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Encyclopedia > University of Siena
University of Siena
Università degli Studi di Siena

Established: 1240
Type: State-supported
Rector: Silvano Focardi
Students: 20,000
Location: Siena, Italy
Sports teams: CUS Siena (http://www.unisi.it/servizi/cus/)
Affiliations: Coimbra Group
Website: www.unisi.it/

The University of Siena (Italian: Università degli Studi di Siena, abbreviation: UNISI) in Siena, Tuscany is one of the oldest and first publicly funded universities in Italy. Originally called Studium Senese, the University of Siena was founded in 1240. The University has around 20,000 students[1], nearly half of Siena's total population of around 54,000. Today, the University of Siena is best known for its Schools of Law and Medicine. The date of establishment or date of founding of an institution is the date on which that institution chooses to claim as its starting point. ... Events Batu Khan and the Golden Horde sack the Ruthenian city of Kyiv Births Pope Benedict XI Deaths April 11 - Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, also known as Llywelyn The Great Prince of Gwynedd Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile... The word rector (ruler, from the Latin regere) has a number of different meanings, but all of them indicate someone who is in charge of something. ... For other uses, see Student (disambiguation). ... For the Catholic Liberal Arts College in New York, see Siena College. ... The Coimbra Group (CG) is a network of European universities that gathers 38 universities, some of which are among the oldest and most prestigious in Europe. ... A website (alternatively, web site or Web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or more web servers, usually accessible via the Internet. ... For the Catholic Liberal Arts College in New York, see Siena College. ... For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation). ... For the Catholic Liberal Arts College in New York, see Siena College. ...

Contents

History

The early studium

Pietro Ispano (Pope John XXI)
Pietro Ispano (Pope John XXI)

On December 26, 1240, Ildebrandino Cacciaconti, the then podestà of Siena, signed a decree imposing a tax on citizens of Siena who rented rooms to students of the local "Studium Senese". The money from this tax went to pay for the salaries of the maestri (teachers) of this new studium[2]. The studium was further supported when, in 1252, Pope Innocent IV declared both its teachers and students completely immune from taxes and forced labour levied on their person or property by the city of Siena[3]. Moreover, the commune exempted teachers of law and Latin from military service and teachers of Latin were also excused from their duties as night watchmen. By the early 14th century, there were five teachers of Latin, logic and law and two doctors of natural sciences (medicine)[4]. Image File history File links B_Johannes_XXI.jpg Summary H.H. Pope John XXI Licensing This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... Image File history File links B_Johannes_XXI.jpg Summary H.H. Pope John XXI Licensing This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... Events Batu Khan and the Golden Horde sack the Ruthenian city of Kyiv Births Pope Benedict XI Deaths April 11 - Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, also known as Llywelyn The Great Prince of Gwynedd Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile... The Palace of the Podestà in Florence, known as the Palazzo Vecchio or the Palazzo della Signoria Podestà is the name given to certain high officials in many Italian cities, since the later middle ages, mainly as Chief magistrate of a city state (like otherwise styled counterparts in other cities... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Innocent IV, né Sinibaldo de Fieschi ( 1180/90 - December 7, 1254), pope from 1243 to 1254, belonged to one of the first families of Genoa, and, educated at Parma and Bologna, passed for one of the best canonists of his time. ...


One of the most notable maestri of the School of Medicine was Pietro Ispano (Pope John XXI). Ispano was an illustrious philosopher, personal doctor to Emperor Frederick II, and in 1276 became Pope John XXI. Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... John XXI, né Petrus Juliani (1215 - May 20, 1277), a Portuguese also called Pedro Hispano, was Pope from 1276 until his death. ...


In 1321, the studium was able to attract a larger number or pupils due to a mass exodus from the prestigious neighbouring University of Bologna when one of its students was sentenced to death by Bologna's magistrates for supposedly kidnapping a young woman. Partly at the instigation of their law lecturer Guglielmo Tolomei, the student body there unleashed a great protest at the Bolognese authority and Siena, supported by generous funding from the local commune, was able to accommodate the students resigning from the Studium Bolongese. Events Births September 29 - John of Artois, Count of Eu, French soldier (d. ... The University of Bologna (Italian: , UNIBO) is the oldest continually operating degree-granting university in the world, and the second biggest university in Italy. ...


The university under changing states

The studium of Siena was eventually promoted to the status of "Studium Generale" by Charles IV, shortly after his coronation as Holy Roman Emperor in 1355[5]. This both placed the teachers and students under the safeguard of the imperial authority (protecting them from the local magistracy) and also meant that the licences (licentiae docendi) granted by the university were licences ubique docendi. These licences entitled the person receiving them to teach throughout Christendom[6]. Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Events January 7 - Portuguese king Afonso IV sends three men to kill Ines de Castro, beloved of his son prince Pedro - Pedro revolts and incites a civil war. ...


The Casa della Sapienza was built in the early 1400s as a center combining classrooms and housing for those enrolled in the Studium. It had been proposed by bishop Mormille in 1392, was completed twenty years later, and its first occupants took up residence in 1416. Room and board in 1416 cost fifty gold florins for a semester[2]. Events December 16 - Emperor Go-Kameyama of Japan abdicates in favor of rival claimant Go-Komatsu, ending the nanboku-cho period of competing imperial courts James of Jülich is boiled alive for pretending to be a bishop and ordaining his own priests Korean founder of the Joseon Dynasty General... May 30 - The Catholic Church burns Jerome of Prague as a heretic. ...


By the mid-14th century, Siena had declined as a power in Tuscany, eclipsed by the rise in power of Florence, who successfully defeated the Republic of Siena in 1555. The city authorities, however, successfully asked the Medici (the hereditary dukes of Florence at the time) to preserve the academy. Francesco and later Grand Duke Ferdinando I, reforms were made with new statutes and new preogatives. The post of Rettore (Rector), elected by students and city magistrates, was also instituted. For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation). ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... For the board game, see Medici (board game). ...


In 1737, the Medici line became extinct and the rule of Tuscany passed to the French House of Lorraine. In this period, the Tuscan economist Sallustio Bandini, seemingly determined to "improve the intellectual stimulation of his native Siena" solicited scholarships from rich patrons for the university and also set up a large library, which he eventually bequeathed to the university[7]. Events 12 February — The San Carlo, the oldest working opera house in Europe, is inaugurated. ... The Duchy of Lorraine was an independent state for most of the period of time between 843 to 1739. ...


In 1808, when the Napoleonic forces occupied Tuscany, they eliminated the Studium Senese and the doors of the University were not opened again until after the defeat of Napoleon and the restoration of Ferdinand III as the Grand Duke of Tuscany[2]. Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany. ...


The university in the Risorgimento

During the Risorgimento, the movement towards the unification of Italy as a single state, Sienese students organised groups which were openly patriotic. They publicly expressed their dissent and, during the April of the 1848 revolts in Tuscany, three professors, one assistant and fifty-five students formed the Compagnia della Guardia Universitaria to participate in the battles of Curtatone and of Montanara. The troop’s flag is still preserved in the Chancellor’s building. All of this passion for the new republic could not but trouble the Grand Duke and in the end he closed down the School of Medicine permitting only Law and Theology to continue[2] Italian unification, also known as Risorgimento (resurrection), was a historical process by which the Kingdom of Sardinia (ruled by the Savoy dynasty with Turin as its capital) gradually conquered the Italian peninsula, including the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Duchy of Modena, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Duchy... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


After the Second Italian War of Independence in 1859 and its aftermath, Tuscany and with it Siena were controlled by the Kingdom of Sardinia, which was to become the Kingdom of Italy. The Sienese academy eventually recovered from the uprest, thanks to initiatives by the city’s private enterprises and a series of legislative acknowledgements that boosted the reputation of the School of Pharmacy and that of Obstetrics (and consequently the School of Medicine itself) while the old hospital Santa Maria della Scala was transformed into General University Hospital. Some time later in 1880, the Law Faculty established the Circolo Giuridico or Legal Circle, where issues pertaining to law studies were examined in depth through seminars and lectures[2] Combatants Second French Empire Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia Austrian Empire Commanders Napoleon III Victor Emmanuel II Giuseppe Garibaldi Ferencz Graf Gyulai Franz Josef I Strength 206,000 242,000 The Second War of Italian Independence, Franco-Austrian War, or Austro-Sardinian War was fought by Napoleon III of France and... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Kingdom of Sardinia, in 1839: Mainland Piedmont with Savoy, Nice, and Sardinia in the inset. ... There have been several entities known as the Kingdom of Italy. ... For other uses, see Pharmacy (disambiguation). ... Obstetrics (from the Latin obstare, to stand by) is the surgical specialty dealing with the care of a woman and her offspring during pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium (the period shortly after birth). ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The university in modern Italy

In 1892 the Minister of Public Education, Ferdinando Martini, launched a proposal aimed at suppressing the Sienese academy’s activities. Siena perceived this as a declaration of war and was backed immediately by a general tradesmen’s strike, the intervention of all of the town’s institutions and by a genuine uprising of the population – all of which induced to minister to withdraw the project. Having escaped this danger, the town went back to investing its resources in the university setting up new degrees and new faculties. The bank Monte dei Paschi di Siena financed the construction of the biology department[2]. Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena SPA is perhaps the oldest surviving bank in the world. ...


The 19th century witnessed the constant growth of the University of Siena, with the student population escalating from four hundred between the wars to more than 20 thousand in the last few years[2][1]


During the start of the academic year, on November 7th, 1990 the Sienese academy celebrated its 750th anniversary.


Notable students, alumni and faculty

Francesco Accarigi (Macerata, Italy, c. ...

Organization

The University is composed of 9 Schools:

In Siena there are no borders delineating the world of the city and that of the university. The Anglo-Saxon model of "university" as a "city within a city," in some way detached from the community in which it stands, does not portray the situation here. Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... For other uses, see Humanities (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Humanities (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Arezzo (Latin Arretium) is an old city in central Italy, capital of the province of the same name, located in Tuscany. ... For the jurisprudence of courts, see Case law. ... Wikibooks Wikiversity has more about this subject: School of Mathematics Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: Mathematics Look up Mathematics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Wikimedia Commons has more media related to: Mathematics Bogomolny, Alexander: Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... The Michelson–Morley experiment was used to disprove that light propagated through a luminiferous aether. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Pharmacy (disambiguation). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... For the Catholic Liberal Arts College in New York, see Siena College. ...


Siena’s campus is the city. The academy lives as an integral part of the urban fabric in both space and time. Thus there is an uneasy equilibrium between city and university, where 20 thousand students lived among the 50 thousand Sienese. While the Sienese are proud of their native traditions, the more polyglot university prides itself on diversity, with which as the historian Guicciardini would put it, non havvi genio - there is no genius. For the Catholic Liberal Arts College in New York, see Siena College. ... Guicciardini Francesco Guicciardini (March 6, 1483 - May 22, 1540), Italian historian and statesman. ...


Recently, the University has returned historical buildings to the city, which are being made into apartments or used by the contradas. At the same time, it is thanks to the intervention of the University that many buildings which risked falling into ruin were saved, making institutions of study out of a part of the city patrimony that might have otherwise been lost. The Faculties of Engineering and Literature, for example, have found space for their departments in the large rooms of what was once the San Niccolò Psychiatric Hospital. The same holds true for the transformation of the former Convent of Santa Chiara into the first collegiate residence in Italy, reserved for those working towards a European postgraduate degree. Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ...


New university buildings have even been built in the city centre such as the one that houses the Faculty of Political Science and Law, whose architectural style blends with the secular surroundings creating a balance between preservation and innovation. The ten university dormitories are adapted to the urban fabric and are located within the historical centre (Fontebranda, Porrione, Sperandie, San Marco), on the outskirts (Acquacalda) and near the extended areas of the university (San Miniato). The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ...


Points of interest

Inside the United States Botanic Garden Washington, D.C. Botanical gardens grow a wide variety of plants primarily categorized and documented for scientific purposes. ...

See also

The Coimbra Group (CG) is a network of European universities that gathers 38 universities, some of which are among the oldest and most prestigious in Europe. ... This is a list of Italian universities. ... For the Catholic Liberal Arts College in New York, see Siena College. ...

External links

  • University of Siena Website (Italian) (English)
  • Siena University Forum
  • Siena OnLine - University (Italian) (English)
  • "University of Siena". Catholic Encyclopedia. (1913). New York: Robert Appleton Company. 

Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Rapporto Nucleo di Valutazione 2006: Studenti e Carriere - POPOLAZIONE STUDENTESCA. Università degli Studi di Siena. Retrieved on 2008-04-05.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Short Story of University of Siena: 760 years of history. Università degli Studi di Siena. Retrieved on 2008-04-05.
  3. ^ de Ridder-Symoens, Universities in the Middle Ages. p93
  4. ^ Waley, Siena and the Sienese in the thirteenth century. p159
  5. ^ de Ridder-Symoens, Universities in the Middle Ages. p.97
  6. ^ de Ridder-Symoens, Universities in the Middle Ages. p36
  7. ^ Wahnbaeck, Luxury and public happiness. p96

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • de Ridder-Symoens, Hilde: A History of the University in Europe, Volume 1: Universities in the Middle Ages. Cambridge University Press, 1992 ISBN 0-521-54113-1
  • Waley, Daniel: Siena and the Sienese in the thirteenth century. Cambridge University Press, 1991 ISBN 0-521-40312-X
  • Wahnbaeck, Till: Luxury and Public Happiness: Political Economy in the Italian Enlightenment Oxford University Press, 2004 ISBN 0-199-26983-1

  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: University of Siena (506 words)
After Siena had come under the Medici, these princes used every effort to promote its prosperity.
I gave to the university a new organization, and increased the number of chairs.
At present the university of Siena belongs to the so-called free universities; it has only the two
University of Siena (719 words)
He granted the "University of Masters and Doctors regent at Siena and of their scholars studying in the same" together with their bedels an exemption from certain city taxes, and appointed the bishop as their conservator.
Medicine and the natural sciences claim renowned devotees at Siena, such as the Camaldolese Francesco Pifferi, the mathematician Teofilo Gallaccini, the botanist Pirro Maria Gabrielli, founder of the Academic Fisiocritica, and particularly should be mentioned Michelangelo Mori and Ottavio Nerucci, the mathematicians Pistoi and Bartaloni, and the botanist Bartalini.
At present the university of Siena belongs to the so-called free universities; it has only the two faculties of law and medicine, with a school of pharmacy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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