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Encyclopedia > Upanishad

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Hindu scriptures Template:Hindu scriptures - Vedic Scriptures Hindu scripture, which is known as Shastra is predominantly written in Sanskrit. ...

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Samhita · Brahmana · Aranyaka · Upanishad Image File history File links Aum. ... Veda redirects here. ... Rig veda is the oldest text in the world. ... The Yajurveda (Sanskrit , a tatpurusha compound of sacrifice + knowledge) is one of the four Hindu Vedas. ... The Samaveda (Sanskrit: सामवेद, sāmaveda, a tatpurusha compound of ritual chant + knowledge ), is third in the usual order of enumeration of the four Vedas, the ancient core Hindu scriptures. ... The Atharvaveda (Sanskrit: अथर्ववेद, , a tatpurusha compound of , a type of priest, and meaning knowledge) is a sacred text of Hinduism, and one of the four Vedas, often called the fourth Veda. According to tradition, the Atharvaveda was mainly composed by two groups of rishis known as the Bhrigus and the... The Samhita (Sanskrit: joined or collected) is the basic text of each of the Vedas, comprising collections of hymns and ritual texts. ... The Brahmana (Sanskrit ब्राह्मण) are part of the Hindu Shruti; They are composed in Vedic Sanskrit, and the period of their composition is sometimes referred to as the Brahmanic period or age (approximately between 900 BC and 500 BC). ... The Aranyakas (Sanskrit आरण्यक ) are part of the Hindu Å›ruti; these religious scriptures are written in early Classical Sanskrit, and form part of either the Brahmanas or Upanishads. ...

Aitareya · Brihadaranyaka · Isha · Taittiriya · Chandogya · Kena · Mundaka · Mandukya · Katha · Prashna · Shvetashvatara The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... The Aitareya Upanishad is one of the older, primary Upanishads commented upon by Shankara. ... The Upanishad is believed to be one of the older, primary (mukhya) Upanishads. ... The Isha Upanishad () or Ishopanishad (), also known as the Ishavasya Upanishad (), is a Sanskrit poem (or sequence of mantras) from the Upanishads and is considered Åšruti by followers of a number of diverse traditions within Hinduism. ... The Taittiriya Upanishad is one of the Upanishads associated to the taittiriya samhita of the Black Yajurveda. ... The Chandogya Upanishad is one of the main ten Upanishads of Hinduism. ... The Kena Upanishad (), is one of the older, primary Upanishads commented upon by Shankara. ... Mundaka Upanishad is an Upanishad of the Atharva Veda. ... MāndÅ«kya Upanishad is one of the shortest Upanishads, that form of the revealed, so called metaphysical, parts of the Vedic texts, the Vedas. ... The Kaá¹­ha Upanishad is one of the older, primary Upanishads commented upon by Shankara. ... i hate prashna ... The Shvetashvatara Upanishad is one of the 33 Upanishads of Krishna Yajurveda or Black Yajurveda . ...

Shiksha · Chandas · Vyakarana · Nirukta · Jyotisha · Kalpa The Vedanga (IAST , member of the Veda) are six auxiliary disciplines for the understanding and tradition of the Vedas. ... For the Yiddish slang word, see Shiksa. ... The verses of the Vedas have a variety of different meters. ... The Sanskrit grammatical tradition of , is one of the six Vedanga disciplines. ... Nirukta is Vedic glossary of difficult words. ... Jyotisha (, in Hindi and English usage Jyotish; sometimes called Hindu astrology, Indian astrology, and/or Vedic astrology) is the Hindu system of astrology, one of the six disciplines of Vedanga, and regarded as one of the oldest schools of ancient astrology to have had an independent origin, affecting all other... Kalpa is one of the six disciplines of Vedanga, treating ritual. ...

Mahabharata · Ramayana The ancient Sanskrit epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, laid the cornerstone for much of Hindu religion. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ...

Other scriptures

Smriti · Śruti · Bhagavad Gita · Purana · Agama · Darshana · Pancharatra · Tantra · Sutra · Stotra · Dharmashastra · Divya Prabandha · Tevaram · Akhilathirattu · Ramacharitamanas · Shikshapatri · Vachanamrut · Ananda Sutram The following is a bibliography of Hindu scriptures and texts. ... Smriti (Sanskrit स्मॄति, that which is remembered) refers to a specific canon of Hindu religious scripture. ... The Å›ruti (Sanskrit thing heard, sound) is the smallest interval of the tuning system of Indian classical music. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... Purana (Sanskrit: , meaning tales of ancient times) is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ... Agama (Sanskrit:आगम) literally means that which has come down (i. ... The Sanskrit word darshana means view or viewpoint. ... Pañcaratra is an pre-Puranic form of Hinduism, which equated Narayana with Vishnu. ... The Tantra (Looms or Weavings), refer to numerous and varied scriptures pertaining to any of several esoteric traditions rooted in Hindu and Buddhist philosophy. ... SÅ«tra (sex) (Sanskrit) or Sutta (Pāli) literally means a rope or thread that holds things together, and more metaphorically refers to an aphorism (or line, rule, formula), or a collection of such aphorisms in the form of a manual. ... Stotras are Hindu prayers that praise aspects of God, such as Devi, Siva, or Vishnu. ... The Dharmashastra is a volume of Hindu legal texts, covering moral, ethical and social laws. ... The Nalayira Divya Prabandha is a divine [1] collection of 4,000 verses (Naalayira in Tamil means four thousand) composed sometime around the 8th and 12th century AD, by the 12 Alvars (also aazhvaars), the Tamil mystic poets, and was compiled in its present form by Nathamuni during the 9th... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Thevaram (Verses). ... Akilathirattu Ammanai அகிலத்திரட்டு அம்மானை (Tamil: akilam (world) + thirattu (collection) + ammanai (ballad)), also called Thiru Edu (venerable book), is the main religious book of the Southern Indian Ayyavazhi faith, officially an offshoot of Hinduism. ... ÅšrÄ« Rāmcaritmānas (Hindi: रामचरितमानस) is an epic poem composed by the great 16th-century Indian poet, Goswami Tulsidas (c. ... The Shikshapatri is a text of two hundred and twelve verses, and was written by Shree Swaminarayan, a reforming Hindu from the Vaishnava tradition, who lived in Gujarat from 1781-1830 and who was recognised by his followers as a deity during his lifetime. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


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The Upanishads (Devanagari: उपिनषद्, IAST: upaniṣad) are regarded as part of the Vedas and as such form part of the Hindu scriptures. They primarily discuss philosophy, meditation, and the nature of God; they form the core spiritual thought of Vedantic Hinduism. Considered as mystic or spiritual contemplations of the Vedas, their putative end and essence, the Upanishads are known as Vedānta ("the end/culmination of the Vedas"). The Upanishads do not belong to a particular period of Sanskrit literature. The oldest, such as the Brhadaranyaka and Chandogya Upanishads, date to the Brahmana period (roughly before the 7th century BCE; before Gita was constructed), while the youngest were composed in the medieval or early modern period.[citation needed] Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) DevanāgarÄ« (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... IAST, or International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration is the academic standard for writing the Sanskrit language with the Latin alphabet and very similar to National Library at Calcutta romanization standard being used with many Indic scripts. ... Veda redirects here. ... Hindu scriptures Hindu scripture is overwhelmingly written in Sanskrit. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For other uses, see Vedanta (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... The Vedas are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures form part of the core of the Brahminical and Vedic traditions within Hinduism and are the inspirational, metaphysical and mythological foundation for later Vedanta, Yoga, Tantra and even Bhakti forms of Hinduism. ... Vedanta (Vedānta, वेदान्त, pronounced as ) is a principle branch of Hindu philosophy and is a form of Jnana Yoga (one of the four basic yoga practices in Hinduism; the others are: Raja Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Karma Yoga), a form of yoga which involves an individual seeking the path of intellectual... Literature in Sanskrit, one of Indias two oldest languages, and the basis of several modern languages in India. ... The Upanishad is one of the older, primary (mukhya) Upanishads commented upon by Adi Shankara. ... The Chandogya Upanishad belongs to the Sama Veda. ... The Brahmana (Sanskrit ब्राह्मण) are part of the Hindu Shruti; They are composed in Vedic Sanskrit, and the period of their composition is sometimes referred to as the Brahmanic period or age (approximately between 900 BC and 500 BC). ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ...

Contents

Etymology

The Sanskrit term upaniṣad literally means "sitting down beside".[1] Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


Monier-Williams notes that "according to some the sitting down at the feet of another to listen to his words (and hence, secret knowledge given in this manner); but according to native authorities upanishad means 'setting at rest ignorance by revealing the knowledge of the supreme spirit..."[2] It derives from upa- (near), ni- (down) and sad (to sit), referring to the "sitting down near" a spiritual teacher (guru) in order to receive instruction in the Guru-shishya tradition. Photo of Monier Monier-Williams by Lewis Carroll Sir Monier Monier-Williams (1819-1899) studied, documented and taught Asian languages in England, and compiled one of the most widely-used Sanskrit-English dictionaries. ... For other uses, see Guru (disambiguation). ... The guru-shishya tradition (also guru-shishya parampara or lineage, or teacher-disciple relationship) is a spiritual relationship found within traditional Hinduism which is centered around the transmission of teachings from a guru (teacher, ) to a (disciple, ). The term shishya roughly equates to the western term disciple, and in some...


Other dictionary meanings include "esoteric doctrine" and "secret doctrine".


A gloss of the term upaniṣad based on Shankara's commentary on the Kaṭha and Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanishads equates it with Ātmavidyā, that is "knowledge of the Self", or Brahmavidyā "knowledge of Brahma".[citation needed] Shankara can refer to: Shiva, the Hindu god Adi Shankara, Hindu philosopher of around 800 CE Also written, Sankara This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The Kaá¹­ha Upanishad is one of the older, primary Upanishads commented upon by Shankara. ... The prime Upanishad among the many Upanishads written in ancient India, known very widely for its profound philosophical statements. ... The Atman or Atma (IAST: Ä€tmā, sanskrit: आत्म‍ ) is a philosophical term used within Hinduism and Vedanta to identify the soul. ...


Place in the Hindu canon

Scholars of the Vedic books consider the four Vedas as poetic liturgy, collectively called mantra or samhitā-, adoration and supplication to the deities of Vedic religion, in parts already melded with monist and henotheist notions, and an overarching order (Rta) that transcended even the gods.[citation needed] A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... In Tibet, many Buddhists carve mantras into rocks as a form of devotion. ... The Samhita (Sanskrit: joined or collected) is the basic text of each of the Vedas, comprising collections of hymns and ritual texts. ... This article discusses the historical religious practices in the Vedic time period; see Dharmic religions for details of contemporary religious practices. ... Monism is the metaphysical position that all is of one essential essence, substance or energy. ... In religion and philosophy, henotheism is a term coined by Max Müller, meaning belief in, and possible worship of, multiple gods, one of which is supreme. ... RTA is a TLA that could mean: Chicagos Regional Transportation Authority (AAR reporting mark RTA) Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority Road Traffic Accident, see car accident Roads and Traffic Authority, in New South Wales, Australia Renal Tubular Acidosis Riverside Transit Agency, in Riverside County, California Rewriting Techniques and Applications...


The Brāhmana were a collection of ritual instructions, books detailing the priestly functions (which first were available to all men, and so concretized into strictly Brahmin privilege). These came after the Mantra. The Brahmana (Sanskrit ब्राह्मण) are part of the Hindu Shruti; They are composed in Vedic Sanskrit, and the period of their composition is sometimes referred to as the Brahmanic period or age (approximately between 900 BC and 500 BC). ...


Vedanta, is chiefly composed of Āranyakas and Upanishads. The Aranyakas ("of the forest") detail meditative yogic practices, contemplations of the mystic one and the manifold manifested principles. The Upanishad basically realized all the monist and universal mystical ideas that started in earlier Vedic hymns, and have exerted an influence unprecedented on the rest of Hindu and Indian philosophy. For other uses, see Vedanta (disambiguation). ... The Aranyakas (Sanskrit आरण्यक ) are part of the Hindu Å›ruti; these religious scriptures are written in early Classical Sanskrit, and form part of either the Brahmanas or Upanishads. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The term Indian philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu philosophy Buddhist philosophy Jain philosophy Sikh philosophy Carvaka atheist philosophy Lokayata materialist philosophy Tantric religious philosophy Bhakti religious philosophy Sufi religious philosophy Ahmadi religious philosophy Political and military philosophy such as that of Chanakya...


The philosopher and commentator Shankara (8th century) composed commentaries to eleven Upanishads. These mukhya Upanishads are generally regarded as the oldest ones, spanning the late Vedic and the Mauryan periods. By the 17th century, there were a large number of Upanishads: The Muktika Upanishad (predates 1656) lists 108 Upanishads. The number of Upanishads translated into Persian by Dara Shikoh (d. 1659) is 50. There are also counts that give a total number of Upanishads in excess of 108: Max Müller (1879) is aware of 170, and there are other counts in excess of 200 or even 300. The category of Upanishads has remained somewhat permeable, with the later additions being highly sectarian, perhaps representing "one of the strategies used by sectarian movements to legitimate their own texts through granting them the nominal status of Śruti."[3] Sri Adi Sankara Adi Shankaracharya or Adi Shankara (the first Shankara in his lineage), reverentially called Bhagavatpada Acharya (the teacher at the feet of Lord), Shankara (approximately 509- 477 BC (though some claim 788-820 CE)) was the most famous Advaita philosopher who had a profound influence on the growth... The Muktika canon of 108 Upanishads is headed by 10 Mukhya Upanishads. ... Map of early Iron Age Vedic India after Witzel (1989). ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Mauryan empire was Indias first great unified empire. ... The Muktikā (deliverance) Upanishad is the final Upanishad of the Advaita canon of 108 texts, and it is itself the source of this canon. ... Dara Shikoh (1615–1659) was the eldest son of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan and his wife Mumtaz Mahal. ... Max Müller as a young man Friedrich Max Müller (December 6, 1823 – October 28, 1900), more commonly known as Max Müller, was a German philologist and Orientalist, one of the founders of Indian studies, who virtually created the discipline of comparative religion. ... The Å›ruti (Sanskrit thing heard, sound) is the smallest interval of the tuning system of Indian classical music. ...


Contents

The Taittiriya Upanishad says this in the Ninth Chapter: The Taittiriya Upanishad is one of the Upanishads associated to the taittiriya samhita of the Black Yajurveda. ...

He who knows the Bliss of Brahman, whence words together with the mind turn away, unable to reach It? He is not afraid of anything whatsoever. He does not distress himself with the thought: "Why did I not do what is good? Why did I do what is evil?". Whosoever knows this regards both these as Atman; indeed he cherishes both these as Atman. Such, indeed, is the Upanishad, the secret knowledge of Brahman. This page deals with the Hindu concept of The Supreme Reality. ...

Taittiriya Upanishad Chpt 9 (II-9-1)

The Upanishads hold information on basic Hindu beliefs, including belief in a world soul, a universal spirit, Brahman, and an individual soul, Atman (Smith 10). In Sanskrit, the word Brahman has two genders (masculine, Brahmâ, the creator-god or Brahman, neuter, the Absolute). A variety of lesser gods are seen as aspects of this one divine ground, Brahman (different from Brahma). Brahman is the ultimate, both transcendent and immanent, the absolute infinite existence, the sum total of all that ever is, was, or ever shall be. Shankara's exegesis of the Upanishads describes Brahman not as God in the monotheistic sense; he ascribes to it no limiting characteristics, not even those of being and non-being.[citation needed] Thus, Shankara's philosophy is named advaita, "not two." Dvaita philosophy is a very different interpretation. Founded by Madhvacharya, this school holds that Brahman is ultimately a personal God, Vishnu, or Krishna (brahmano hi pratisthaham, I am the Foundation of Brahman Bhagavad Gita 14.27). Vishishtadvaita, founded by Ramanujacharya is the third major school of Vedanta, and it has some aspects in common with the other two. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Shankara can refer to: Shiva, the Hindu god Adi Shankara, Hindu philosopher of around 800 CE Also written, Sankara This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Advaita Vedanta is probably the best known of all Vedanta schools of Hinduism, the others being Dvaita and Vishishtadvaita. ... Dvaita (Devanagari:द्बैत, Kannada:ದ್ವೈತ) (also known as Tattvavada and Bheda-vada), a school of Vedanta (the most widespread Hindu philosophy) founded by Madhvacharya, stresses a strict distinction between God (Vishnu) and the individual living beings (jivas). ... For Madhavacharya the Advaita saint, see Madhava Vidyaranya. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being (i. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... VishishtAdvaita Vedanta (IAST ;Sanskrit: विशिष्टाद्वैत)) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy, the other major sub-schools of Vedānta being Advaita and Dvaita. ... Ramanuja Tamil: ,  [?] (traditionally 1017–1137) was a theologian, philosopher, and scriptural exegete. ...

Who is the Knower?
What makes my mind think?
Does life have a purpose, or is it governed by chance?
What is the cause of the Cosmos?

Upanishads

The sages of the Upanishad try to solve these mysteries and seek knowledge of a Reality beyond ordinary knowing. They also show a preoccupation with states of consciousness, and observed and analysed dreams as well as dreamless sleep.


Philosophy

Due to their mystical nature and intense philosophical bent that does away with all ritual and completely embraces principals of One Brahman and the inner Atman (Self), the Upanishads have a universal feel that has led to their explication in numerous manners, giving birth to the three schools of Vedanta. For other uses, see Vedanta (disambiguation). ...


The Upanishads are summed up in one phrase तत् त्वं अिस "Tat Tvam Asi" (That thou art) by the Advaita Vedanta and they believe that in the end, the ultimate, formless, inconceivable Brahman is the same as our soul, Atman. We only have to realize it through discrimination. Tat Tvam Asi (Sanskrit: तत् त्वम् असि), a Sanskrit sentence, translating variously to Thou art that, That thou art, or You are that, is one of the Mahāvākyas (Grand Pronouncements) in Vedantic Hinduism. ... Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Sanskrit ; IPA ) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ...


The Upanishads also contain the first and most definitive explications of aum as the divine word, the cosmic vibration that underlies all existence and contains multiple trinities of being and principles subsumed into its One Self. The Isha says of the Self (Verses 6, 7 & 8 of Isha Upanishad): “Om” redirects here. ... The Isha Upanishad () or Ishopanishad (), also known as the Ishavasya Upanishad (), is a Sanskrit poem (or sequence of mantras) from the Upanishads and is considered Śruti by followers of a number of diverse traditions within Hinduism. ...

Whoever sees all beings in the soul
and the soul in all beings
does not shrink away from this.
In whom all beings have become one with the knowing soul
what delusion or sorrow is there for the one who sees unity?
It has filled all.
It is radiant, incorporeal, invulnerable,
without tendons, pure, untouched by evil.
Wise, intelligent, encompassing, self-existent,
it organizes objects throughout eternity.

Isha Upanishad Verses 6, 7, & 8

"Aum Shanti Shanti Shanti" This, too, is found first in the Upanishads, the call for tranquility, for divine stillness, for Peace everlasting.


Dara Shikoh, the Muslim sufi, and son of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, translated the Upanishads in Persian in order to find in it elements of monotheism that might pave the way for a common mystical bond between Islam and Hinduism.. Dara Shikoh (1615–1659) was the eldest son of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan and his wife Mumtaz Mahal. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Shabuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan. ... Farsi redirects here. ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God. ... Mysticism (ancient Greek mysticon = secret) is meditation, prayer, or theology focused on the direct experience of union with divinity, God, or Ultimate Reality, or the belief that such experience is a genuine and important source of knowledge. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...


List of Upanishads

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उपिनषद्

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

"Principal" Upanishads

The following is a list of the eleven "principal" (mukhya) Upanishads that were commented upon[2] by Shankara, and that are accepted as shruti by all Hindus. They are listed with their associated Veda (Rigveda (ṚV), Samaveda (SV), White Yajurveda (ŚYV), Black Yajurveda (KYV), Atharvaveda (AV)). The Muktika canon of 108 Upanishads is headed by 10 Mukhya Upanishads. ... Shankara can refer to: Shiva, the Hindu god Adi Shankara, Hindu philosopher of around 800 CE Also written, Sankara This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Shruti (Sanskrit श्रुति, what is heard) is a canon of Hindu scriptures. ... Rig veda is the oldest text in the world. ... The Samaveda (Sanskrit: सामवेद, sāmaveda, a tatpurusha compound of ritual chant + knowledge ), is third in the usual order of enumeration of the four Vedas, the ancient core Hindu scriptures. ... ... The Yajur Veda (Sanskrit (Devanagari ) from sacrifice + veda knowledge) is one of the four Hindu Vedas; it contains religious texts focussing on liturgy and ritual. ... The Atharvaveda (Sanskrit: अथर्ववेद, , a tatpurusha compound of , a type of priest, and meaning knowledge) is a sacred text of Hinduism, and one of the four Vedas, often called the fourth Veda. According to tradition, the Atharvaveda was mainly composed by two groups of rishis known as the Bhrigus and the...

  1. Aitareya (ṚV)
  2. Bṛhadāraṇyaka (ŚYV)
  3. Īṣa (ŚYV)
  4. Taittirīya (KYV)
  5. Kaṭha (KYV)
  6. Chāndogya (SV)
  7. Kena (SV)
  8. Muṇḍaka (AV)
  9. Māṇḍūkya (AV)
  10. Praśna (AV)
  11. Śvetāśvatara(KYV)

The Kauśītāki and Maitrāyaṇi Upanishads are sometimes added to extend the canon to 13. They are also the oldest Upanishads, likely all of them dating to before the Common Era. From linguistic evidence, the oldest among them are likely the Bṛhadāraṇyaka and Chāndogya Upanishads, belonging to the late Vedic Sanskrit period; the remaining ones are at the transition from Vedic to Classical Sanskrit. The Aitareya Upanishad is one of the older, primary Upanishads commented upon by Shankara. ... The Upanishad is one of the older, primary (mukhya) Upanishads commented upon by Shankara. ... The Isha Upanishad () or Ishopanishad (), also known as the Ishavasya Upanishad (), is a Sanskrit poem (or sequence of mantras) from the Upanishads and is considered Åšruti by followers of a number of diverse traditions within Hinduism. ... The Taittiriya Upanishad is one of the Upanishads associated to the taittiriya samhita of the Black Yajurveda. ... The Kaá¹­ha Upanishad is one of the older, primary Upanishads commented upon by Shankara. ... The Chandogya Upanishad is one of the older, primary Upanishads commented upon by Shankara. ... Kena Upanishad, also known as Kenopanishad, is one of the top ten Upanishads among the sacred Hindu texts. ... The Muṇḍaka Upanishad is one of the older, primary (mukhya) Upanishads commented upon by Shankara. ... The Māṇḍūkya Upanishad is one of the older, primary Upanishads commented upon by Shankara. ... Prashna Upanishad (IAST ) is one of the older, primary Upanishads commented upon by Shankara. ... The Shvetashvatara Upanishad is one of the older, primary Upanishads. ... The Kauśītāki Upanishad is one of the older, primary Upanishads. ... The Maitrāyaṇi Upanishad is one of the older, primary Upanishads. ... BCE redirects here. ... Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, which are the earliest sacred texts of India,. The Vedas were first passed down orally and therefore have no known date. ...


Canon by Vedic Shakha

The older Upanishads are associated with Vedic Charanas (Shakhas or schools). The Aitareya Upanishad with the Shakala shakha, the Kauśītāki Upanishad with the Bashakala shakha; the Chāndogya Upanishad with the Kauthuma shakha, the Kena Upanishad, and the Jaiminiya Upanishad Brahmana, with the Jaiminiya shakha; the Kaṭha Upanishad with the Caraka-Katha shakha, the Taittirīya and Śvetāśvatara with the Taittiriya shakha; the Maitrāyaṇi Upanishad with the Maitrayani shakha; the Bṛhadāraṇyaka and Īṣa Upanishads with the Vajasaneyi Madhyandina shakha, and the Māṇḍūkya and Muṇḍaka Upanishads with the Shaunaka shakha. Additionally, parts of earlier texts, of Brahmanas or passages of the Vedas themselves, are sometimes considered Upanishads. Shakha (IAST ), literally branch or limb, is the Sanskrit term for a recension or version of Vedic texts according to a particular school. ... The Kauśītāki Upanishad is one of the older, primary Upanishads. ... The Jaiminiya Upanishad Brahmana (JUB) is a Vedic text associated with the Jaiminiya shakha of the Samaveda. ... The Samaveda (Sanskrit: सामवेद, sāmaveda, a tatpurusha compound ot ritual chant + knowledge ), is third in the usual order of enumeration of the four Vedas, the ancient core Hindu scriptures. ... The Shvetashvatara Upanishad is one of the older, primary Upanishads. ... The Yajur Veda यजुर्वेद is one of the four Hindu Vedas; it contains religious texts focussing on liturgy and ritual. ... Shaunaka (a patronym of Shunaka little dog, the name of a Rishi) is the name applied to teachers, and to a Shakha of the Atharvaveda. ... The Brahmana (Sanskrit ब्राह्मण) are part of the Hindu Shruti; They are composed in Vedic Sanskrit, and the period of their composition is sometimes referred to as the Brahmanic period or age (approximately between 900 BC and 500 BC). ...


The Muktika canon

See also: Muktika Upanishad

The Muktika Upanishad contains a list of the 108 canonical Upanishads of the Advaita school, and lists itself as the final one. The first 10 are grouped as mukhya "principal". 21 are grouped as Sāmānya Vedānta "common Vedanta", 23 as Sannyāsa, 9 as Shākta, 13 as Vaishnava, 14 as Shaiva and 17 as Yoga Upanishads.[citation needed] The Muktikā (deliverance) Upanishad is the final Upanishad of the Advaita canon of 108 texts, and it is itself the source of this canon. ... The Muktikā (deliverance) Upanishad is the final Upanishad of the Advaita canon of 108 texts, and it is itself the source of this canon. ... Advaita Vedanta is probably the best known of all Vedanta schools of Hinduism, the others being Dvaita and Vishishtadvaita. ... The Muktika canon of 108 Upanishads is headed by 10 Mukhya Upanishads. ... Of the Muktika canon of 108 Upanishads, 21 are considered Sāmānya (common, or general) Vedānta Upanishads. ... For other uses, see Vedanta (disambiguation). ... Samnyasa (IAST , also spelled , Sannyasa) symbolizes the conception of the mystic life in Hinduism where a person is now integrated into the spiritual world after wholly giving up material life. ... Shaktism is a denomination of Hinduism that worships Shakti, or Devi Mata -- the Hindu name for the Great Divine Mother -- in all of her forms whilst not rejecting the importance of masculine and neuter divinity (which are however deemed to be inactive in the absence of the Shakti). ... Vaishnavism is the branch of Hinduism in which Vishnu or one of his avatars (i. ... Åšaivism, also transliterated Shaivism and Saivism, is a branch of Hinduism that worships Siva as the Supreme God. ... History of Yoga. ...


Shakta Upanishads

For the most part, the canonical Shakta Upanishads are sectarian tracts reflecting doctrinal and interpretative differences between the two principal sects of Srividya upasana (a major Tantric form of Shaktism). As a result, the many extant listings of "authentic" Shakta Upanisads are highly variable as to content, inevitably reflecting the sectarian bias of their compilers: Shaktism focuses worship upon the Hindu Divine Mother, here manifested as Tridevi – the conjoined forms of Lakshmi , Parvati and Saraswati. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Devi. ... Uapasana in Sanskrit literally means Sitting near but normally the term is used in Hinduism to denote a prescribed method for approaching a Deity/God or getting close to deity. ... Tantric can refer to: Tantric yoga, also known as tantra The Louisville, KY hard rock band Tantric This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

"Past efforts to construct lists of Shakta Upanisads have left us no closer to understanding either their 'location' in Tantric tradition or their place within the Vedic corpus. [...] At stake for the Tantric is not the authority of sruti per se, which remains largely undisputed, but rather its correct interpretation. For non-Tantrics, [it is a text's] Tantric contents that brings into question its identity as an Upanisad. At issue is the text's classification as sruti and thus its inherent authority as Veda." [4] Shaktism focuses worship upon the Hindu Divine Mother, here manifested as Tridevi – the conjoined forms of Lakshmi , Parvati and Saraswati. ... For information on Princess Sruti of Nepal see Princess Shruti. ...

Of the Upanishads listed in the Muktika only nine are classified as Shakta Upanisads. They are here listed with their associated Vedas: The Muktikā (deliverance) Upanishad is the final Upanishad of the Advaita canon of 108 texts, and it is itself the source of this canon. ...

  1. Sītā (AV)
  2. Annapūrṇa (AV)
  3. Devī (AV)
  4. Tripurātapani (AV)
  5. Tripura (RV)
  6. Bhāvana (AV)
  7. Saubhāgya (RV)
  8. Sarasvatīrahasya (KYV)
  9. Bahvṛca (RV)

The list excludes several notable and widely used Shakta Upanisads, including the Kaula Upaniṣad, the Śrīvidyā Upaniṣad and the Śrichakra Upaniṣad.


Notes

  1. ^ Arthur Anthony Macdonell. A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary. p. 53.
  2. ^ Monier-Williams. A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. p. 201. [1] Web version accessed 1 April 2007.
  3. ^ Holdrege 1996, p. 7,426n
  4. ^ Brooks, Douglas Renfrew, The Secret of the Three Cities: An Introduction to Hindu Shakta Tantrism, The University of Chicago Press (Chicago, 1990), pp. 13-14.

References

  • Edmonds, I.G. Hinduism. New York: Franklin Watts, 1979.
  • Eknath Easwaran, The Upanishads. Nilgiri Press, 1987.
  • Embree, Ainslie T., ed. The Hindu Tradition. New York: Random House, 1966.
  • Holdrege, Barbara A. (1995), Veda and Torah, Albany: SUNY Press, ISBN 0791416399
  • Merrett, Frances, ed. The Hindu World. London: MacDonald and Co, 1985.
  • Pandit, Bansi. The Hindu Mind. Glen Ellyn, IL: B&V Enterprises, 1998.
  • Smith, Huston. The Illustrated World’s Religions: A Guide to Our Wisdom Traditions. New York: Labrynth Publishing, 1995.
  • Wangu, Madhu Bazaz. Hinduism: World Religions. New York: Facts on File, 1991.

Born in a village in Kerala, India in December of 1910, Eknath Easwaran was an Indian-American professor, author, translator, and religious teacher. ...

External links

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

Original text

Sri Aurobindo (Bangla: শ্রী অরবিন্দ Sri Ôrobindo, Sanskrit: श्री अरविन्द Srī Aravinda) (August 15, 1872–December 5, 1950) was an Indian/Hindu nationalist, scholar, poet, mystic, evolutionary philosopher, yogi and guru [1]. After a short political career in which he became one of the leaders of the early movement for the freedom of India... The Delhi campus of the Sri Aurobindo Ashram The Sri Aurobindo Ashram was founded by Sri Aurobindo on the 24 November 1926 (Siddhi Day). ... Map of Pondicherry Region, Union Territory of Pondicherry, India Pondicherry (Tamil:புதுவை,Hindi: पॉण्डिचेरी) is a Union Territory of India. ...

Translations


  Results from FactBites:
 
Upanishad - definition of Upanishad in Encyclopedia (1019 words)
The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism.
The oldest and longest Upanishads are the Bŗhadāraņyaka and the Chhāndogya; scholars' opinions vary on when they first were written and estimates range between the 16th to 7th century BCE.
Of the early Upanishads, the Aitareya and Kauşītāki belong to the Rig Veda, Kena and Chhāndogya to the Samaveda, Īşa and Taittirīya and Bŗhadāraņyaka to the Yajurveda, and Praşna and Muņd.aka to the Atharvaveda.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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