopes, uranium-238 (99.28% natural abundance), uranium-235 (0.71%), and uranium-234 (0.0054%). All three isotopes are radioactive, creating radioisotopes, with the most abundant and stable being uranium-238 with a half-life of 4.51×109 years (close to the age of the Earth), uranium-235 with a half-life of 7.13×108 years, and uranium-234 with a half-life of 2.48×105 years.[48] Isotopes of uranium - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... There are two objects with this name: Unterseeboot 238 Uranium-238, the most common isotope of uranium This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Uranium-235 is an isotope of uranium that differs from the elements other common isotope, uranium-238, by its ability to cause a rapidly expanding fission chain reaction. ... U-234 is an isotope of uranium. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable Goat, which is a nucleus characterized by excess energy which is available to be imparted either to a newly-created radiation particle within the nucleus, or else to an atomic electron (see internal conversion) . The radionuclide, in this process, undergoes radioactive decay... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Earth as seen from Apollo 17 Modern geologists consider the age of the Earth to be around 4. ...


Uranium-238 is an α emitter, decaying through the 18-member uranium natural decay series into lead-206.[7] The decay series of uranium-235 (also called actino-uranium) has 15 members that ends in lead-207, protactinium-231 and actinium-227.[7] The constant rates of decay in these series makes comparison of the ratios of parent to daughter elements useful in radiometric dating. Uranium-233 is made from thorium-232 by neutron bombardment.[5] General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number protactinium, Pa, 91 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance bright, silvery metallic luster Standard atomic weight 231. ... General Name, Symbol, Number actinium, Ac, 89 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block 3, 7, f Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (227) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Radiometric dating (often called radioactive dating) is a technique used to date materials, based on a comparison between the observed abundance of particular naturally occurring radioactive isotopes and their known decay rates. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The isotope uranium-235 is important for both nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons because it is the only isotope existing in nature to any appreciable extent that is fissile, that is, can be broken apart by thermal neutrons.[7] The isotope uranium-238 is also important because it absorbs neutrons to produce a radioactive isotope that subsequently decays to the isotope plutonium-239, which also is fissile.[17] Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... For the generation of electrical power by fission, see Nuclear power plant. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass (244) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ...


Enrichment

Main article: Enriched uranium
Cascades of gas centrifuges are used to enrich uranium ore to concentrate its fissionable isotopes.
Cascades of gas centrifuges are used to enrich uranium ore to concentrate its fissionable isotopes.

Enrichment of uranium ore through isotope separation to concentrate the fissionable uranium-235 is needed for use in nuclear weapons and most nuclear power plants with the exception of gas cooled reactors and pressurised heavy water reactors. A majority of neutrons released by a fissioning atom of uranium-235 must impact other uranium-235 atoms to sustain the nuclear chain reaction needed for these applications. The concentration and amount of uranium-235 needed to achieve this is called a 'critical mass.' These pie-graphs showing the relative proportions of uranium-238 (blue) and uranium-235 (red) at different levels of enrichment. ... Image File history File links Gas_centrifuge_cascade. ... Image File history File links Gas_centrifuge_cascade. ... A cascade of gas centrifuges at a United States enrichment plant. ... Isotope separation is the process of concentrating specific isotopes of a chemical element by removing other isotopes, for example separating natural uranium into enriched uranium and depleted uranium. ... A Gas Cooled Reactor (more commonly called a GCR) is a generation I nuclear power plant that uses graphite as a neutron moderator and carbon dioxide as coolant. ... A pressurised heavy water reactor is a nuclear power reactor that uses unenriched natural uranium as its fuel and heavy water as a moderator (deuterium oxide D2O). ... A schematic nuclear fission chain reaction. ...


To be considered 'enriched', the uranium-235 fraction has to be increased to significantly greater than its concentration in naturally occurring uranium. Enriched uranium typically has a uranium-235 concentration of between 3 and 5%.[49] The process produces huge quantities of uranium that is depleted of uranium-235 and with a correspondingly increased fraction of uranium-238, called depleted uranium or 'DU'. To be considered 'depleted', the uranium-235 isotope concentration has to have been decreased to significantly less than its natural concentration. Typically the amount of uranium-235 left in depleted uranium is 0.2% to 0.3%.[50] As the price of uranium has risen since 2001, some enrichment tailings containing more than 0.35% uranium-235 are being considered for re-enrichment, driving the price of these depleted uranium hexafluoride stores above $130 per kilogram in July, 2007 from just $5 in 2001.[50] Depleted uranium storage yard. ...


The gas centrifuge process, where gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF6) is separated by the difference in molecular weight between 235UF6 and 238UF6 using high-speed centrifuges, has become the cheapest and leading enrichment process (lighter UF6 concentrates in the center of the centrifuge).[16] The gaseous diffusion process was the previous leading method for enrichment and the one used in the Manhattan Project. In this process, uranium hexafluoride is repeatedly diffused through a silver-zinc membrane, and the different isotopes of uranium are separated by diffusion rate (uranium 238 is heavier and thus diffuses slightly slower than uranium-235).[16] The molecular laser isotope separation method employs a laser beam of precise energy to sever the bond between uranium-235 and fluorine. This leaves uranium-238 bonded to fluorine and allows uranium-235 metal to precipitate from the solution.[4] Another method is called liquid thermal diffusion.[6] A cascade of gas centrifuges at a United States enrichment plant. ... Uranium hexafluoride (UF6), referred to as hex in industry, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. ... This article is about the scientific device. ... -1... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... diffusion (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... ÚMTA alexandriaMolecular laser isotope separation (MLIS) is a method of isotope separation, where specially tuned lasers are used to separate isotopes of uranium using selective ionization of hyperfine transitions of uranium hexafluoride molecules. ... For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ...


Precautions

Exposure

A person can be exposed to uranium (or its radioactive daughters such as radon) by inhaling dust in air or by ingesting contaminated water and food. The amount of uranium in air is usually very small; however, people who work in factories that process phosphate fertilizers, live near government facilities that made or tested nuclear weapons, live or work near a modern battlefield where depleted uranium weapons have been used, or live or work near a coal-fired power plant, facilities that mine or process uranium ore, or enrich uranium for reactor fuel, may have increased exposure to uranium.[51][52] Houses or structures that are over uranium deposits (either natural or man-made slag deposits) may have an increased incidence of exposure to radon gas. For other uses, see Radon (disambiguation). ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either through the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... Depleted uranium storage yard. ... A weapon is a tool used to kill or incapacitate a person or animal, or destroy a military target. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ...


Almost all uranium that is ingested is excreted during digestion, but up to 5% is absorbed by the body when the soluble uranyl ion is ingested while only 0.5% is absorbed when insoluble forms of uranium, such as its oxide, are ingested.[12] However, soluble uranium compounds tend to quickly pass through the body whereas insoluble uranium compounds, especially when ingested via dust into the lungs, pose a more serious exposure hazard. After entering the bloodstream, the absorbed uranium tends to bioaccumulate and stay for many years in bone tissue because of uranium's affinity for phosphates.[12] Uranium is not absorbed through the skin, and alpha particles released by uranium cannot penetrate the skin. For the industrial process, see anaerobic digestion. ... The uranyl ion, showing the U-O bond order of 3 Diagram of a uranyl ion. ... For the village in Tibet, see Lung, Tibet. ... If the input of a toxic substance to an organism is greater than the rate at which the substance is lost, the organism is said to be bioaccumulating that substance. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... An alpha particle is deflected by a magnetic field Alpha radiation consists of helium-4 nuclei and is readily stopped by a sheet of paper. ...


Effects

The greatest health risk from large intakes of uranium is toxic damage to the kidneys, because, in addition to being weakly radioactive, uranium is a toxic metal.[53][54][12] Uranium is a reproductive toxicant.[55] Radiological effects are generally local because this is the nature of alpha radiation, the primary form from U-238 decay. No human cancer has been seen as a result of exposure to natural or depleted uranium,[56] but exposure to some of its decay products, especially radon, does pose a significant health threat.[9] Exposure to strontium-90, iodine-131, and other fission products is unrelated to uranium exposure, but may result from medical procedures or exposure to spent reactor fuel or fallout from nuclear weapons.[57] Although accidental inhalation exposure to a high concentration of uranium hexafluoride has resulted in human fatalities, those deaths were not associated with uranium itself.[58] Finely divided uranium metal presents a fire hazard because uranium is pyrophoric, so small grains will ignite spontaneously in air at room temperature.[5] // Toxic and Intoxicated redirect here – toxic has other uses, which can be found at Toxicity (disambiguation); for the state of being intoxicated by alcohol see Drunkenness. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Toxic metals are metals that form poisonous soluble compounds and have no biological role, i. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... For other uses, see Radon (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number Strontium, Sr, 38 Series Alkaline earth metal Group, Period, Block 2 (IIA), 5, s Density, Hardness 2630 kg/m3, 1. ... Iodine-131 (131I), also called radioiodine, is a radioisotope of iodine which has medical and pharmaceutical uses. ... Uranium hexafluoride (UF6), referred to as hex in industry, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. ... Plutonium pyrophoricity can cause it to look like a glowing ember under certain conditions. ...


See also

Nuclear engineering is the practical application of the breakdown of atomic nuclei and/or other sub-atomic physics, based on the principles of nuclear physics. ... The nuclear fuel cycle, also called nuclear fuel chain, is the progression of nuclear fuel through a series of differing stages. ... This box:      Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... K-65 residues are the very radioactive mill residues resulting from a uniquely concentrated uranium ore discovered before WW II in Katanga province (Shinkolobwe) of the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly called the Belgian Congo). ... Uranium mining is presently carried out in more than 25 countries around the world. ... Isotopes of uranium - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements: Third Edition by L.R. Morss, N.M. Edelstein, J. Fuger, eds. (Netherlands: Springer, 2006.)
  2. ^ Health Concerns about Military Use of Depleted Uranium.
  3. ^ WWW Table of Radioactive Isotopes.
  4. ^ a b c d e Emsley, Nature's Building Blocks (2001), page 479
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Uranium. Los Alamos National Laboratory. Retrieved on 2007-01-14.
  6. ^ a b c d e f "Uranium". The McGraw-Hill Science and Technology Encyclopedia (5th edition). The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g "uranium". Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia (6th Edition). Columbia University Press. 
  8. ^ a b c d e "uranium". Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence, and Security. The Gale Group, Inc.. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Emsley, Nature's Building Blocks (2001), page 480
  10. ^ Nuclear Weapon Design. Federation of American Scientists (1998). Retrieved on 2007-02-19.
  11. ^ Emsley, Nature's Building Blocks (2001), page 482
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Emsley, Nature's Building Blocks (2001), page 477
  13. ^ M. H. Klaproth (1789). "Chemische Untersuchung des Uranits, einer neuentdeckten metallischen Substanz". Chemische Annalen 2: 387–403. 
  14. ^ "Uranium". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (4th edition). Houghton Mifflin Company. 
  15. ^ E.-M. Péligot (1842). "Recherches Sur L'Uranium". Annales de chimie et de physique 5 (5): 5–47. 
  16. ^ a b c d Emsley, Nature's Building Blocks (2001), page 478
  17. ^ a b c d e f Seaborg, Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements (1968), page 773
  18. ^ Fermi, E.; Artifical radioactivity produced by neutron bombardment, Nobel prize address, 12 December 1938
  19. ^ De Gregorio, A. A Historical Note About How the Property was Discovered that Hydrogenated Substances Increase the Radioactivity Induced by Neutrons (2003)
  20. ^ Nigro, M,; Hahn, Meitner e la teoria della fissione (2004)
  21. ^ Peter van der Krogt, Elementymology & Elements Multidict
  22. ^ L. Meitner, O. Frisch (1939). "Disintegration of Uranium by Neutrons: a New Type of Nuclear Reaction". Nature 143: 239–240. doi:10.1038/224466a0. 
  23. ^ History and Success of Argonne National Laboratory: Part 1. U.S. Department of Energy, Argonne National Laboratory (1998). Retrieved on 2007-01-28.
  24. ^ 1956:Queen switches on nuclear power. BBC news. Retrieved on June 28, 2006.
  25. ^ a b Oklo: Natural Nuclear Reactors. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Retrieved on June 28, 2006.
  26. ^ Glaser, Alexander and von Hippel, Frank N. "Thwarting Nuclear Terrorism" Scientific American Magazine, February 2006
  27. ^ T. Warneke, I. W. Croudace, P. E. Warwick, R. N. Taylor (2002). "A new ground-level fallout record of uranium and plutonium isotopes for northern temperate latitudes". Earth and Planetary Science Letters 203 (3–4): 1047–1057. doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(02)00930-5 . 
  28. ^ [email protected]: Supernova. NASA. Retrieved on 2007-02-19.
  29. ^ Biever, Celeste (27 July 2005). "First measurements of Earth's core radioactivity". New Scientist. 
  30. ^ Potassium-40 heats up Earth's core. physicsweb (7 May 2003). Retrieved on 2007-01-14.
  31. ^ Emsley, Nature's Building Blocks (2001), pages 476 and 482
  32. ^ L. E. Macaskie, R. M. Empson, A. K. Cheetham, C. P. Grey, A. J. Skarnulis (1992). "Uranium bioaccumulation by a Citrobacter sp. as a result of enzymically mediated growth of polycrystalline HUO2PO4". Science 257: 782–784. doi:10.1126/science.1496397. 
  33. ^ Seaborg, Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements (1968), page 774
  34. ^ a b c Global Uranium Resources to Meet Projected Demand. International Atomic Energy Agency (2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-29.
  35. ^ Uranium recovery from Seawater. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (1999-08-23). Retrieved on 2007-03-29.
  36. ^ How long will nuclear energy last? (1996-02-12). Retrieved on 2007-03-29.
  37. ^ The World Today - NT Opposition in favour of uranium enrichment
  38. ^ Uranium Mining and Processing in South Australia. South Australian Chamber of Mines and Energy (2002). Retrieved on 2007-01-14.
  39. ^ World Uranium Production. UxC Consulting Company, LLC. Retrieved on 2007-02-11.
  40. ^ Lack of fuel may limit U.S. nuclear power expansion. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved on 2007-03-29.
  41. ^ Kenneth S. Deffeyes and Ian D. MacGregor (1980-01). World Uranium Resources (English). Scientific American. Retrieved on 2008-04-21.
  42. ^ Seaborg, Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements (1968), page 779
  43. ^ a b c Chemical Forms of Uranium. Argonne National Laboratory. Retrieved on 2007-02-18.
  44. ^ a b Seaborg, Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements (1968), page 778
  45. ^ a b c d Ignasi Puigdomenech, Hydra/Medusa Chemical Equilibrium Database and Plotting Software (2004) KTH Royal Institute of Technology, freely downloadable software at [1]
  46. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Seaborg, Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements (1968), page 782
  47. ^ a b Seaborg, Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements (1968), page 780
  48. ^ Seaborg, Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements (1968), page 777
  49. ^ Uranium Enrichment. Argonne National Laboratory. Retrieved on 2007-02-11.
  50. ^ a b Lawmakers back plan for Paducah plant work. Louisville Courier-Journal. Retrieved on 2007-07-23.
  51. ^ Radiation Information for Uranium. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved on 2007-02-18.
  52. ^ ToxFAQ for Uranium. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (September 1999). Retrieved on 2007-02-18.
  53. ^ E. S. Craft, A. W. Abu-Qare, M. M. Flaherty, M. C. Garofolo, H. L. Rincavage, M. B. Abou-Donia (2004). "Depleted and natural uranium: chemistry and toxicological effects". Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part B: Critical Reviews 7 (4): 297–317. doi:10.1080/10937400490452714. 
  54. ^ Toxicological Profile for Uranium. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR).
  55. ^ Arfsten, D.P.; K.R. Still; G.D. Ritchie (2001) "A review of the effects of uranium and depleted uranium exposure on reproduction and fetal development," Toxicology and Industrial Health, vol. 17, pp. 180–91
  56. ^ Public Health Statement for Uranium. CDC. Retrieved on 2007-02-15.
  57. ^ Chart of the Nuclides, US Atomic Energy Commission 1968
  58. ^ Kathren and Moore 1986; Moore and Kathren 1985; USNRC 1986

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This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

Full reference information for multi-page works cited

  • John Emsley (2001). "Uranium", Nature's Building Blocks: An A to Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 476–82. ISBN 0-19-850340-7. 
  • Glenn T. Seaborg (1968). "Uranium", The Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements. Skokie, Illinois: Reinhold Book Corporation, 773–86. LCCCN 68-29938. 

This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912 – February 25, 1999) won the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements,[1] contributed to the discovery and isolation of ten elements, developed the actinide concept and was the first to propose the actinide series which led... For the film of the same name, see Skokie (Movie). ...

External links

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Look up uranium in
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  Results from FactBites:
 
uranium. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (718 words)
Uranium is a hard, dense, malleable, ductile, silver-white, radioactive metal of the actinide series in group IIIb of the periodic table.
The uranium is obtained as pure uranyl nitrate, UO O, which is typically decomposed to the trioxide, UO, by heating and reduced to the dioxide, UO, with hydrogen.
Before the discovery of nuclear fission by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in 1939, the principal use of uranium (chiefly as the oxides) was in pigments, ceramic glazes, and a yellow-green fluorescent glass and as a source of radium for medical purposes.
Uranium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3060 words)
Uranium salts are mordants of silk or wool.
Uranium dioxide a dark brown, crystalline powder, once used in the late 1800s to mid-1900s in ceramic glazes is now is used mainly as nuclear fuel, specifically in the form of fuel rods.
Uranium carbonate (UO)) is found in both the mineral and organic fractions of coal and its fly ash and is the main component of uranium in mine tailing seepage water.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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