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Encyclopedia > Upper respiratory tract infection
Upper respiratory tract infection
Classification & external resources
Conducting passages.
ICD-10 J00-06., J30-39.
ICD-9 465.9

Upper respiratory infections, commonly referred to the acronym URI, is the illness caused by an acute infection which involves the upper respiratory tract: nose, sinuses, pharynx, larynx, or bronchi. In the United States, this represents approximately one billion acute upper respiratory illnesses annually. Image File history File links Illu_conducting_passages. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... // J00-J99 - Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J06) Acute upper respiratory infections (J00) Acute nasopharyngitis (common cold) (J01) Acute sinusitis (J02) Acute pharyngitis (J03) Acute tonsillitis (J04) Acute laryngitis and tracheitis (J05) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) and epiglottitis (J050) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) (J051) Acute epiglottitis (J06) Acute upper... // J00-J99 - Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J06) Acute upper respiratory infections (J00) Acute nasopharyngitis (common cold) (J01) Acute sinusitis (J02) Acute pharyngitis (J03) Acute tonsillitis (J04) Acute laryngitis and tracheitis (J05) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) and epiglottitis (J050) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) (J051) Acute epiglottitis (J06) Acute upper... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... In humans the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy that has to do with the process of respiration or breathing. ... For the article about nose in humans, see human nose Human nose in profile Elephants have prehensile noses Dogs have very sensitive noses Anatomically, a nose is a protuberance in vertebrates that houses the nostrils, or nares, which admit and expel air for respiration. ... The term sinus (Latin for bay, pocket, curve or bosom) is used in various contexts. ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ... Voicebox redirects here. ... A bronchus (plural bronchi, adjective bronchial) is a caliber of airways in the the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs. ...

Contents

Signs and symptoms

Acute upper respiratory tract infections includes rhinosinusitis (common cold), sinusitis, pharyngitis/tonsillitis, laryngitis and sometimes bronchitis. Symptoms of URI's commonly include congestion, cough, running nose, sore throat, fever, facial pressure and sneezing. Onset of the symptoms usually begins after 1-3 days after exposure to a microbial pathogen, most commonly a virus. The duration of the symptoms is typically 7 to 10 days but may persist longer. // Acute viral nasopharyngitis, often known as the common cold, is a mild viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system (nose and throat). ... Also see Pharyngitis Sore Throat is a legendary British noisecore band, credited among others with inventing the genre Sore Throat formed in 1987 as a Crust Punk/ hardcore punk and grindcore act. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... A sneeze is the semi-autonomous, convulsive expulsion of air from the nose. ...


Recent studies show that up to 98% of all cases are viral in nature. Upper respiratory infections are caused by bacteria in less than 2% of all cases. However, it is important to mention that up to 15% of acute pharyngitis cases may be caused by bacteria, commonly Group A Strep ("Strep Throat"). Generally, patients with "Strep Throat" start with a sore throat as their first symptom and usually do not have runny nose or cough or sneezing.


Pain and pressure of the ear caused by a middle ear infection (Otitis media) is often associated with upper respiratory infections. Otitis media is an inflammation of the middle ear: the space behind the ear drum. ...


Influenza (the flu) is a more systemic illness, which can also involve the upper respiratory tract, should be recognized as distinct from other causes of URI. Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). ...


Treatment

Although viruses are the most likely cause of URIs and do not respond to antibiotic treatment, antibiotics continue to be widely prescribed for this illness. Judicious use of antibiotics can reduce unnecessary adverse effects of antibiotics as well as out-of-pocket costs to the patient. But more importantly, decreased antibiotic usage will prevent development of drug resistant bacteria, which is now a growing problem in the world. International, as well as local US health agencies, have been strongly encouraging physicians to decrease the prescribing of antibiotics to treat common upper respiratory tract infections because antibiotic usage does not significantly reduce recovery time for these viral illnesses [1] . Some have advocated a delayed antibiotic approach to treating URIs which seeks to reduce the consumption of antibiotics while attempting to maintain patient satisfaction. Most studies show no difference in improvement of symptoms between those treated with antibiotics right away and those with delayed prescriptions.[1] Until more effective treatments are available to treat the common respiratory viruses responsible for the majority of cases, treatment of URIs with rest, increased fluids, and symptomatic care with over-the-counter medications will remain the treatment of choice. However, in certain higher risk patients with underlying lung disease, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), evidence does exist to support the treatment of URIs with antibiotics to shorter the course of illness and decrease treatment failure.[2] Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Organisms are said to be drug-resistant when they are no longer affected by drugs that are meant to neutralize them. ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an umbrella term for a group of respiratory tract diseases that are characterized by airflow obstruction or limitation. ...


The use of Vitamin C in the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory infections has been suggested since the initial isolation of vitamin C in the 1930s. Several studies have failed to demonstrate that vitamin C supplementation reduces the incidence of colds in the normal healthy population, indicating that routine large dose prophylaxis with Vitamin C is not beneficial in widespread community usage. Some evidence exists to indicate that it could be justified in persons exposed to brief periods of severe physical exercise and/or cold environments. The evidence does not support the use of of Vitamin C at the onset of colds as effective therapy.[3] Top: ascorbic acid (reduced form) Bottom: dehydroascorbic acid (oxidized form) Model of a vitamin C molecule. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ...


See also

While often used as a synonym for pneumonia, the rubric of lower respiratory tract infection can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess, acute bronchitis, and empyema. ...

Reference

  1. ^ http://www.cochrane.org/reviews/en/ab004417.html Delayed antibiotics for symptoms and complications of respiratory infections
  2. ^ http://www.cochrane.org/reviews/en/ab004403.html Antibiotics for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  3. ^ http://www.cochrane.org/reviews/en/ab000980.html Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold
  • Evidence Based Approach to Upper Respiratory Infections

December, 10, 2006 David J. Park, DO, Chairman, Department of Primary Care, Touro University Nevada College of Osteopathic Medicine


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Respiratory and lung diseases - asthma, lung cancer, mesothelioma, asbestosis, COPD (1640 words)
Influenza - Influenza, usually known as the flu, is a respiratory infection caused by one of the influenza viruses that typically is spread by air or by direct contact.
The primary infection involves the ciliated epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tract.
Pneumonia - Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs.
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (649 words)
The upper respiratory tract consists of the nose, nasal cavity, larynx, and trachea, as well as some of the sinuses and air cells.
Upper respiratory tract infections include the common cold (rhinitis), influenza, laryngitis (inflammation of the voice box), pharyngitis (sore throat), sinusitis, tonsillitis, and croup (in children).
Upper respiratory tract infections are diagnosed according to the types and durations of symptoms.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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