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Encyclopedia > Upper Silesia
Map of Upper Silesia, 1746
Map of Upper Silesia, 1746

Upper Silesia (Czech: Horní Slezsko; German: Oberschlesien; Latin: Silesia Superior; Polish: Górny Śląsk; Silesian: Gůrny Ślůnsk[citation needed]) is the southeastern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia; Lower Silesia is to the northwest. Throughout its history Upper Silesia has been under the control of Poland, Bohemia, Austria, Prussia, and Germany. It is currently split between Poland (Opole and Silesian Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Czech Silesia, or the Silesian-Moravian Region). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3400x2500, 5208 KB) Summary Superiorem Silesiam - Upper Silesia map of 1746. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3400x2500, 5208 KB) Summary Superiorem Silesiam - Upper Silesia map of 1746. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the West Slavic language. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... Lower Silesia (German: ; Polish: ; Latin: Silesia Inferior) is the northwestern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia. ... For other uses, see Bohemia (disambiguation). ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Capital city Opole Area 9412. ... Capital city Katowice Area 12,294 km² Population (2004)  - Density 4,830,000 392. ... ... Moravian-Silesian Region (in Czech Moravskoslezský kraj) is an administrative unit (kraj) of the Czech Republic, located it the north-eastern part of its hitorical region of Moravia and in most of the Czech part of the historical region of Silesia. ...


Upper Silesia is situated in the Silesian highlands, between the upper Oder and upper Vistula rivers. The total population of the Upper Silesian Industry Area is 3,487,000. The Oder (known in Czech, Slovak and Polish as Odra) is a river in Central Europe. ... For other uses, see Vistula (disambiguation). ... Silesian Region Katowice in 1905 The Upper Silesian Industry Area or Upper Silesian Industry Region (polish: Górnośląskie Zagłębie Węglowe, GZW) is an urban area in Silesia, Poland centering around Katowice in Silesian Voivodship (previously capital of Katowice Voivodship). ...


Opole Silesia, Cieszyn Silesia, and Austrian Silesia are historical parts of Upper Silesia. The territory of Opole Silesia composes much of Opole Voivodeship. Opole voivodship since 1999 1) Opole Voivodship (since 1999) or Opole Silesia (Polish: województwo opolskie, Śląsk Opolski) is an administrative and local government region created on 1 January 1999 out of the former Opole (2) and parts of Czestochowa voivodships as a result of the Local Government Reorganization Act of... Cieszyn Silesia (Polish: ÅšlÄ…sk CieszyÅ„ski, Czech: Těšínské Slezsko, German: Teschener Schlesien) is a historical region in south-eastern Silesia, between the Vistula and Oder rivers. ... Silesia (Polish ÅšlÄ…sk, German Schlesien, Czech Slezsko) is a historical region in central Europe. ... Capital city Opole Area 9412. ...

Contents

History

19th century coat of arms of Upper Silesia.
19th century coat of arms of Upper Silesia.

At the time of Svatopluk I and King Arnulf of Carinthia in the ninth century, Silesia was a part of Greater Moravia and after its destruction in the early tenth century it was conquered by Bohemia. A number of earlier inhabitants of Silesia, the Silingi, remained throughout and they concentrated around the Zobten mountain and in a settlement named Niempsch (derived from a Slavic name for Germans). Image File history File links Upper_Silesia_coat_of_arms. ... Image File history File links Upper_Silesia_coat_of_arms. ... Svatopluk (-modern Czech name; modern Slovak name: Svätopluk; Old Slavic Свѧтопълкъ; reconstructed name: Sventopluk; some names in Latin texts: Suentopolcus, Zventopluk, Suatopluk, Zwentibald) (around 830 - 894) from the Mojmírs dynasty was the prince of the Nitrian principality (850s - 871) and then the king of Great Moravia (871 - 894). ... Later romantic portrait of Arnulf. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Ślůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... Great Moravia (Old Church Slavonic approximately Велья Морава, Czech Velká Morava, Slovak Veľká Morava, Latin Magna Moravia) was a Slav state existing on the territory of present-day Moravia and Slovakia between 833 and the early 10th century. ... For other uses, see Bohemia (disambiguation). ... The Silings or Silingi (Latin: Silingae, Greek Σιλίγγαι - Silingai) were an East Germanic tribe probably part of the larger Vandal group. ...


Upper Silesia was soon conquered by the newly installed dukes of the Polans and for several hundred years was part of Poland. This fell apart and at the renewal of Poland under Casimir the Great, all of Silesia was specifically excluded as non-Polish land. In 1335 it came back under the rule of the Kingdom of Bohemia. Many towns were destroyed by the Mongols at the Battle of Legnica but rebuilt. By the 1300s influx of settlers to Upper Silesia stopped, because of the plague. Latin, Czech and German language were used for towns and cities and only in the 1550s with the Protestant Reformation did records with Polish names also appear. A large number of Silesians became Protestants, when all of Upper Silesia belonged to the Hohenzollerns of Brandenburg-Ansbach.[citation needed] The Roman Catholic Holy Roman Emperors of the Habsburg dynasty reintroduced Catholicism, led by the Jesuits. In the Early Middle Ages there were two separate Slavic tribes bearing the name of Polans: Polans, an Eastern Slavic tribe living in the area of Dnieper river Polans, an Western Slavic tribe living in the area of Warta. ... Casimir the Great Casimir III or the Great (Kazimierz Wielki), (1310-1370), King of Poland , son of Władyslaw I Łokietek (Wladyslaw the Elbow High), 1305-1333 and Jadwiga. ... Bohemia, Moravia, Austrian Silesia - 1892, then part of Austria_Hungary The Czech lands (in Czech: České země) or Czechia (in Czech: Česko) is an auxiliary term used for Bohemia + Moravia + Czech part of Silesia + other territories that were parts of the Kingdom of Bohemia (Lands of the Bohemian/Czech Crown) at... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Combatants Mongol Empire Alliance Polish states Teutonic Knights[3][4] Commanders Baidar, Kadan, Orda Khan Henry II the Pious † Strength Estimated between 8,000-20,000 (max of two tumen) diversionary force [5] Unknown, estimates have ranged from 2,000-25,000[5] Casualties Unknown, but supposedly heavier than expected... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Reformation redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Hohenzollern redirects here. ... See Ansbach, Austria for the Austrian town of the same name. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Coats of arms of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 to 1576. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ...


Lower Silesia and most of Upper Silesia became part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1742 during the First Silesian War. A small part remained within the Habsburg-ruled Bohemian Crown as the Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia, colloquially called Austrian Silesia. Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... The Silesian Wars were a series of wars between Prussia and Austria (and their changing allies) for control of Silesia. ... Silesia (Polish ÅšlÄ…sk, German Schlesien, Czech Slezsko) is a historical region in central Europe. ...


In the 19th century Upper Silesia became an industrial area using its plentiful coal and iron ore. Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ...


In 1919 after World War I, the eastern part, which had majority of ethnic Poles, came under Polish rule as the Autonomous Silesian Voivodeship, while the mostly German-speaking western part remained part of Germany as the Province of Upper Silesia. From 1919-1921 three Silesian Uprisings occurred among the Polish-speaking populace of Upper Silesia. In Upper Silesia plebiscite a vote of 60 to 40 percent voted against joining to Poland, with clear lines dividing Polish and German communities. As a result the outcome of the vote served as basis for Polish-German border. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Silesian Voivodeship (1920-1945) - an autonomous voivodeship of the Second Polish Republic created as a result of popular plebiscite 1921, 3 Silesian Uprisings and partition of Upper Silesia between Poland, Germany, and Czechoslovakia. ... Upper Silesia (Polish: , German: ) was a province of the Free State of Prussia from 1919 to 1945. ... The Silesian Uprisings (German: ; Polish: ) were a series of three armed uprisings of the Poles of Upper Silesia, from 1919–1921, against Weimar rule; the resistance hoped to break away from Germany in order to join the Second Polish Republic, which had been established in the wake of World War... Upper Silesia plebiscite was the form of self-determination for Upper Silesia on demand of one of the clauses of the Treaty of Versailles. ...


After 1945 almost all of Upper Silesia became part of Poland. A majority of the German-speaking population was expelled in accordance with the decision of the victorious Allied powers at their 1945 meeting at Potsdam. This expulsion program also included German speaking inhabitants of Lower Silesia, eastern Pomerania, Danzig, and East Prussia. These German expellees were transported to the present day Germany (including the former East Germany), and they were replaced with Poles, many from former Polish provinces taken over by the USSR in the east. A good many German-speaking Upper Silesians ended up being relocated in Bavaria. A small part of Upper Silesia stayed as part of Czechoslovakia as Czech Silesia. The Potsdam Agreement, or the Potsdam Proclamation, was an agreement on policy for the occupation and reconstruction of Germany and other nations after fighting in the European Theatre of World War II had ended with the German surrender of May 8, 1945. ... ...


The expulsions of German-speakers did not totally eliminate the presence of a population that considered itself German. Upper Silesia in 1945 had a considerable number of Roman Catholic mixed bilingual inhabitants that spoke both German and Polish dialects, and their Polish linguistic skills were solid enough for them to be allowed to remain in the area. With the fall of communism and Poland joining the European Union, there were enough of these remaining in Upper Silesia to allow for the recognition of a German minority by the Polish government.


Major cities and towns

(All in Poland unless otherwise indicated; population figures are for 1995)

Osiedle TysiÄ…clecia at night Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina Katowice Established 16th century City Rights 1865 Government  - Mayor Piotr Uszok Area  - City 164. ... , Country Region Little District Parts 16  - Moravská Ostrava a Přívoz  - Hošťálkovice  - Hrabová  - Ostrava-Jih  - Krásné Pole  - Lhotka  - Mariánské Hory a Hulváky  - Martinov  - Michálkovice  - Nová BÄ›lá  - Nová Ves  - PetÅ™kovice  - Plesná  - Polanka nad Odrou  - Poruba  - Proskovice Center Masarykovo námÄ›stí  - elevation 260 m... Cieszyn Silesia (Polish: ÅšlÄ…sk CieszyÅ„ski, Czech: Těšínské Slezsko, German: Teschener Schlesien) is a historical region in south-eastern Silesia, between the Vistula and Oder rivers. ... Bytom ( ; German: ) is a city in southern Poland with 205,560 inhabitants (1999). ... Gliwice (pronounce: [gliviʦε]; German: ), is an industrial city in southern Poland with 200,361 inhabitants (2004) over the KÅ‚odnica River, about 20 km to the west from Katowice. ... Zabrze (pronounced: [zabʒε]; German: , from 1915-1945 Hindenburg) is a city in southern Poland with 194,041 inhabitants (2004). ... Bielsko-BiaÅ‚a (pronounce: [[Media:Bielsko-Biala. ... Motto: none Voivodship Silesian Municipal government Rada Miejska Ruda ÅšlÄ…ska Mayor Andrzej Stania Area 77,7 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 149 000 - 1910/km² Founded City rights - - Latitude Longitude 50°16 N 18°42 E Area code +48 32 Car plates SRS Twin towns - Municipal Website Ruda Åšl... Rybnik (pronounced: [ribnik]) is a city in southern Poland, in the Silesian Voivodship, close to the border with the Czech Republic, about 290 km south of the Polish capital Warsaw (Warszawa) and about 100 km west of Kraków, on the southern outskirts of the Upper Silesian industrial and metropolitan... Tychy (pronounce: [tixi], German: ) is a city in southern Poland with a population of 132,600. ... Opole ( ; German: ) is a city in southern Poland on the Oder River (Odra). ... Motto: none Voivodship Silesian Municipal government UrzÄ…d Miasta Chorzów Mayor Marek Kopel Area 33,5 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 117 430 - 2856/km² Founded City rights - - Latitude Longitude 50°18 N 18°57 E Area code +48 32 Car plates SH Twin towns - Municipal Website Chorzów... Motto: none Voivodship Silesian Municipal government Rada Miasta Jastrzebie Zdrój Mayor Marian Janecki Area 88,4 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 102,294 - -/km² Founded City rights - - Latitude Longitude 49°57 N 18°35 E Area code +48 32 Car plates SJZ Twin towns - Municipal Website Jastrzebie Zdroj Jastrz... MysÅ‚owice (German Myslowitz) is a town in south Poland with 80,000 inhabitants (1995). ... Siemianowice ÅšlÄ…skie is a town in south Poland with 78,100 inhabitants (1995). ... KÄ™dzierzyn-Koźle is a town in south-western Poland situated in the Opole Voivodship. ... Tarnowskie Góry is a town in south Poland with 67,200 inhabitants (1995). ... Piekary ÅšlÄ…skie is a town in south Poland with 67,200 inhabitants (1995). ... Å»ory (read:[:Zho-ree]) is a town in south Poland with 62,800 inhabitants (2004). ... Racibórz (-Polish, Czech: RatiboÅ™, German: Ratibor) is a town in southern Poland with 65,100 inhabitants (1995) situated in the Silesian Voivodship (since 1999), previously in Katowice Voivodship (1975-1998). ... Coordinates: Country Czech Republic Region Moravian-Silesian District Opava First mentioned 1195 Mayor ZbynÄ›k Stanjura Area    - City 90,61 km² Elevation 257 m Population  - City 59 843 Postal code 746 01 Website: http://www. ... Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Silesian Powiat City County Gmina ÅšwiÄ™tochÅ‚owice Estabilished 14th century City Rights 1947 Government  - Mayor Eugeniusz MoÅ› Area  - City 13. ... WodzisÅ‚aw ÅšlÄ…ski is a town in south Poland with 68,600 inhabitants (1995). ... Nysa (until 1946: German Neisse or Neiße; the current version is a Polish rendering of this) is a town in southwestern Poland on the Nysa KÅ‚odzka river with 52,000 inhabitants (2004), situated in the Opole Voivodeship. ... Motto: None Voivodship Silesian Municipal government Rada miasta Mikołów Mayor Marek Balcer Area 18,07 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 38 700 na 2 142/km² Founded City rights 1222 1222 Latitude Longitude 50°10 N 18°54 E Area code +48 32 Car plates SMI Twin towns Beuningen... Divided city. ... Czechowice-Dziedzice is a town in south Poland with 35,600 inhabitants (1995). ... Pszczyna town hall Pszczyna (German: Pleß) is a town in southern Poland with 26,827 inhabitants (2003) within the immediate gmina rising to 50,121 inhabitants in the powiat, which includes the town of Pszczyna, itself, Brzeźce (1041), Czarków (1852), Ćwiklice (2569), Jankowice (2591), Łąka (2729), Piasek (3252... Kluczbork (German name ) is a town in south-western Poland with 26,670 inhabitants (2003), situated in the Opole Voivodship. ... Motto: Lubliniec miasto zielonych klimatów Lubliniec town of green climate Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat Lubliniec County Gmina Lubliniec Estabilished 1270 City Rights 1272 Government  - Mayor Edward Maniura Area  - Town 89. ... Krnov (read kûr´nôf in Czech, German: Jägerndorf, new-Polish: Krnów, old-Polish: Karniów, Latin: Carnovia) is an Upper Silesian city in the northeastern Czech Republic, in Moravian-Silesian Region, in the District of Bruntál, on the Opava River near the Polish border. ... Voivodship Silesia Municipal government Rada Miasta RyduÅ‚towy Mayor Alfred Sikora Area 15 km² Longitude Latitude 18°23 E 50°03 N Population 22 135 tys Twin towns: Orlová (Czech Republic), Hvidovre (Denmark) Area code (+48) 32 Zip code 44-280 to 44-283 Municipal Website The town RyduÅ‚towy... Coat of Arms of Łaziska Górne Łaziska Górne is a town in south Poland with 23,000 inhabitants (1995). ... BieruÅ„ is a town in south Poland with 22,100 inhabitants (1995). ... Town square Pyskowice (pronounce: [piskÉ”viʦε], German: ) is a town in southern Poland with 21,900 inhabitants (1995). ... Strzelce Opolskie (German: ) is a town in south-western Poland with 19,628 inhabitants (2006), situated in the Opole Voivodeship. ...

Literature

  • H. Förster, B. Kortus (1989) "Social-Geographical Problems of the Cracow and Upper Silesia Agglomerations", Paderborn. (Bochumer Geographische Arbeiten No. 51)
  • Krzysztof Gwozdz (2000) "The Image of Upper Silesia in geography textbooks 1921-1998", in: Boleslaw Domanski (Ed.), Prace Geograficzne, No. 106, Institute of Geography of the Jagiellonian University Kraków. pp. 55-68
  • Rudolf Carl Virchow. "Report on the Typhus Epidemic in Upper Silesia." (1848) Am J Public Health 2006;96 2102-2105.

Excerpted from: Virchow RC. Collected Essays on Public Health and Epidemiology. Vol 1. Rather LJ, ed. Boston, Mass: Science History Publications; 1985:204–319. For several academies alternatively called Krakow Academy, see Education in Kraków The Jagiellonian University (Polish: , often shortened to UJ) is located in Kraków, Poland. ... Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow (1821–1902). ...


See also

Lower Silesia (German: ; Polish: ; Latin: Silesia Inferior) is the northwestern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia. ... 105N Type car on Chebzie loop 110 year old tramway viaduct in Gliwice Silesian Interurbans - one of the largest tram (streetcar) systems in the World, in existence since 1894. ... Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union, USMU (Polish: Górnośląski Związek Metropolitalny) is a union of 14 adjacent cities in the Silesian Voivodeship, Poland: Bytom, Chorzów, Dąbrowa Górnicza, Gliwice, Jaworzno, Katowice, Mysłowice, Piekary Śląskie, Ruda Śląska, Siemianowice Śląskie, Sosnowiec, Świętochłowice... Upper Silesian Industrial Area refers to a Industrial area in Upper Silesia that used to be one of the most important industrial areas in Europe, since the Industrial revolution like the Ruhr Industrial Area. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wojciech Korfaty in 1905 Wojciech Korfanty (20 April 1873-17 August 1939) was a Polish nationalist activist, journalist and politician, serving as member of the German Reichstag and the Prussian Landtag, later in the Polish Sejm. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Upper Silesia - definition of Upper Silesia in Encyclopedia (154 words)
Upper Silesia (Polish Górny Śląsk, German Oberschlesien) is the south-eastern part of Silesia, a historical and geographical region of Poland (Opole Voivodship and Silesian Voivodship) and of the Czech Republic (Silesian-Moravian Region).
The region is situated in the Silesian highlands, between the upper Oder and upper Vistula rivers.
Upper Silesia was formerly a province of Prussia, later the Autonomous Silesian Voivodship.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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