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Encyclopedia > Upper Canada Rebellion
The Republic of Canada's flag - the two stars represent Upper and Lower Canada. A torn flag in a museum has led to the erroneous belief that the flag was entirely blue.
The Republic of Canada's flag - the two stars represent Upper and Lower Canada. A torn flag in a museum has led to the erroneous belief that the flag was entirely blue.

The Upper Canada Rebellion was, along with the Lower Canada Rebellion in Lower Canada, a rebellion against the British colonial government in 1837 and 1838. Collectively they are also known as the Rebellions of 1837. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council  - Lower house Legislative Assembly Historical... Map of Lower Canada (green) Lower Canada was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791-1841). ... Flag used by the Patriotes between 1832 and 1838 The Lower Canada Rebellion is the name given to the armed conflict between the rebels of Lower Canada (now Quebec) and the British colonial power of that province. ... Map of Lower Canada (green) Lower Canada was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791-1841). ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Rebellions of 1837 were a pair of Canadian armed uprisings that occurred in 1837 and 1838 in response to frustrations in political reform and ethnic conflict. ...

Contents

Issues

In Upper Canada, one of the most controversial issues in the early 19th century was the allocation of land. Much land had been set aside as "Crown reserves." These reserves of unworked land lowered the value of neighbouring farms because isolated farms were less efficient than farms close together. The British government's system of allocating land was seen by many as excessively bureaucratic when compared with the American system. After the War of 1812 the government of Upper Canada was run by the wealthy owners of most of this reserve land, known as the Family Compact. Land had also been set aside for the "Protestant Clergy," but the Family Compact interpreted this to mean only the Anglican Church, rather than other Protestant groups or Catholics. Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council  - Lower house Legislative Assembly Historical... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States Great Britain Canada Bermuda Eastern Woodland Indians Commanders James Madison Henry Dearborn Jacob Brown Winfield Scott Andrew Jackson George Prevost Isaac Brock† Tecumseh† Strength •U.S. Regular Army: 35,800 •Rangers: 3,049 •Militia: 458,463* •US Navy & US Marines: (at start of war): •Frigates:6 •Other... The Family Compact was the informal name for the wealthy, conservative elite of Upper Canada in the early 19th century. ... The Anglican Communion is a world-wide organisation of Anglican Churches. ...


As it had before the War of 1812, the government of Upper Canada continued to fear what it suspected might be a growing interest in American republicanism within the province. Reasons for this must be sought in the patterns of settlement across the province in the last half-century. Although the British had originally hoped that an orderly settlement in Upper Canada would inspire the former American colonies to abandon their democratic form of government, demographic realities intervened. After an initial group of about 7,000 United Empire Loyalists were thinly settled across the province in the mid-1780s, a far larger number of American settlers came after the American Revoultion were attracted by the cheap land grants offered by Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe to promote land settlement. Although these settlers, known as "late-Loyalists," were required to take an oath of allegiance to the British Crown in order to obtain land, their fundamental political allegiances were always considered dubious. By 1812 this had become acutely problematic since the American settlers outnumbered the original Loyalists by more than ten to one. It was this reality that led American legislators to speculate that bringing Upper Canada into the American fold would be a "mere matter of marching." After the War of 1812 the government took active steps to prevent Americans from taking an oath of allegiance thereby making them ineligible to obtain land grants. Relations between the appointed Legislative Council and the elected Legislative Assembly, moreover, became increasingly strained in the years after the war over issues of both immigration and taxation. Democracy (literally rule by the people, from the Greek demos, people, and krateo, rule[1]) is a form of government. ... The name United Empire Loyalists is given to those American Loyalists who resettled in British North America and other British Colonies as an act of fealty to King George III after the British defeat in the American Revolutionary War. ... Johnny the guy Simcoe John Graves Simcoe (February 25, 1752 – October 26, 1806) was the first lieutenant governor of Upper Canada (modern-day southern Ontario plus the shoreline of Georgian Bay and Lake Superior) from 1791-1796. ... The Legislative Council of Upper Canada was the upper house governing the province of Upper Canada. ... The Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada was the legislature for the province of Upper Canada, which later became the province of Ontario. ...


Reform movement

William Lyon Mackenzie, one of the more radical reformers in Upper Canada, made outright calls for republican government. Other reformers, however, such as Robert Baldwin, were less extreme in their views. Mackenzie, a Scottish immigrant, founded a reformist newspaper called The Colonial Advocate in 1824 in the Upper Canada capital of York (later Toronto). He became active in politics, winning a seat in the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada and eventually becoming the first mayor of the newly-renamed Toronto in 1834. Neither his radical reform movement nor Baldwin's moderate reform movement were very successful, and Baldwin resigned from the Executive Council of the then Lieutenant-Governor, Sir Francis Bond Head. Conservative opposition to Mackenzie also led to attacks on his newspaper press. William Lyon Mackenzie (March 12, 1795 – August 28, 1861) was a Canadian journalist, politician, and leader of an unsuccessful rebellion. ... Robert Baldwin (12 May 1804 – 9 December 1858), Canadian statesman, was born at York (now Toronto). ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... York was the original name of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... The Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada was the legislature for the province of Upper Canada, which later became the province of Ontario. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Sir Francis Bond Head (1 January 1793 – 20 July 1875), known as Galloping Head, was Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada during the Rebellion of 1837. ...


Confrontation

See main article Confrontation at Montgomery's Tavern

In 1836 and 1837, Mackenzie gathered support among farmers around Toronto, who were sympathetic to his cause after an especially bad harvest in 1835. This had led to a recession, and in the following years, the banks had begun to tighten credit and recall loans. When the Lower Canada Rebellion broke out in Autumn of 1837, Bond Head sent all the British troops stationed in Toronto to help suppress it. With the regular troops gone Mackenzie and his followers seized a Toronto armoury, and organized an armed march down Yonge Street, beginning at Montgomery's Tavern on December 4, 1837. But when the revolt began, Mackenzie hesitated in attacking the city. On December 7, Mackenzie's military leader, Anthony van Egmond, arrived. Van Egmond, a veteran on both sides of the Napoleonic Wars, advised immediate retreat, but Mackenzie remained hesitant. That same day, Colonel Moodie attempted to ride through a roadblock to warn Bond Head, but the rebels shot him. Mackenzie waited for Bond Head's force of about 1000 men and one cannon, led by Colonel James Fitzgibbon, which outnumbered Mackenzie's approximately 400 rebels. The fight was very short and in less than half an hour the confrontation was over. The rebel forces dispersed. Combatants Republican rebels United Kingdom Commanders William Lyon Mackenzie Allan MacNab Strength 210 militia 1,000 regulars and militia 1 gun Casualties 3 dead 5 wounded 1 dead 5 wounded The Confrontation at Montgomerys Tavern, also known as the Bar Fight on Yonge Street and the Battle of Montgomery... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... A sign for Yonge Street at the intersection with Maitland Street. ... The Confrontation at Montgomerys Tavern, also known as the Bar Fight on Yonge Street and the Battle of Montgomerys Tavern, is the name given to the incident that sparked the Upper Canada Rebellion on December 7, 1837. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthony Jacob William Gysbert van Egmond (10 March 1778-5 January 1838) was a Dutch Napoleonic War veteran who was one of the early settlers in the Huron Tract. ... Combatants Allies: Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] Ottoman Empire[5] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Karl... James FitzGibbon JamesFitzGibbon (November 23, 1782 – December 10, 1863) was a British soldier and hero of the War of 1812. ...


Meanwhile, a group of rebels from London, led by Charles Duncombe, marched toward Toronto to support Mackenzie. Colonel Allan MacNab met them near Hamilton, Ontario on December 13, and the rebels fled. Nickname: Location of London in relation to Middlesex County and the Province of Ontario Coordinates: Country Canada Province Ontario County Middlesex County Settled 1826 as a village Incorporated 1855 as a city Government  - City Mayor Anne Marie DeCicco-Best  - Governing Body London City Council  - MPs Sue Barnes (LPC) Glen Pearson... Dr. Charles Duncombe (c. ... Sir Allan Napier MacNab (Born Niagara 19 February 1798 – Dundurn Castle 8 August 1862) was a Canadian military and political leader. ... Motto: Together Aspire - Together Achieve Location in the province of Ontario, Canada Coordinates: Country Canada Province Ontario Incorporated June 9, 1846[1] Government  - Mayor Fred Eisenberger  - City Council Hamilton City Council  - Representatives 5 MPs and 5 MPPs Area [2]  - City 1,138. ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The victorious Tory supporters burned homes and farms of the known rebels and suspected supporters. In the 1860s, some of the former rebels were compensated by the Canadian government for their lost property in the rebellion aftermath.


End of Rebellion

Mackenzie, Duncombe, John Rolph and 200 supporters fled to Navy Island in the Niagara River, where they declared themselves the Republic of Canada on December 13. They obtained supplies from supporters in the United States resulting in British reprisals (see Caroline Affair). On January 13, 1838, under attack by British armaments, the rebels fled. Mackenzie went to the United States where he was arrested and charged under the Neutrality Act[1]. The other major leaders, Van Egmond, Samuel Lount, and Peter Matthews were arrested by the British; Van Egmond died in prison, and Lount and Matthews were executed at 8 AM on April 12, 1838 in Toronto. Their last words were: "Mr. Jarvis, do your duty; we are prepared to meet death and our Judge." John Rolph (March 4, 1793-October 19, 1870) was a physician, lawyer and political figure in Upper Canada. ... Navy Island. ... Satellite image of the Niagara River. ... The Republic of Canadas flag - the two stars represent Upper and Lower Canada. ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Caroline Affair refers to a series of events beginning in 1837 that strained relations between the United States and Canada (and thus Britain). ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Samuel Lount (September 24, 1791 – April 12, 1838) was a businessman and political figure in Upper Canada. ... Peter Matthews (ca. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Consequences

Compared to the Lower Canada Rebellion, the Upper Canada Rebellion was short and disorganized. However, the government in London was very concerned about the rebellion, especially in light of the more serious crisis in Lower Canada. Bond Head was recalled in late 1837 and replaced with Sir George Arthur who arrived in Toronto in March 1838 and sent Lord Durham, who was assigned to report on the grievances among the colonists and find a way to appease them. His report eventually led to greater autonomy in the Canadian colonies, and the union of Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada in 1840. Major General Sir George Arthur, 1st Baronet, (21 June 1784 – 19 September 1854) was Lieutenant Governor of British Honduras (1814–1822), Van Diemens Land (now Tasmania Australia) (1823–1837) and later Upper Canada (1838–1841). ... John George Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham (12 April 1792 - 28 July 1840), was a British Whig statesman and colonial administrator, Governor-General and high commissioner of British North America. ... The Report on the Affairs of British North America, commonly known as Lord Durhams Report, is an important document in the history of Quebec, Canada and the British Empire. ... The Act of Union passed in July 1840 and proclaimed February 10, 1841, abolished the legislatures of Lower Canada and Upper Canada and established a new political entity the Province of Canada to replace them. ... Note: for information about Canadas present-day provinces, see Provinces and territories of Canada. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


See also

See also

The Patriot War was a short-lived campaign in the eastern Michigan area of the United States and the Windsor, Ontario area of Canada. ... List of conflicts in Canada is a chronological timeline of events that includes wars, battles, skirmishes, major terrorist attacks and other related items that have occurred in the country of Canadas geographical area. ...

External links

  • "Rebellion in Upper Canada, 1837" by J. Edgar Rea [2]
  • Autobiography of William Lyon Mackenzie King [3]
  • Samuel Lount Film and Samuel Lount's History. The feature film is about the injustice of the system under the Family Compact's rule.
  • "Mr. Jarvis, do your duty" by Serge Gorelsky [4]

  Results from FactBites:
 
Canada in the Making - Specific Events & Topics (1266 words)
After the passing of the Constitutional Act, 1791, Upper and Lower Canada were governed by an elected House of Assembly and a Legislative Council that was appointed.
The rebellions precipitated a royal commission, which was convened to investigate the factional strife in the Canadas.
The recommendation for a union of the Canadas was adopted in the Act of Union, 1840, which laid the foundation for the next wave of change resulting in Confederation in 1867.
Upper Canada Rebellion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (876 words)
The Upper Canada Rebellion was, along with the Lower Canada Rebellion in Lower Canada, a rebellion against the colonial government in 1837 and 1838.
In Upper Canada, one of the most controversial issues in the early 19th century was the allocation of land.
After the War of 1812 the government of Upper Canada was run by the wealthy owners of most of this reserve land, known as the Family Compact.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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