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Encyclopedia > Unreliable narrator
Illustration by Gustave Doré for Baron Münchhausen: tall tales, such as those of the Baron, often feature unreliable narrators.
Illustration by Gustave Doré for Baron Münchhausen: tall tales, such as those of the Baron, often feature unreliable narrators.

In literature and film, an unreliable narrator (a term coined by Wayne C. Booth in his 1961 book The Rhetoric of Fiction[1]) is a literary device in which the credibility of the narrator is seriously compromised. This unreliability can be due to psychological instability, a powerful bias, a lack of knowledge, or even a deliberate attempt to deceive the reader or audience. Unreliable narrators are usually first-person narrators, but third-person narrators can also be unreliable. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (936x1238, 700 KB) Paul Gustave Dorés 9th illustration for Baron von Münchhausen (1862) File links The following pages link to this file: Baron Munchhausen ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (936x1238, 700 KB) Paul Gustave Dorés 9th illustration for Baron von Münchhausen (1862) File links The following pages link to this file: Baron Munchhausen ... Doré photographed by Felix Nadar. ... Portrait of young Baron Münchhausen Karl Friedrich Hieronymus, Freiherr von Münchhausen (11 May 1720 – 22 February 1797) was a German baron who in his youth was sent to serve as page to Anthony Ulrich II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and later joined the Russian military. ... Wayne Clayson Booth (February 22, 1921 – October 10, 2005) was an American literary critic. ... Novels and short stories do not simply come from nowhere. ... The Narrator is the entity within a story that tells the story to the reader. ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... First-person narrative is a literary technique in which the story is narrated by one character, who explicitly refers to him or herself in the first person, that is, I. the narrator is a fool putting his nose into the storytelling exercise. ... The third-person Narrative is narration in the third person. ...


The nature of the narrator is sometimes immediately clear. For instance, a story may open with the narrator making a plainly false or delusional claim or admitting to being severely mentally ill, or the story itself may have a frame in which the narrator appears as a character, with clues to his unreliability. A more common, and dramatic, use of the device delays the revelation until near the story's end. This twist ending forces the reader to reconsider their point of view and experience of the story. In many cases the narrator's unreliability is never fully revealed but only hinted at, leaving the reader to wonder how much the narrator should be trusted and how the story should be interpreted. A frame story (also frame tale, frame narrative, etc. ... A twist ending or surprise ending is an unexpected conclusion or climax to a work of fiction, which may contain an irony, or cause the audience to reevaluate the rest of the story. ... In literature and storytelling, a point of view is the related experience of the narrator — not that of the author. ...


The literary device of the unreliable narrator should not be confused with other devices such as euphemism, hyperbole, irony, metaphor, pathetic fallacy, personification, sarcasm, or satire; it may, however, coexist with such devices, as in Bret Easton Ellis’ American Psycho, a satire[2] whose narrator is unreliable (and thus not credible). Similarly, historical novels, speculative fiction, and clearly delineated dream sequences are generally not considered instances of unreliable narration, even though they describe events that did not or could not happen. Euphemism is the substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener; or in the case of doublespeak, to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ... Not to be confused with Hyperbola. ... “Ironic” redirects here. ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... The pathetic fallacy or anthropomorphic fallacy is the description of inanimate natural objects in a manner that endows them with human feelings, thoughts and sensations. ... Phillipp Veits Germania (1877), a personification of Germany. ... Sarcasm[1] Mockery, sarcasm is sneering, jesting, or mocking a person, situation or thing. ... 1867 edition of the satirical magazine Punch, a British satirical magazine, ground-breaking on popular literature satire. ... For other uses, see American Psycho (disambiguation). ... --70. ... Speculative fiction - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A dream sequence is a technique used in storytelling, particularly in television and film, to set apart a brief interlude from the main story. ...

Contents

Examples of unreliable narrators

Novels

One of the earliest known examples of unreliable narration is Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales. In the Merchant's Tale for example, the narrator, being unhappy in his marriage, allows his misogynistic bias to slant much of his tale, and in the Wife of Bath's, the Wife often misquotes and misremembers quotations and stories. Chaucer: Illustration from Cassells History of England, circa 1902 Chanticleer the rooster from an outdoor production of Chanticleer and the Fox at Ashby_de_la_Zouch castle Geoffrey Chaucer (ca. ... Canterbury Tales Woodcut 1484 The Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories written by Geoffrey Chaucer in the 14th century (two of them in prose, the rest in verse). ... The Merchant The Merchants Prologue and Tale is one of Geoffrey Chaucers Canterbury Tales. ... This box:      Misogyny (IPA: ) is hatred or strong prejudice against women; an antonym of philogyny. ... The opening page of The Wife of Baths Tale from the Ellesmere manuscript of The Canterbury Tales, circa 1405-1410. ...


Many novels are narrated by children, whose inexperience can impair their judgment and make them unreliable. In Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884), Huck's inexperience leads him to make overly charitable judgments about the characters in the novel; even going so far as to accuse his author, "Mr. Mark Twain," of having stretched the truth in the previous book, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, an early example of a fourth-wall breach. In contrast, Holden Caulfield, in The Catcher in the Rye, tends to assume the worst. Mark Twain Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885) by Mark Twain is commonly accounted as one of the first Great American Novels. ... Huckleberry Finn is the protagonist of Mark Twains famous book, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. ... The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, by Mark Twain, is a popular 1876 novel about a young boy growing up in the Antebellum South on the Mississippi River in St. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Catcher in the Rye is a novel by J. D. Salinger. ...


Another class of unreliable narrator is one who intentionally attempts to deceive the audience or other characters in the story. One of the earliest examples is Agatha Christie's detective novel The Murder of Roger Ackroyd, in which the narrator is scrupulously honest in facts revealed but neglects to mention certain key events. The Murder of Roger Ackroyd (published in 1926) is a detective novel by Agatha Christie. ...


In some cases, as with Vladimir Nabokov's 1962 Pale Fire, the reader is unable to discern among several possible narrators, each with his or her own intrinsically unreliable agenda and bias. This serves to effectively include the reader in the experience of the novel, rather than simply providing a narrative, encouraging independent theories and ultimately furthering a point. Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Russian: Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, pronounced ) (April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1899, Saint Petersburg – July 2, 1977, Montreux) was a Russian-American, Academy Award nominated author. ... Penguin Classics edition of Pale Fire Pale Fire (1962) is a novel by Vladimir Nabokov, his fourteenth in total and fifth in English. ...


Gene Wolfe could be said to have made the unreliable narrator one of his stylistic signatures. The most famous example is the complicated and self-contradictory autobiography of the Autarch Severian, who claims to possess eidetic memory, in The Book of the New Sun. Narrators in others of Wolfe's books include a soldier who loses his entire memory every morning (Soldier of the Mist) and a combination of multiple personalities sharing one body (Book of the Long Sun and Book of the Short Sun). Gene Wolfe (born May 7, 1931, New York, New York) is an American science fiction and fantasy writer. ... The first two books of The Book of the New Sun, 2000 omnibus printing. ... The Book of the Long Sun is a tetralogy by Gene Wolfe, consisting of Nightside the Long Sun, Lake of the Long Sun, Calde of the Long Sun, and Exodus from the Long Sun. ... The Book of the Short Sun is a trilogy by Gene Wolfe, consisting of On Blues Waters, In Greens Jungles, and Return to the Whorl. ...


The eponymous narrator of Michael Moorcock's Pyat Quartet is thoroughly and entertainingly duplicitous. Michael John Moorcock (born December 18, 1939, in London, England) is a prolific English writer primarily of science fiction and fantasy who has also published a number of literary novels. ...


Randy Mulray, the main character in C.W. Schultz’s novel Yeval, easily qualifies as an unreliable narrator. The reader grows to know that Mulray is a very self-conscious man with a low self-esteem, which in turn makes him obviously overplay (or underplay) situations that he describes to the reader. Because he is a drug-dealer and envisions thoughts of a serial killer, there are several hints throughout the novel that Mulray could be hallucinating some of what he tells.


Daniel Keyes's Flowers for Algernon has a narrator, Charley, who could also be considered unreliable. Charley is mentally retarded, and his descriptions of events in his life reveal a very limited understanding of events around him. His vocabulary and understanding improve when an experimental treatment radically increase his intelligence, only to decline again in the final section of the novel. Daniel F. Keyes (born August 9, 1927 in Brooklyn, New York City, New York) is an American author best known for his award-winning short story Flowers for Algernon. Keyes was given the Author Emeritus honor by the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America in 2000. ... Flowers for Algernon is a soft science fiction story and play written by Daniel Keyes. ...


In some instances, unreliable narration can bring about the fantastic in works of fiction. In Kingsley Amis's The Green Man, for example, the unreliability of the narrator Maurice Allington destabilizes the boundaries between reality and the fantastic. The same applies to Nigel Williams's Witchcraft.[3] Sir Kingsley William Amis (April 16, 1922 – October 22, 1995) was an English novelist, poet, critic, and teacher. ... Written in 1969, The Green Man (ISBN 978-0-89733-220-0), is a novel by the noted British author Kingsley Amis. ... Nigel Williams may refer to: Nigel Williams (author) Nigel Williams (hockey) ...


Film

A more recent example of intentional deception is the film The Usual Suspects, where the narrator is a man being interrogated by the police. He offers a detailed account of the events leading up to a recent crime, but avoids sharing everything he knows about the mysterious crime lord Keyser Söze. The 1945 film noir classic Detour is told from the perspective of an unreliable protagonist who is trying to justify his actions.[4][5][6] The Usual Suspects is a 1995 American neo-noir film written by Christopher McQuarrie and directed by Bryan Singer. ... This still from The Big Combo (1955) demonstrates the visual style of film noir at its most extreme. ... Detour is a 1945 film noir cult classic that stars Tom Neal, Ann Savage, Claudia Drake and Edmund MacDonald. ...


Mentally impaired narrators may describe the world as they perceive it rather than as it really is. In the film, Bubba Ho-tep, the main character is either Elvis Presley or an Elvis impersonator named Sebastian Haff. He appears to suffer from Alzheimer's disease, making it unclear how much of his story is real. In the film Memento, the narrator is a man who suffers from anterograde amnesia. He is unable to form new long-term memories, and is thus unable to provide reliable narration about crucial past events or even his own motivations. Bubba Ho-tep is the title of a novella by Joe R. Lansdale which originally appeared in the anthology The King Is Dead: Tales of Elvis Post-Mortem (edited by Paul M. Sammon, Delta 1994) and was adapted as a 2002 horror-black comedy film starring Bruce Campbell as Elvis... “Elvis” redirects here. ... Elvis Impersonators An Elvis impersonator is someone who impersonates or copies Elvis Presley either as a hobby, career in entertainment or occasionally for fun. ... Memento is a neo-noir–psychological thriller film written and directed by Christopher Nolan, adapted from his brother Jonathans short story Memento Mori. ... Anterograde amnesia is a form of amnesia, or memory loss, where new events are not transferred to long-term memory. ...


Some works suggest that all narrators are inherently unreliable due to self-interest, personal bias, or selective memory. The film Rashomon uses multiple narrators to tell the story of the death of a samurai. Each of the witnesses describe the same basic events but differ wildly in the details, alternately claiming that the samurai was killed by accident, suicide, or murder. The term Rashomon effect is used to describe how different witnesses are able to produce differing, yet plausible, accounts of the same event, with equal sincerity. This kind of unreliable narration has also been used for comic effect in movies such as He Said, She Said and Grease, where the two romantic leads offer very different accounts of their relationship. Rashomon (羅生門) is a Japanese motion picture made in 1950 by director Akira Kurosawa. ... The Rashomon effect is the effect of the subjectivity of perception on recollection, by which observers of an event are able to produce substantially different but equally plausible accounts of it. ... http://he-saidshesaid. ... For the original stage musical of the same name, see Grease (musical). ...


Sometimes it is not a character narrating a story but the manner in which scenes in the film are presented that gives the audience an unreliable impression of what happened. Important events may occur off-screen, or be presented in a misleading way. Examples include the films A Beautiful Mind and The Sixth Sense. In both cases the main characters suffer from mistaken ideas or delusions about their own situations, with the films designed to make the perceptions of these characters appear correct to the audience. A Beautiful Mind is a 2001 biographical film directed by Ron Howard and written by Akiva Goldsman. ... For the ability sometimes referred to as sixth sense, see Extra-sensory perception. ...


Song

An unreliable narrator may also appear in songs with a narrative. Eminem often uses his "Slim Shady" persona as an unreliable narrator[7]. In "Stan", however, the unreliable narrator is actually an obsessed fan whose messages to Shady/Eminem become increasingly erratic and eventually commits a murder-suicide. Shady is presented in this song as a reliable secondary narrator[8]. Marshall Bruce Mathers III (born October 17, 1972), better known as Eminem or Slim Shady, is a Grammy and Academy Award-winning American rapper, record producer and actor from the Detroit, Michigan area. ... Dido singles chronology Stan was the third single (after The Real Slim Shady and The Way I Am) released from The Marshall Mathers LP, the second LP from rapper Eminem. ... A murder suicide is an act in which an individual kills one or more other persons immediately before, or while killing himself. ...


Another example of growing vehemence revealing the unreliable nature of a narrator is The Rolling Stones' "Sympathy for the Devil". The narrator introduces himself as "a man of wealth and taste" and asks for sympathy from the listener, but goes on to recount tales of historic atrocities with apparent glee. Although he repeatedly refuses to reveal his true identity, it becomes obvious that the narrator is, literally, the Devil[9]. “Rolling Stones” redirects here. ... This article is about the song. ... This page is about the concept of the Devil. ...


Television

The sitcom How I Met Your Mother often employs the unreliable narrator technique. Each episode is framed as a story told by Ted Mosby to his children about his younger days. He sometimes witholds a crucial detail until the end of the story, when it throws the preceding events into a different light. In the pilot, the narrator tells his children that he wants to share the story of how he met their mother, and then describes meeting a beautiful woman. He ends the story by saying "that was how I met...your Aunt Robin", revealing that this woman was not their mother after all. How I Met Your Mother (HIMYM) is a CBS sitcom that premiered on September 19, 2005. ... Marshall (Jason Segel), Lily (Alyson Hannigan), Ted (Josh Radnor), Robin (Cobie Smulders), and Barney (Neil Patrick Harris) The following is a partial list of characters from the television series How I Met Your Mother: Spoiler warning: // Played by Josh Radnor. ...


The television show House has employed unreliable narration in several episodes. In "Three Stories," Dr. House tells a class of medical students a self-contradictory story about three patients with ambiguous identities. Although he never states so to the class, it is eventually revealed that he is one of the patients. In "No Reason," it is slowly revealed that the events portrayed might be House's hallucination rather than reality.[10] House, originally titled as House, M.D., is a critically-acclaimed American medical drama television series created by David Shore and executive produced by Shore and film director Bryan Singer. ... Three Stories is the twenty-first episode of the first season of House, which premiered on the FOX network on May 17, 2005. ... No Reason is the twenty-fourth episode of the second season of House, which premiered on the FOX network on May 23, 2006. ... A hallucination is a sensory perception experienced in the absence of an external stimulus, as distinct from an illusion, which is a misperception of an external stimulus. ...


The television show The Black Donnellys employed an unreliable narrator to tell its story.[11] A television program is the content of television broadcasting. ... This article is about the 2007 NBC Television Program. ...


Video Games

Some video games have used the unreliable narrator, as well. Several entries in the Final Fantasy series, specifically parts 7, 8, and 10 have unreliable narrators. This article is about the Final Fantasy franchise. ... Final Fantasy VII is a video game that was Squaresoft (now Square Enix)s first Final Fantasy game on the PlayStation. ... Final Fantasy VIII is a video game created by Squaresoft (now Square Enix) for the PlayStation and computers. ... Final Fantasy X is the first installment of the Final Fantasy video game series released on the Sony PlayStation 2. ...


Works featuring unreliable narrators

Literature featuring unreliable narrators:

Films with an unreliable point-of-view (or points-of-view): Photo of Martin Amis by Robert Birnbaum Martin Amis (born August 25, 1949) is an English novelist. ... Times Arrow is a two-part episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation that served as a cliffhanger season finale of the fifth season. ... Emily Jane Brontë (July 30, 1818 – December 19, 1848) was a British novelist and poet, now best remembered for her only novel Wuthering Heights, a classic of English literature. ... For other uses, see Wuthering Heights (disambiguation). ... Geoffrey Chaucer (c. ... Canterbury Tales Woodcut 1484 The Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories written by Geoffrey Chaucer in the 14th century (two of them in prose, the rest in verse). ... Wilkie Collins William Wilkie Collins (8 January 1824 – 23 September 1889) was an English novelist, playwright, and writer of short stories. ... For other uses, see Moonstone. ... Mark Danielewski Mark Z. Danielewski is an American author, born in March 5, 1966. ... House of Leaves is the debut novel by the American author writer Mark Z. Danielewski, published by Pantheon Books (ISBN 0-375-70376-4). ... Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Russian: Фёдор Миха́йлович Достое́вский, IPA: , sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky, or Dostoevski  ) (November 11 [O.S. October 30] 1821–February 9 [O.S. January 28] 1881) was a Russian novelist and writer of fiction whose works, including Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov, have had a profound and lasting effect... Notes from Underground (also translated in English as Notes from the Underground or Letters from the Underworld) (1864) is a short novel by Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... Dave Eggers at the 2005 Hay Festival Dave Eggers (born March 12, 1970) is an American writer, editor, and publisher. ... A Heartbreaking Work of Staggering Genius (or AHWoSG) is a memoir by Dave Eggers released in 2000. ... Bret Easton Ellis (born March 7, 1964 in Los Angeles, California) is an American author. ... For other uses, see American Psycho (disambiguation). ... William Cuthbert Faulkner (September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American novelist and poet whose works feature his native state of Mississippi. ... The Sound and the Fury is a Southern Gothic novel written by American author William Faulkner, which makes use of the stream of consciousness narrative technique pioneered by European authors such as James Joyce and Virginia Woolf. ... Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (September 24, 1896 – December 21, 1940) was an American Jazz Age author of novels and short stories. ... The Great Gatsby is a novel by the American author F. Scott Fitzgerald. ... Jonathan Safran Foer This American author is not to be confused with the Australian media personality John Safran. ... This article is about the book. ... Kazuo Ishiguro (カズオ・イシグロ Kazuo Ishiguro, originally 石黒一雄 Ishiguro Kazuo, born November 8, 1954) is a British author of Japanese origin. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Daniel F. Keyes (born August 9, 1927 in Brooklyn, New York City, New York) is an American author best known for his award-winning short story Flowers for Algernon. Keyes was given the Author Emeritus honor by the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America in 2000. ... Flowers for Algernon is a soft science fiction story and play written by Daniel Keyes. ... John Knowles (September 16, 1926 - November 29, 2001), b. ... A Separate Peace (1959) is an award-winning[1] novel written by John Knowles set in the fictional Devon School in New Hampshire during World War II. The book explores the human condition, hate, vengeance, and guilt. ... James Lasdun (born 1958 in London) is a writer and academic who currently lives in upstate New York. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Russian: Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, pronounced ) (April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1899, Saint Petersburg – July 2, 1977, Montreux) was a Russian-American, Academy Award nominated author. ... Penguin Classics edition of Pale Fire Pale Fire (1962) is a novel by Vladimir Nabokov, his fourteenth in total and fifth in English. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... The Tell-Tale Heart is an 1843 short story by Edgar Allan Poe. ... “Proust” redirects here. ... In Search of Lost Time or Remembrance of Things Past (French: À la recherche du temps perdu) is a semi-autobiographical novel in seven volumes by Marcel Proust. ... Thomas Ruggles Pynchon, Jr. ... Mason & Dixon book cover Mason & Dixon, a post-modern novel by Thomas Pynchon first published in 1997, centers on the collaboration of the historical Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon in their astronomical and surveying exploits in Cape Colony, Saint Helena, Great Britain and along the Mason-Dixon line in British... Philip Milton Roth (born March 19, 1933, Newark, New Jersey) is an American novelist. ... Portnoys Complaint book cover Portnoys Complaint (1969) is American writer Philip Roths fourth and, to date, still most popular novel, with many of its characteristics (ribald, comedic prose; themes of sexual desire and sexual frustration; a self-conscious literariness) having gone on to become Roth trademarks. ... Jerome David Salinger (born January 1, 1919) is an American author best known for The Catcher in the Rye, a classic coming-of-age story that has enjoyed enduring popularity since its publication in 1951. ... The Catcher in the Rye is a novel by J. D. Salinger. ... Lemony Snicket is a pseudonym used by author Daniel Handler in his book series A Series of Unfortunate Events, as well as a character in that series. ... This article is about the book series. ... Laurence Sterne Laurence Sterne (November 24, 1713 – March 18, 1768) was an Anglo-Irish novelist and clergyman. ... The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman (or, more briefly, Tristram Shandy) is a novel by Laurence Sterne. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... Mark Twain Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885) by Mark Twain is commonly accounted as one of the first Great American Novels. ... Gene Wolfe (born May 7, 1931, New York, New York) is an American science fiction and fantasy writer. ... The Fifth Head of Cerberus is the title of both a novella and a single-volume collection of three novellas, written by American science fiction and fantasy author Gene Wolfe, both published in 1972. ...

The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (original title: Das Kabinett des Doktor Caligari) is a groundbreaking 1920 silent film directed by Robert Wiene from a screenplay written by Hans Janowitz and Carl Mayer. ... Fight Club (1999) is a film based on the novel Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk. ... Hero (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a Chinese wuxia film, directed by Zhang Yimou with music by Tan Dun. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Memento is a neo-noir–psychological thriller film written and directed by Christopher Nolan, adapted from his brother Jonathans short story Memento Mori. ... Rashomon (羅生門) is a Japanese motion picture made in 1950 by director Akira Kurosawa. ... Total Recall is an American science fiction film released on June 1, 1990 starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, directed by Paul Verhoeven and written by Ronald Shusett, Dan OBannon, Jon Povill and Gary Goldman. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,60-1824513,00.html
  2. ^ http://www.amazon.co.uk/American-Psycho-Bret-Easton-Ellis/dp/033048477X
  3. ^ Martin Horstkotte. "Unreliable Narration and the Fantastic in Kingsley Amis's The Green Man and Nigel Williams's Witchcraft". Extrapolation 48,1 (2007): 137-151.
  4. ^ http://ferdyonfilms.com/2006/12/detour-1945.php
  5. ^ http://www.cinematheque.bc.ca/archives/ffnoso98.html
  6. ^ http://www.film-talk.com/forums/lofiversion/index.php/t14372.html
  7. ^ http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:jhdkyl61xpzb
  8. ^ http://www.turkishdailynews.com.tr/archives.php?id=22208
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ [2]
  11. ^ USA Today, "Violent, unappealing 'The Black Donnellys' revels in stereotypes"
  12. ^ [3]
  13. ^ http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-97074176.html
  14. ^ Sarah Webster. When Writer Becomes Celebrity. The Oxonian Review of Books, Vol. 5, No. 2 (spring 2006) [4]
  15. ^ Thomas E. Boyle. Unreliable Narration in "The Great Gatsby". The Bulletin of the Rocky Mountain Modern Language Association, Vol. 23, No. 1 (Mar., 1969), pp. 21-26 [5]
  16. ^ Mudge, Alden. "Ishiguro takes a literary approach to the detective novel." [6]
  17. ^ [7]
  18. ^ [8]
  19. ^ http://poeticstoday.dukejournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/25/1/91
  20. ^ a b c d e The Guardian, "A legitimate artistic gambit", Saturday January 27, 2007
  21. ^ Interview with Gene Wolfe Conducted by Lawrence Person
  22. ^ Ferenz, Volker, "Fight Clubs, American Psychos and Mementos," New Review of Film and Television Studies, Vol. 3, No. 2 (01 November 2005), pp. 133-159, (link, accessed 05 March 2007, reg. required).
  23. ^ Hero review in the Montreal Film Journal

  Results from FactBites:
 
Narrative Theory, by Ismail S Talib -- Chapter 7: The Narrator (3782 words)
The first-person narrator may be unreliable: in fact s/he usually is, as he or she is supposed to be a human being (and hence fallible), and not, like the third-person narrator, merely a technical device.
Although figural narration (see section 4) is clearly a feature of the objective third-person narration, it is is also associated, to some extent, with the limited third-person narrator, as it generally uses the pronoun ‘I’ to refer to itself less frequently than the omniscient third-person narrator.
In the words of Margaret Drabble, who uses the intrusive narrator herself in her novels, ‘the narrator is part of the story and can intervene whenever he or she wants’.
Narrator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1938 words)
This style of narrator is similar to the first person narrator, except for the notable use of the third person pronouns, he, she and it.
An unreliable narrator is a force behind the power of first person narratives, and provides the only unbiased clues about the character of the narrator.
To some extent all narrators are unreliable, varying in degree from trust-worthy Ishmael in Moby Dick to the severely retarded Benjy in The Sound and the Fury and the criminal Humbert Humbert in Lolita.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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