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Encyclopedia > Upper house
Legislature

This series is part of
the Politics series The House is a domain that serves as the center of the universe in the Keys to the Kingdom series by Australian author Garth Nix. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ...

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An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... This is a list of legislatures by country, whether parliamentary or congressional, that act as a plenary general assembly of representatives with the power to legislate. ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Fraction or parliamentary party is a term used to refer to the representation of a political party within a legislative assembly, a parliament but also a city council. ... The chairperson of a fraction is in parliamentary system with strong party discipline an influential political post. ... Look up Congress in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Congressman or Congresswoman (generically, Congressperson) is a politician who is a member of a Congress. ... For unicameral alphabets, see the article letter case. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... Image:WashingtonDC Capitol USA2. ... Tricameralism is the practice of having three legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... Many parliaments or other legislatures consist of two chambers: an elected lower house, and an upper house or Senate which may be appointed or elected by a different mechanism from the lower house. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A city council is the most common style of legislative government in a city or town. ... A councillor is a member of a council (such as a city council), particularly in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and other parts of the Commonwealth. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ...

Contents

Possible specific characteristics

An upper house is usually distinct from the lower house in at least one of the following respects:

  • Given less power than the lower house, with special reservations, e.g. only when seizing a proposal by evocation, not on the budget, not the house of reference for majority assent.
  • Only limited legislative matters, such as constitutional amendments, may require its approval
  • 'Houses of review', in that they cannot start legislation, only consider the lower houses' initiatives. Also, they may not be able to outright veto legislation.
  • In presidential systems, the upper house usually has the sole power to try impeachments against the executive following enabling resolutions passed by the lower house.
  • Composed of members selected in a manner other than by popular election. Examples include hereditary membership or Government appointment.
  • Used to represent the states of a federation.
  • Fewer seats than the lower house (or more if hereditary).
  • If elected, often for longer terms than those of the lower house; if composed of peers or nobles, they generally hold their hereditary seats for life
  • Elected in portions for staggered terms, rather than all at once.

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ... In some federations, a province (subnational entity) is called a state. ... A map displaying todays federations. ...

Powers

The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 884 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 884 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... For the hill in London, see Parliament Hill, London. ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ...

Parliamentary systems

In parliamentary systems the upper house is frequently seen as an advisory or "revising" chamber, for this reason its powers of direct action are often reduced in some way. Some or all of the following restrictions are often placed on upper houses: This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

It is the role of a revising chamber to scrutinise legislation that may have been drafted over-hastily in the lower house, and to suggest amendments that the lower house may nevertheless reject if it wishes to. An example is the British House of Lords, which under the Parliament Acts may not stop, but only delay bills. It is sometimes seen as having a special role of safeguarding the Constitution of the United Kingdom and important civil liberties against ill-considered change. By delaying but not vetoing legislation, an upper house may nevertheless defeat legislation: by giving the lower house the opportunity to reconsider, by preventing it from having sufficient time for a bill in the legislative schedule, or simply by embarrassing the other chamber into abandoning an unpopular measure. The executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Loss of Supply occurs where a government in a parliamentary democracy is denied a supply of treasury or exchequer funds, by whichever house or houses of parliament or head of state is constitutionally entitled to grant and deny supply. ... The secretary of the Governor-General, David Smith, announcing the dissolution of Parliament on November 11th, 1975. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... Passing of the Parliament Bill, 1911, from the drawing by S. Begg The Parliament Acts are two Acts of Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed in 1911 and 1949. ... The Constitution of the United Kingdom is uncodified, consisting of both written and unwritten sources. ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ...


Nevertheless, some states have long retained powerful upper houses. For example, the consent of the upper house to legislation may be necessary (though, as noted above, this seldom extends to budgetary measures). Constitutional arrangements of states with powerful upper houses usually include a means to resolve situations where the two houses are at odds with each other.


In recent times, Parliamentary systems have witnessed a trend towards weakening the powers of upper houses relative to their lower counterparts. Some upper houses have been abolished completely (see below); others have had their powers reduced by constitutional or legislative amendments. Also, conventions often exist that the upper house ought not to obstruct the business of government for frivolous or merely partisan reasons. These conventions have tended to harden with passage of time. Constitutional convention may refer to: Constitutional convention (political meeting), a meeting of delegates to adopt a new constitution or revise an existing constitution Philadelphia Convention, of 1787, resulted in the United States Constitution Missouri Constitutional Convention (1861-63), Missouris provisional government during American Civil War Constitutional Convention (Australia), four...


Presidential systems

In presidential systems, the upper house is frequently given other powers to compensate for its restrictions: This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

  • It usually has to sign off on appointments the executive makes to the cabinet and other offices.
  • It frequently has the sole authority to ratify or denounce foreign treaties.

A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...

Election or appointment

Many upper houses are not directly elected, but appointed: either by the head of government or in some other way. This is usually intended to produce a house of experts or otherwise distinguished citizens, who would not be returned in an election. For example, members of the Canadian Senate are appointed by the monarch on the direction of the prime minister. In these systems, the seats are sometimes hereditary, as still is partly the case in the British House of Lords, and the Japanese House of Peers (until this house was abolished in 1947). The Head of Government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch and head of state. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... The House of Peers (貴族院 Kizokuin) was the upper house of the Imperial Diet under the Constitution of the Empire of Japan (in effect from 11 February 1889 to 3 May 1947). ...


However, it is also common that the upper house consist of delegates who are indirectly elected by state governments - for example, in the German Bundesrat and in the United States Senate until the passage of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913. In addition, the upper house of many nations is directly elected, but in different proportions to the lower house - for example, the Senates of Australia and the United States have a fixed number of elected representatives from each state, regardless of the population. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Amendment XVII in the National Archives Amendment XVII (the Seventeenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution was passed by the Senate on June 12, 1911 and by the House on May 13, 1912. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Abolition

Many jurisdictions, such as Denmark, Sweden, Peru, Venezuela, New Zealand, and the Canadian provinces of Quebec, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Manitoba and New Brunswick, once possessed upper houses but abolished them, to adopt unicameral systems. Newfoundland had a Legislative Council prior to joining Canada, as did Ontario when it was Upper Canada. Nebraska is the only state in the United States to have a unicameral legislature, which it achieved when it abolished its lower house in 1934. The Australian state of Queensland also once had a legislative council before abolishing it in 1922; at this time members of the Legislative Council (the formal name of the state parliament) were not elected by the citizenry and so the council was found to be undemocratic and thus unconstitutional. As this was a purely internal matter, all other Australian states continue to have bicameral systems. The chamber of the Legislative Council of Quebec before its abolition From 1867 until 1968, the Legislative Council of Quebec (French; Conseil législatif du Québec) was the unelected upper house of the bicameral legislature in the Canadian province of Quebec. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English, Canadian Gaelic Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard - Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Anthem: Ode to Newfoundland Capital St. ... A Legislative Council in British constitutional thought is the second-to-top tier of a government led by a Governor-General, Governor or a Lieutenant-Governor, inferior to an Executive Council and equal to or superior to a Legislative Assembly. ... Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York(later renamed Toronto in 1834) 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd...


Titles of upper houses

Common Terms

The seat of Roman Senate in the Roman Forum, Rome A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... A Legislative Council in British constitutional thought is the second-to-top tier of a government led by a Governor-General, Governor or a Lieutenant-Governor, inferior to an Executive Council and equal to or superior to a Legislative Assembly. ... Federation Council of Russia (Russian: ; Sovet Federatsii) is the upper house of the Federal Assembly of Russia (parliament of the Russian Federation), according to the 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation. ... The Federal Council (Bundesrat in German) is a political institution in several countries: Federal Council of Austria, the upper house of the Austrian federal parliament Bundesrat (Germany), the upper house of the German federal parliament Swiss Federal Council, the federal government of Switzerland See also Federation Council of Russia, the... The Council of States of Switzerland (German: Ständerat, French Conseil des Etats, Italian Consiglio degli Stati) is the upper house of the Swiss parliament. ... Executive President Vice-President Prime Minister Dy. ... The House of Councillors ) is the upper house of the Diet of Japan. ... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ...

Unique titles

Type Upper house of Oireachtas Cathaoirleach Pat Moylan, Fianna Fáil since 13 September 2007 Members 60 Political groups Fianna Fáil Fine Gael Labour Party Independents Progressive Democrats Green Party Sinn Féin Last elections 2007 Meeting place Leinster House Web site www. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... The Peerage of France (French: ) was a distinction within the French nobility which appeared in the Middle Ages. ... Országgyűlés was the name of the bicameral parliament of the Apostolic Kingdom of Hungary in personal union with the Empire of Austria under Habsburgs rule as the Danubian Double Monarchy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference (中国人民政治协商会议 Pinyin: Zhongguo renmin zhengzhi xieshang huiyi), abbreviated CPPCC, is an advisory body in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Eerste Kamer (literally First Chamber in Dutch) is the Upper House or Senate of the Netherlands parliament, the States-General. ... The Shura Council (Arabic: Majilis Al-Shura مجلس الشورى) is the upper house of Egyptian bicameral parliament. ... The House of Councillors ) is the upper house of the Diet of Japan. ... The term National Council may refer to: The National Council of Austria (Nationalrat) The National Council of Monaco (Conseil National) The National Council of the Slovak Republic (Národná rada) The National Council of Slovenia (Državni svet) The National Council of Switzerland (Nationalrat, Conseil national, Consiglio Nazionale) State National... Type Bicameral Houses Bundesrat Nationalrat Members 245 Meeting place In the Parliament of Austria (Österreichisches Parlament) is vested the legislative power of the Republic of Austria. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Upper house - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (784 words)
An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house.
However, it is also common that the upper house consist of delegates who are indirectly elected by state governments - for example, in the German Bundesrat and in the United States Senate until the passage of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913.
In addition, the upper house of many nations is directly elected, but in different proportions to the lower house - for example, the Senates of Australia and the United States have a fixed number of elected representatives from each state, regardless of the population.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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