FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Unruh effect

The Unruh effect, discovered in 1976 by Bill Unruh of the University of British Columbia, is the prediction that an accelerating observer will observe black-body radiation where an inertial observer would observe none, that is, the accelerating observer will find themselves in a warm background. The quantum state which is seen as ground state for observers in inertial systems is seen as a thermodynamic equilibrum for the uniformly accelerated observer.


Unruh demonstrated that the very notion of vacuum depends on the path of the observer through spacetime. From the viewpoint of the accelerating observer, the vacuum of the inertial observer will look like a state containing many particles in thermal equilibrium -- a warm gas. Although the Unruh effect came as a shock, it makes intuitive sense if the word vacuum is interpreted appropriately, as below.


In modern terms, the concept of "vacuum" is not the same as "empty space", as all of space is filled with the quantized fields that make up a universe and the vacuum is simply the lowest possible energy state of these fields, a very different concept than "empty". The energy states of any quantized field are defined by the Hamiltonian, based on local conditions, including the time coordinate. According to special relativity, two observers moving relative to each other must use different time coordinates. If those observers are accelerating, there may be no shared coordinate system and, due to this, the observers will see different quantum states and thus different vacua.


In some cases the vacuum of one observer is not even in the space of quantum states of the other. In technical terms, this comes about because the two vacua lead to unitarily inequivalent representations of the quantum field canonical commutation relations. This is because two mutually accelerating observers may not be able to find a globally defined coordinate transformation relating their coordinate choices. In fact, an accelerating observer will perceive an apparent event horizon forming (see Rindler spacetime). The existence of Unruh radiation can be linked to this apparent event horizon, putting it in the same conceptual framework as Hawking radiation. On the other hand, the Unruh effect shows that the definition of what constitutes a "particle" depends on the state of motion of the observer.


This is because we need to decompose the (free) field into positive and negative frequency components before we can define the creation and annihilation operators. This can only be done in spacetimes with a timelike Killing vector field. This decomposition happens to be different in Cartesian and Rindler coordinates (although they are related by a Bogoliubov transformation) which explains why the "particle numbers", which are defined in terms of the creation and annihilation operators are different in both coordinates.


Just as the Rindler spacetime can be seen as a toy model for black holes and cosmological horizons, the Unruh effect provides a toy model to explain Hawking radiation.


The equivalent energy kT of a uniformly accelerating particle is:

So the temperature seen by a particle accelerated by the Earth's gravitational acceleration of g=9.81 m/sē is only 4*10-20K. For an experimental test of the Unruh effect it is planned to use accelerations up to 1026m/sē, which would give a temperature of about 400,000K.


See also Rindler coordinates


  Results from FactBites:
 
Unruh effect - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (581 words)
The Unruh effect, discovered in 1976 by Bill Unruh of the University of British Columbia, is the prediction that an accelerating observer will observe fl-body radiation where an inertial observer would observe none.
Unruh demonstrated that the very notion of vacuum depends on the path of the observer through spacetime.
On the other hand, the Unruh effect shows that the definition of what constitutes a "particle" depends on the state of motion of the observer.
3 Hawking Radiation (1694 words)
An approach to investigating this issue was first suggested by Unruh [92], who noted that a close analog of the Hawking effect occurs for quantized sound waves in a fluid undergoing supersonic flow.
A mathematically rigorous proof of the Unruh effect in Minkowski spacetime was given by Bisognano and Wichmann [23] in work motivated by entirely different considerations (and done independently of and nearly simultaneously with the work of Unruh).
On the other hand, in the Unruh effect and its generalization to curved spacetimes, the state in question (usually referred to as the ``Hartle-Hawking vacuum'' [52]) is globally nonsingular, and all modes of the quantum field in the ``left and right wedges'' are thermally populated.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m