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A stimulant is a drug which increases the activity of the sympathetic nervous system and produces a sense of euphoria or awakeness. Stimulants can be used as recreational drugs, or therapeutically to increase alertness. They are also used and sometimes abused to boost endurance and productivity as well as to suppress appetite. Examples of stimulants are caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, and cocaine. A drug is any substance that can be used to modify a chemical process or processes in the body, for example to treat an illness, relieve a symptom, enhance a performance or ability, or to alter states of mind. ... The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one half of the autonomic nervous system; the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) is the other. ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational rather than medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... Anorexia (deriving from the Greek word ανορεξία = without appetite (αν = without + όρεξη = appetite)) is the medical name for loss of appetite. ... Caffeine molecular structure Caffeine, also known as trimethylxanthine, coffeine, theine, mateine, guaranine, and methyltheobromine, is an alkaloid found naturally in such foods as coffee beans, tea, kola nuts, Yerba mate, guarana, and (in small amounts) cacao beans. ... Nicotine is an organic compound, an alkaloid found naturally throughout the tobacco plant, with a high concentration in the leaves. ... Amphetamine, also known as speed, is a synthetic drug originally studied (and still used) as an appetite suppressant. ... Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ...


Some stimulants, as for example Ritalin, have been shown to help with ADHD. This is often called a "paradoxical effect", since ADHD is commonly thought of as "hyperactivity" and stimulants would be expected to increase activity, but another effect of sympathetic nervous system stimulation is an increased ability to concentrate on mental tasks. However, long-term stimulant abuse can impair mental function and lead to psychotic symptoms. Methylphenidate (C14H19NO2), or MPH, is an amphetamine-like prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. ... DISCLAIMER Please remember that Wikipedia is offered for informational use only. ... Psychosis is a generic psychiatric term for mental states in which the components of rational thought and perception are severely impaired. ...


Antidepressants are not considered stimulants, as they do not act directly on the sympathetic nervous system and generally do not produce an immediate effect on mood. A possible exception is bupropion, whose chemical and pharmacological properties are similar to stimulants. An antidepressant is a medication used primarily in the treatment of clinical depression. ... Bupropion (amfebutamone) is an antidepressant of the aminoketone class, chemically unrelated to tricyclics or SSRIs. ...


Recently, there have been improvements in the area of stimulant pharmacology, producing a class of chemicals known as "eugregorics", or "good arousal". These stimulants tend to increase alertness without the peripheral (body) effects or addiction/tolerance/abuse potential of the traditional stimulants. They have minimal effect on sleep structure, and do not cause rebound hypersomnolence or "come down" effects. Currently, there are two stimulants in this class being used: modafinil and adrafinil, marketed as Provigil and Olmifon, respectively. Modafinil (Provigil®; Vigicer®; Alertec®) is a stimulant drug produced by the pharmaceutical company Cephalon. ...


LINKS

http://www.licadd.org/aboutdrugs.htm http://www.health.org/govpubs/rpo926/



Stimulants edit

Caffeine Nicotine Modafinil Synephrine Caffeine molecular structure Caffeine, also known as trimethylxanthine, coffeine, theine, mateine, guaranine, and methyltheobromine, is an alkaloid found naturally in such foods as coffee beans, tea, kola nuts, Yerba mate, guarana, and (in small amounts) cacao beans. ... Nicotine is an organic compound, an alkaloid found naturally throughout the tobacco plant, with a high concentration in the leaves. ... Modafinil (Provigil®; Vigicer®; Alertec®) is a stimulant drug produced by the pharmaceutical company Cephalon. ... Synephrine is a dietary supplement aimed at encouraging fat loss. ...

Sympathomimetic amines edit

Benzylpiperazine Cathinone Chlorphentermine Cocaine Diethylpropion Ephedrine Fenfluramine Fen-phen Mazindol Methcathinone Methylphenidate Pemoline Phendimetrazine Phenmetrazine Phentermine Pseudoephedrine Sympathomimetic drugs are substances that mimic the effects of the hormone adrenaline. ... Benzylpiperazine (BZP) is a recreational drug with euphoric, stimulant effects. ... General Information Cathinone (β-ketoamphetamine) is a monoamine alkaloid found in the shrub Catha edulis (Khat). ... Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... Ephedrine (EPH) is a sympathomimetic amine commonly used as a decongestant. ... Fenfluramine is a drug that was part of the Fen-Phen anti-obesity (the other drug being phentermine). ... Fen-phen was an anti-obesity medication (an anorectic) which consisted of two drugs: fenfluramine and phentermine. ... Methcathinone is an addictive recreational drug that is cheap and simple to synthesize. ... Methylphenidate (MPH) is an amphetamine-like prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. ... Pemoline is a medication for ADHD. It is marketed under the brand name Cylert. ... <A HREF=http://www. ... Phentermine is a drug that was part of the Fen-phen anti-obesity drug, the other drug being fenfluramine. ... Pseudoephedrine is a sympathomimetic amine commonly used as a decongestant. ...

Amphetamines edit

Amphetamine Benzphetamine Dexamphetamine MDMA Methamphetamine Paramethoxyamphetamine Amphetamine is a synthetic drug originally developed (and still used) as an appetite suppressant. ... Amphetamine, also known as speed, is a synthetic drug originally studied (and still used) as an appetite suppressant. ... USA by Pharmacia. ... Dextroamphetamine (also known as dextroamphetamine sulfate, dexamphetamine, dexedrine, Dexampex, Ferndex, Oxydess II, Robese, Spancap #1, and, informally, Dex), a stereoisomer of amphetamine, is an indirect-acting stimulant that releases norepinephrine from nerve terminals, thus promoting nerve impulse transmission. ... ecstasy and religious ecstasy MDMA, most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the brain to rapidly secrete large amounts of serotonin, causing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. ... Methamphetamine is a synthetic stimulant drug which induces a strong feeling of euphoria and is highly psychologically addictive. ... PMA (p-methoxyamphetamine) is a dangerous synthetic drug, psycho stimulant and hallucinogen. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Upper Canada - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (907 words)
Upper Canada is an early name for the land at the upstream end of the Saint Lawrence River in early North America – the territory south of Lake Nipissing and north of the St.
Upper Canada became a political entity in 1791 with the passage, in 1790, of the Constitutional Act by the Parliament of Great Britain.
Upper Canada ceased to be a political entity with the Act of Union (1840), when, by an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, it was merged with Lower Canada to form the Province of United Canada.
Upper Hutt - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (988 words)
The city is 30 km north-east of Wellington, and is centred on the upper (northern) valley of the Hutt River, which flows north-east to south-west on its way to its outflow into Port Nicholson harbour.
Upper Hutt extends to the top of the Rimutaka saddle to the north-east and into the rough hill-country of the Akatarawa ranges to the north and north-west, almost reaching the Kapiti Coast close to Paekakariki.
Upper Hutt is located in the bed of an ancient river flood plain and as such was prone to flooding.
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