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Encyclopedia > Unsaturated fat
Types of Fats in Food
See Also

An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there are one or more double bonds in the fatty acid chain. A fat molecule is monounsaturated if it contains one double bond, and polyunsaturated if it contains more than one double bond. Where double bonds are formed, hydrogen atoms are eliminated. Thus, a saturated fat is "saturated" with hydrogen atoms. In cellular metabolism hydrogen-carbon bonds are broken down - or oxidized - to produce energy, thus an unsaturated fat molecule contains somewhat less energy (i.e fewer calories) than a comparable sized saturated fat. The greater the degree of unsaturation in a fatty acid (ie, the more double bonds in the fatty acid), the more vulnerable it is to lipid peroxidation (rancidity). Antioxidants can protect unsaturated fat from lipid peroxidation. Unsaturated fats also have a more enlarged shape than saturated fats. For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... For discussion how dietary fats affect cardiovascular health, see Diet and heart disease. ... // In nutrition, polyunsaturated fat is an abbreviation of polyunsaturated fatty acid. ... A trans fatty acid (commonly shortened to trans fat) is an unsaturated fatty acid molecule that contains a trans double bond between carbon atoms, which makes the molecule less kinked compared to cis fat. Research suggests a correlation between diets high in trans fats and diseases like atherosclerosis and coronary... See Nomenclature of essential fatty acids for terms and discussion of ω (omega) nomenclature. ... Omega-6 fatty acids are fatty acids where the term omega-6 signifies that the first double bond in the carbon backbone of the fatty acid, counting from the end opposite the acid group, occurs in the sixth carbon-carbon bond. ... Omega-9 fatty acids are a class of unsaturated fatty acids which have a C=C double bond in the ω-9 position. ... Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. ... Interesterified fats are oils (such as soybean oil) that have been chemically modified. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... Essential fatty acids, or EFAs, are fatty acids that cannot be constructed within an organism from other components (generally all references are to humans) by any known chemical pathways; and therefore must be obtained from the diet. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... For discussion how dietary fats affect cardiovascular health, see Diet and heart disease. ... A polyunsaturated organic compound is one in which more than one double bond exists within the representative molecule. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Properties For other meanings of Atom, see Atom (disambiguation). ... Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... A calorie refers to a unit of energy. ... Mechanism of lipid peroxidation. ... Rancidification is the decomposition of fats and other lipids by hydrolysis and/or oxidation. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ...

Contents

Chemistry and Nutrition

Amounts of fat types in selected foods (click to enlarge).
Amounts of fat types in selected foods (click to enlarge).

Double bonds may be in either a cis or trans isomer, depending on the geometry of the double bond. In the cis conformation hydrogens are on the same side of the double bond, whereas in the trans conformation they are on opposite sides (see also Trans fat). Saturated fats are popular with manufacturers of processed foods because they are less vulnerable to rancidity and are generally more solid at room temperature than unsaturated fats. Unsaturated chains have a lower melting point, hence increasing fluidity of the cell membranes. Image File history File links Fatchart. ... Image File history File links Fatchart. ... CIS usually refers to: Commonwealth of Independent States, a modern-day political entity consisting of 11 former Soviet Union Republics CIS is also an acronym for: Canadian Interuniversity Sport Cancer Information Service Carcinoma in situ Centre for Independent Studies Center for Immigration Studies Chinese International School Cisalpino Citizenship & Immigration Services... Trans is a Latin noun or prefix, meaning across, beyond or on the opposite side [of] . It is the opposite of cis, which means on the same side [of]. In chemistry, a double bond (or ring) not subject to free rotation in which the greater radical on both ends is... In chemistry, isomers are molecules with the same chemical formula and often with the same kinds of chemical bonds between atoms, but in which the atoms are arranged differently (analogous to a chemical anagram). ... For other uses, see Geometry (disambiguation). ... CIS usually refers to: Commonwealth of Independent States, a modern-day political entity consisting of 11 former Soviet Union Republics CIS is also an acronym for: Canadian Interuniversity Sport Cancer Information Service Carcinoma in situ Centre for Independent Studies Center for Immigration Studies Chinese International School Cisalpino Citizenship & Immigration Services... Conformational isomerism is the phenomenon of molecules with the same structural formula but different conformations (conformers) of atoms about a rotating bond. ... Trans is a Latin noun or prefix, meaning across, beyond or on the opposite side [of] . It is the opposite of cis, which means on the same side [of]. In chemistry, a double bond (or ring) not subject to free rotation in which the greater radical on both ends is... A trans fatty acid (commonly shortened to trans fat) is an unsaturated fatty acid molecule that contains a trans double bond between carbon atoms, which makes the molecule less kinked compared to cis fat. Research suggests a correlation between diets high in trans fats and diseases like atherosclerosis and coronary... A saturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there are no double bonds between the carbon atoms of the fatty acid chain. ... Various preserved foods Food preservation is the process of treating and handling food in such a way as to stop or greatly slow down spoilage to prevent foodborne illness while maintaining nutritional value, density, texture and flavor. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... The term saturation generally means thoroughly full, and can refer to the following: In chemistry, see saturation (chemistry) for a number of meanings. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Look up cell membrane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Both mono- and polyunsaturated fats can replace saturated fat in the diet; trans unsaturated fats should be avoided. Substituting (replacing) saturated fats with unsaturated fats helps to lower levels of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in the blood. Trans unsaturated fats are particularly bad because the double bond stereochemistry allows the fat molecules to assume a linear conformation which leads to efficient packing (i.e., plaque formation). The geometry of the cis double bond introduces a bend in the molecule precluding stable formations (see specific fatty acid links above for drawings that illustrate this). Natural sources of fatty acids (see above) are rich in the cis isomer. Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... The different types of isomers. ... In pathology, an atheroma (plural: atheromata) is an accumulation and swelling (-oma) in artery walls that is made up of cells, or cell debris, that contain lipids (cholesterol and fatty acids), calcium and a variable amount of fibrous connective tissue. ...


Although polyunsaturated fats are protective against cardiac arrhythmias a study of post-menopauseal women with a relatively low fat intake showed that polyunsaturated fat was positively associated with progression of coronary atherosclerosis, whereas monounsaturated fat was not [1]. This probably is an indication of the greater vulnerability of polyunsaturated fats to lipid peroxidation, against which Vitamin E has been shown to be protective [2]. Cardiac arrhythmia is any of a group of conditions in which the electrical activity of the heart is irregular or is faster or slower than normal. ... Menopause is the physiological cessation of menstrual cycles associated with advancing age in women. ... A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream. ... Mechanism of lipid peroxidation. ... Tocopherol, or Vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ...


Examples of unsaturated fats are palmitoleic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid. Foods containing unsaturated fats include avocado, nuts, and vegetable oils such as soybean, canola, and olive oils. Meat products contain both saturated and unsaturated fats. Palmitoleic acid, or (Z)-9-hexadecenoic acid, is a monounsaturated fatty acid that is a common constituent of the glycerides of human adipose tissue. ... Oleic acid is a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid found in various animal and vegetable sources. ... Linoleic acid (LA) is an unsaturated omega-6 fatty acid. ... Arachidonic acid (AA) is an omega-6 fatty acid 20:4(ω-6). ... Binomial name Mill. ... Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... In agriculture, Canola is a trademarked cultivar of genetically engineered rapeseed variants from which rapeseed oil is obtained. ... Binomial name L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Lebanon and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ... Synthetic motor oil For other uses, see Oil (disambiguation). ...


Although unsaturated fats are healthier than saturated fats,[3] the old Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendation stated that the amount of unsaturated fat consumed should not exceed 30% of one's daily caloric intake (or 67 grams given a 2000 calorie diet). The new dietary guidelines have eliminated this recommendation. Most food contain both unsaturated and saturated fats. Marketers only advertise one or the other, depending on which makes up the majority. Thus, various unsaturated fat vegetable oils, such as olive oils, also contain saturated fat. “FDA” redirects here. ...


Insulin resistance correlates positively with monounsaturated fat (especially oleic acid) and negatively with polyunsaturated fat (especially arachidonic acid) in the phospholipids of human skeletal muscle [4]. Insulin resistance is the condition in which normal amounts of insulin are inadequate to produce a normal insulin response from fat, muscle and liver cells. ... Arachidonic acid (AA) is an omega-6 fatty acid 20:4(ω-6). ... Phospholipid Two schematic representations of a phospholipid. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle is a type of striated muscle, usually attached to the skeleton. ...


Membrane composition as a metabolic pacemaker

Cell membranes of mammals have a higher composition of polyunsaturated fat (DHA, omega-3 fatty acid) and a lower composition of monounsaturated fat than do reptiles. Higher polyunsaturated membrane content gives greater membrane fluidity (and functionality), commensurate with the higher metabolic rate of the warm-blooded species. In fish, however, increasingly cold environments lead to increasingly high cell membrane content of both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, presumably to maintain greater membrane fluidity (and functionality) at the lower temperatures[5] Look up cell membrane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Docosahexaenoic acid (commonly known as DHA; 22:6(ω-3), all-cis-docosa-4,7,10,13,16,19-hexaenoic acid; trivial name cervonic acid) is an omega-3 essential fatty acid. ... See Nomenclature of essential fatty acids for terms and discussion of ω (omega) nomenclature. ... Reptilia redirects here. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... A warm-blooded (homeothermic) animal is one that can keep its core body temperature at a nearly constant level regardless of the temperature of the surrounding environment (that is, to maintain thermal homeostasis) . This can involve not only the ability to generate heat, but also the ability to cool down... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Temperature is the physical property of a system which underlies the common notions of hot and cold; the material with the higher temperature is said to be hotter. ...


References

  1. ^ Dariush Mozaffarian (2004). "Dietary fats, carbohydrate, and progression of coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80 (5): 1175–1184. PMID 15531663. 
  2. ^ B Leibovitz (1990). "Dietary supplements of vitamin E, beta-carotene, coenzyme Q10 and selenium protect tissues against lipid peroxidation in rat tissue slices". The Journal of Nutrition 120 (1): 97–104. PMID 2303916. 
  3. ^ BBC Health, retrieved June 6, 2007.]
  4. ^ LH Storlien (1996). "Dietary fats and insulin action". Diabetologica 39 (6): 621–631. PMID 8781757. 
  5. ^ AJ Hulbert (2003). "Life, death and membrane bilayers". The Journal of Experimental Biology 206: 2303–2311. PMID 12796449. 

See also

Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. ... For discussion how dietary fats affect cardiovascular health, see Diet and heart disease. ... // In nutrition, polyunsaturated fat is an abbreviation of polyunsaturated fatty acid. ... A trans fatty acid (commonly shortened to trans fat) is an unsaturated fatty acid molecule that contains a trans double bond between carbon atoms, which makes the molecule less kinked compared to cis fat. Research suggests a correlation between diets high in trans fats and diseases like atherosclerosis and coronary... The iodine number in chemistry is the mass of iodine in grams that is consumed by 100 grams of a chemical substance. ...

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