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Encyclopedia > University of Paris
The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving
The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving

The historic University of Paris (French: Université de Paris) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). The university is often referred to as the Sorbonne or La Sorbonne after the collegiate institution (Collège de Sorbonne) founded about 1257 by Robert de Sorbon, but the university as such is older and was never completely centred on the Sorbonne. Of the 13 current successor universities, the first four have a presence in Sorbonne, and three include Sorbonne in their names. The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving Image uploaded by ChrisO This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving Image uploaded by ChrisO This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The Sorbonne today, from the same point of view The Collège de Sorbonne was a theological college of the University of Paris, founded in 1257 by Robert de Sorbon, after whom it is named. ... Robert de Sorbon (October 9, 1201 – August 15, 1274) was a French theologian and founder of the Sorbonne college in Paris. ...


The 13 universities still stand under a common chancellor, the Rector of the Académie of Paris, with offices in the Sorbonne. As of 2006, the Rector of the Academy of Paris and Chancellor of the Universities of Paris is Maurice Quénet. The Vice-Chancellor of the Universities of Paris is Pierre Gregory. [1] [2]. The word rector (ruler, from the Latin regere) has a number of different meanings. ...


The University of Paris remains one of the most famous and prestigious of universities in the world, having produced Nobel Prize winners from its faculty and student body, as well as a number of the greatest intellectuals, political theorists, scientists, physicians, theologians, and artists of the Western tradition and canon.

The Sorbonne today, from the same point of view
The Sorbonne today, from the same point of view

Contents

Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 1024 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 1024 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Origin and early organisation

Similarly to the other of the earliest medieval universities (University of Bologna, University of Oxford), but in opposition to later ones (such as the University of Prague or the University of Heidelberg), the University of Paris was never established through a specific foundation act, such as a royal charter or papal bull. It grew up in the latter part of the 12th century around the Notre Dame Cathedral as a corporation similar to other medieval corporations, such as guilds of merchants or artisans. The medieval Latin term universitas actually had the more general meaning of a guild, and the university of Paris was known as a universitas magistrorum et scholarium (a guild of masters and scholars). The first European medieval institutions generally considered to be universities were established in Italy, France, and England in the late 11th and the 12th centuries for the study of arts, law, medicine, and theology. ... The University of Bologna (Italian Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, UNIBO) is the oldest continually operating degree-granting university in the world, and the second biggest university in Italy. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The Charles University of Prague (also simply University of Prague; Czech: Univerzita Karlova; Latin: Universitas Carolina) is the oldest and most prestigious Czech university and among the oldest universities in Europe, being founded in 1340s (for the exact year, see below). ... The Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg (German Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; also known as simply University of Heidelberg) was established in the town of Heidelberg in the Rhineland in 1386. ... A Royal Charter is a charter given by a monarch to legitimize an incorporated body, such as a city, company, university or such. ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Notre Dame de Paris, Western Façade. ... A corporation is a legal person which, while being composed of natural persons, exists completely separately from them. ... A guild is an association of people of the same trade or pursuits (with a similar skill or craft), formed to protect mutual interests and maintain standards of workmanship and ethical conduct. ...


The university had four faculties: Arts; Medicine; Law; and Theology. The Faculty of Arts was the lowest in rank, but also the largest as students had to graduate there to be admitted to one of the higher faculties. The students there were divided into four nationes according to language or regional origin, those of France, Normandy, Picard, and England, the last one of which later came to be known as the Alemannian (German) nation. Recruitment to each nation was wider than the names might imply and the English-German nation in fact included students from Scandinavia and Eastern Europe. A faculty is a division within a university. ... The Arts is a broad subdivision of culture, comprised of many expressive disciplines. ... This article is about the field and science of medical practice and health care. ... Weighing scales represent the way law balances peoples interests For other senses of this word, see Law (disambiguation). ... Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason) means reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God. ...


Along with the University of Bologna, the faculty and nation system of the University of Paris became the model for all later medieval universities.


The original schools

Three schools were especially famous at Paris, the palatine or palace school, the school of Notre-Dame, and that of Sainte-Geneviève. The decline of royalty inevitably brought about the decline of the first. The other two, which were very old, like those of the cathedrals and the abbeys, are only faintly outlined during the early centuries of their existence. The glory of the palatine school doubtless eclipsed theirs, until in the course of time it completely gave way to them. These two centres were much frequented and many of their masters were esteemed for their learning. Sainte-Geneviève can refer to: Saint Genevieve (419/422-512), the patron of Paris. ...

It is not until the tenth century, however, that we meet with a professor of renown in the school of Ste-Geneviève. This was Hubold, who, not content with the courses at Liège, came to continue his studies at Paris, entered or allied himself with the chapter of Ste-Geneviève, and by his teaching attracted many pupils. Recalled by his bishop to Belgium, he soon profited by a second journey to Paris to give lessons with no less success. As to the school of Notre-Dame, while many of its masters are mentioned simply as having been professors at Paris, in its later history we meet with a number of distinguished names: in the eleventh century, Lambert, disciple of Filbert of Chartres; Drogo of Paris; Manegold of Germany; Anselm of Laon. These two schools, attracting scholars from every country, produced many illustrious men, among whom were: St. Stanislaus of Szczepanów, Bishop of Kraków; Gebbard, Archbishop of Salzburg; St. Stephen, third Abbot of Cîteaux; Robert d'Arbrissel, founder of the Abbey of Fontevrault etc. The honour of having formed similar pupils is indiscriminately ascribed to Notre-Dame and to Ste-Geneviève, as Claude du Molinet has justly remarked (Bibl. Sainte-Geneviève, MS.H. fr. 21, in fol., p. 576). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2032x1391, 442 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): University of Paris Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2032x1391, 442 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): University of Paris Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Anselm of Laon (died 1117) was a French theologian. ... StanisÅ‚aw Szczepanowski or Stanislaus of Szczepanów (July 26, 1030 – April 11?, 1079) was a bishop of Kraków known mostly for having been slain by King Boleslaus the Bold. ... A painting commemorating the 1111 founding of the monastery of Citeaux, showing saints Robert, Alberic, and Stephen Harding venerating the Blessed Virgin Mary. ... Robert of Arbrissel (c. ... Fontevraud Abbey Chapel. ...


Humanistic instruction comprised grammar, rhetoric, dialectics, arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy (trivium and quadrivium). To the higher instruction belonged dogmatic and moral theology, whose source was the Scriptures and the Fathers, and which was completed by the study of Canon law. Three men were to add a new splendour to the schools of Notre-Dame and Ste-Geneviève, namely William of Champeaux, Abelard, and Peter Lombard. A new school arose which rivalled those of Notre-Dame and Ste-Geneviève. It owed its foundation to the same William of Champeaux when he withdrew to the Abbey of St-Victor and it took the name of that abbey. Two men shed special radiance on this school, Hugh and Richard, who added to their own names that of the abbey at which they were religious and professors. Grammar is the study of rules governing the use of language. ... Rhetoric (from Greek ρήτωρ, rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is the art or technique of persuasion, usually through the use of language. ... Broadly speaking, a dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is an exchange of propositions (theses) and counter-propositions (antitheses) resulting in a disagreement. ... Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek word αριθμός = number) is the oldest and simplest branch of mathematics, used by almost everyone, for tasks ranging from simple daily counting to advanced science and business calculations. ... Table of Geometry, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Music is a form of art and entertainment or other human activity that involves organized and audible sounds and silence. ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant. ... The trivium is a theory of education. ... The quadrivium comprised the four subjects taught in medieval universities after the trivium. ... DOGMATIC THEOLOGY, the name usually given in modern times to the systematic study of Christian doctrine or of dogma in the widest sense possible. ... Ethics is a branch of philosophy dealing with right and wrong in human behaviour. ... Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Guillaume de Champeaux (c. ... Pierre Abélard (in English, Peter Abelard) or Abailard (1079 - April 21, 1142) was a French scholastic philosopher. ... Peter Lombard (c. ... Hugh is a masculine name. ... Look up Richard, richard in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The plan of studies expanded in the schools of Paris as it did elsewhere. The great work of a monk of Bologna, known as the "Decretum Gratiani", brought about a division of the science of theology. Hitherto the discipline of the Church had not been separate from theology properly so-called; they were studied together under the same professor. But this vast collection necessitated a special course, which was naturally undertaken first at Bologna, where Roman law was taught. In France, first Orléans and then Paris erected chairs of canon law, which except at Paris were usually also chairs of civil law. The capital of the kingdom might thus boast of this new professorate, that of the "Decretum Gratiani", to which before the end of the twelfth century were added the Decretals of Gerard (or Girard) La Pucelle, Mathieu d'Angers, and Anselm (or Anselle) of Paris, but civil law was not included. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Decretum Gratiani is a collection of canon law written around 1140 by Gratian. ... Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome. ... Orléans Cathedral, dedicated to the Holy Cross, built from 1278 to 1329; after being pillaged by Huguenots in the 1560s, the Bourbon kings restored it in the 17th century. ... The Decretum Gratiani is a collection of canon law written around 1140 by Gratian. ... Decretals (Epistolae decretales) is the name that is given in Canon Law to those letters of the pope which formulate decisions in ecclesiastical law. ... Gerard (Girard) La Pucelle (c. ... Civil law is the predominant system of law in the world, with its origins in Roman law, and sets out a comprehensive system of rules, usually codified, that are applied and interpreted by judges. ...


In the course of the twelfth century, medicine also began to be publicly taught at Paris. A professor of medicine is mentioned in this city at this time, namely Hugo, "physicus excellens qui quadrivium docuit", and it is to be assumed that this science was included in his teaching. (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... This article is about the field and science of medical practice and health care. ...


For the right to teach, two things were necessary, knowledge and appointment. Knowledge was proved by examination, the appointment came from the examiner himself, who was the head of the school, and was known as scholasticus, capiscol, and eventually as "chancellor". This was called the licence or faculty to teach. Without this authorization there was danger of the chairs being occupied by ignorant persons, whom John of Salisbury depicts as "children yesterday, masters to-day; yesterday receiving strokes of the ferrule, to-day teaching in a long gown" (Metalogicus, I, xxv in init.). The licence had to be granted gratuitously. Without it no one could teach; on the other hand, it could not be refused when the applicant deserved it. To examine somebody or something is to inspect it closely, hence an examination is a detailed inspection or analysis of an object or person. ... John of Salisbury (c. ...

The School of St-Victor, which shared the obligations as well as the immunities of the abbey, conferred the licence in its own right; the school of Notre-Dame depended on the diocese, that of Ste-Geneviève on the abbey or chapter. It was the diocese and the abbey or chapter which through their chancellor gave professorial investiture in their respective territories, i. e. the diocese in the city intra pontes and other places subject to the ordinary, the abbey or chapter on the left bank of the river as far as its jurisdiction reached. Consequently, as du Molinet explains, it was incumbent on the chancellor of Notre-Dame and Ste-Geneviève to examine "those who applied to teach in the schools", to "license after study those who sought to be masters and regents" (op. cit., 585). Besides these three centres of learning there were several schools on the "Island" and on the "Mount". "Whoever", says Crevier "had the right to teach might open a school where he pleased, provided it was not in the vicinity of a principal school". Thus a certain Adam, who was of English origin, kept his "near the Petit Pont"; another Adam, Parisian by birth, "taught at the Grand Pont which is called the Pont-au-Change" (Hist. de l'Univers. de Paris, I, 272). Image File history File linksMetadata Lasorbonne_photo2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Lasorbonne_photo2. ... Palais de Justice, Conciergerie and Pont au Change around 1900 The Pont au Change is a bridge over the Seine River in Paris, France. ...


The number of students in the school of the capital grew constantly, so that eventually the lodgings were insufficient. Among the French students there were princes of the blood, sons of the nobility, and the most distinguished youths of the kingdom. The courses at Paris were considered so necessary as a completion of studies that many foreigners flocked to them. Popes Celestine II and Adrian IV had studied at Paris, Alexander III sent his nephews there, and, under the name of Lothaire, a scion of the noble family of Seigny, who was later to rule the Church as Innocent III, belonged to the student body. Otto of Freisingen, Cardinal Conrad, Archbishop of Mainz, St. Thomas of Canterbury, and John of Salisbury were among the most illustrious sons of Germany and England in the schools of Paris; while Ste-Geneviève became practically the seminary for Denmark. The chroniclers of the time call Paris the city of letters par excellence, placing it above Athens, Alexandria, Rome, and other cities: "At that time", we read in the "Chroniques de St-Denis", "there flourished at Paris philosophy and all branches of learning, and there the seven arts were studied and held in such esteem as they never were at Athens, Egypt, Rome, or elsewhere in the world" ("Les gestes de Philippe-Auguste"). Poets said the same thing in their verses, and they compared it to all that was greatest, noblest, and most valuable in the world. Celestine II, born Guido di Castello (d. ... Pope Adrian IV (c. ... Alexander III, né Orlando Bandinelli (c. ... Innocent III, born Lotario de Conti di Segni (Gavignano, near Anagni, ca. ... Otto of Freising (c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... John of Salisbury (c. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2005 est. ... City of Athens Seal Athens (Greek: Αθήνα, Athína IPA: ) is the capital and largest city of Greece. ... Alexandria Modern Alexandria. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 8th century BC Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1,285 km²  (496. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...

The sorbonne covered in snow
The sorbonne covered in snow

To maintain order among the students and define the relations of the professors, organization was necessary. It had its beginnings, and it developed as circumstances permitted or required. Three features in this organization may be noted: first, the professors formed an association, for according to Matthew Paris, John of Celles, twenty-first Abbot of St Albans, England, was admitted as a member of the teaching corps of Paris after he had followed the courses (Vita Joannis I, XXI, abbat. S. Alban). Again, the masters as well as the students were divided according to provinces, for as the same historian states, Henry II, King of England, in his difficulties with St. Thomas of Canterbury, wished to submit his cause to a tribunal composed of professors of Paris, chosen from various provinces (Hist. major, Henry II, to end of 1169). This was probably the germ of that division according to "nations" which was later to play an important part in the university. Lastly, mention must be made of the privileges then enjoyed by the professors and students. In virtue of a decision of Celestine III, they were amenable only to the ecclesiastical courts. Other decisions dispensed them from residence in case they possessed benefices and permitted them to receive their revenues. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (480x640, 125 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): University of Paris Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (480x640, 125 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): University of Paris Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Self portrait of Matthew Paris from a manuscript of his chronicle (London, British Library, MS Royal 14. ... Abbey gateway St Albans Abbey was an abbey at St Albans, Hertfordshire, England, dissolved in 1539 during the Dissolution of the Monasteries. ... Henry II of England (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, and as King of England (1154–1189) and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland[citation needed], eastern Ireland, and western France. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ...


These three schools of Notre-Dame, Ste-Geneviève, and St-Victor may be regarded as the triple cradle of the Universitas scholarium, which included masters and students; hence the name University. Such is the common and more probable opinion. Heinrich Denifle and some others hold that this honour must be reserved to the school of Notre-Dame (Chartularium Universitatis Parisiensis), but the reasons do not seem convincing. He excludes St-Victor because, at the request of the abbot and the religious of St-Victor, Gregory IX in 1237 authorized them to resume the interrupted teaching of theology. But the university was in large part founded about 1208, as is shown by a Bull of Innocent III. Consequently the schools of St-Victor might well have furnished their contingent towards its formation. Secondly, Denifle excludes the schools of Ste-Geneviève because there had been no interruption in the teaching of the liberal arts. Now this is far from proved, and moreover, it seems incontestable that theology also had never ceased to be taught, which is sufficient for our point. Besides, the rôle of the chancellor of Ste-Geneviève in the university cannot be explained by the new opinion; he continued to give degrees in arts, a function which would have ceased for him when the university was organized if his abbey had no share in its organization. And while the name Universitas scholarium is quite intelligible on the basis of the common opinion, it is incompatible with the recent (Denifle's) view, according to which there would have been schools outside the university. Events Philip of Swabia King of Germany and rival Holy Roman Emperor to Otto IV, assassinated June 21 in Bamberg by German Count Otto of Wittelsbach because Philip had refused to give him his daughter in marriage. ...


Organisation in the Thirteenth century

As completing the work of organization the diploma of Philip Augustus and the statutes of Robert de Courçon are worthy of note. The king's diploma was given "for the security of the scholars of Paris", and in virtue of it from the year 1200 the students were subject only to ecclesiastical jurisdiction. Hence the provost and other officers were forbidden to arrest a student for any offence, and if in exceptional cases this was done it was only to hand over the culprit to ecclesiastical authority, for in the event of grave crime royal justice was limited to taking cognizance of the procedure and the verdict. In no case could the king's officers lay hands on the head of the schools or even on a simple regent, this being allowed only in virtue of a mandate proceeding from ecclesiastical authority. The statutes of the Apostolic legate are later by some years, bearing the date 1215. They had for their object the moral or intellectual part of the instruction. They dealt with three principal points, the conditions of the professorate, the matter to be treated, and the granting of the licence. To teach the arts it was necessary to have reached the age of twenty-one, after having studied these arts at least six years, and to take an engagement as professor for at least two years. For a chair in theology the candidate had to be thirty years of age with eight years of theological studies, of which the last three years were at the same time devoted to special courses of lectures in preparation for the mastership. These studies had to be made in the local schools and under the direction of a master, for at Paris one was not regarded as a scholar unless he had a particular master. Lastly, purity of morals was not less requisite than learning. Priscian's "Grammar", Aristotle's "Dialectics", mathematics, astronomy, music, certain books of rhetoric and philosophy were the subjects taught in the arts course; to these might be added the Ethics of the Stagyrite and the fourth book of the Topics. But it was forbidden to read the books of Aristotle on Metaphysics and Physics, or abbreviations of them. The licence was granted, according to custom, gratuitously, without oath or condition. Masters and students were permitted to unite, even by oath, in defence of their rights, when they could not otherwise obtain justice in serious matters. No mention is made either of law or of medicine, probably because these sciences were less prominent. Philip II (French: Philippe II), called Philip Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste) (August 21, 1165 - July 14, 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223. ...


A denial of justice by the queen brought about in 1229 a suspension of the courses (see University of Paris strike of 1229). Appeal was taken to the pope who intervened in the same year by a Bull which began with a eulogy of the university. "Paris", said Gregory IX, "mother of the sciences, is another Cariath-Sepher, city of letters". He compared it to a laboratory in which wisdom tested the metals which she found there, gold and silver to adorn the Spouse of Jesus Christ, iron to fashion the spiritual sword which should smite the inimical powers. He commissioned the Bishops of Le Mans and Senlis and the Archdeacon of Châlons to negotiate with the French Court for the restoration of the university. The year 1230 came to an end without any result, and Gregory IX took the matter directly in hand by a Bull of 1231 addressed to the masters and scholars of Paris. Not content with settling the dispute and giving guarantees for the future, he sanctioned and developed the concessions of Robert de Cour on by empowering the university to frame statutes concerning the discipline of the schools, the method of instruction, the defence of theses, the costume of the professors, and the obsequies of masters and students. What was chiefly important was that the pope recognized in the university or granted it the right, in case justice were denied it, to suspend its courses until it should receive full satisfaction. It must be borne in mind that in the schools of Paris not only was the granting of licence gratuitous but instruction also was free. This was the general rule; however, it was often necessary to depart from it. Thus Pierre Le Mangeur was authorized by the pope to levy a moderate fee for the conferring of the licence. Similar fees were exacted for the first degree in arts and letters, and the scholars were taxed two sous weekly, to be deposited in the common fund. In 1229, a student riot at the University of Paris resulted in the deaths of a number of students, and the student strike in protest which followed lasted more than two years and led to a number of reforms of the medieval university. ...


The Rector

The university was organized as follows: at the head of the teaching body was a rector. The office was elective and of short duration. At first it was limited to four or six weeks. Simon de Brion, legate of the Holy See in France, rightly judging that such frequent changes caused serious inconvenience, decided that the rectorate should last three months, and this rule was observed for three years. Then the term was lengthened to one, two, and sometimes three years. The right of election belonged to the procurators of the four nations. The word rector (ruler, from the Latin regere) has a number of different meanings. ... Martin IV, né Simon de Brion ( 1210 - March 28, 1285), held the papacy from February 21, 1281 until 1285. ... A procurator is the incumbent of any of several current and historical political or legal offices. ...


The four nations

The "Nations" appeared in the second half of the twelfth century; they were mentioned in the Bull of Honorius III in 1222 and in another of Gregory IX in 1231; later they formed a distinct body. In 1249 the four nations existed with their procurators, their rights (more or less well-defined), and their keen rivalries; and in 1254, in the heat of the controversy between the university and the mendicant orders, a letter was addressed to the pope bearing the seals of the four nations. These were the French, English, Normans, and Picards. After the Hundred Years' War the English nation was replaced by the Germanic or German. The four nations constituted the faculty of arts or letters. The expression faculty, though of ancient usage, did not have in the beginning its present American English meaning; it then indicated a division by subject within the university (as it still does in British English). In a Bull of Gregory IX the word is used to designate the professional body, and it may have had the same meaning in a university Act of 1221 (cf. "Hist. Universitatis Parisiensis", III, 106). Honorius III, né Cencio Savelli (b. ... Gregory IX, born Ugolino di Conti ( 1143–August 22, 1241), pope from 1227 to 1241, the successor of Honorius III, fully inherited the traditions of Gregory VII and of his uncle Innocent III, and zealously perpetuated their policy of Papal supremacy. ... The Mendicant (or Begging) Orders are religious orders which depend directly on the charity of the people for their livelihood. ... The seven liberal arts – Picture from the Hortus deliciarum of Herrad von Landsberg (12th century) The term liberal arts has come to mean studies that are intended to provide general knowledge and intellectual skills, rather than more specialized occupational or professional skills. ... English language spread in the United States. ... Diagram showing the geographical locations of selected languages and dialects of the British Isles. ... Papal Arms of Pope Gregory IX. Gregory IX, né Ugolino di Conti (Anagni, ca. ...


Faculties

If the natural division of the schools of Paris into nations arose from the native countries of the students, the classification of knowledge must quite as naturally have introduced the division into faculties. Professors of the same science were brought into closer contact; community of rights and interests cemented the union and made of them distinct groups, which at the same time remained integral parts of the teaching body. Thus the faculties gradually arose and consequently no precise account of their origin can be given. The faculty of medicine would seem to be the last in point of time. But the four faculties were already formally designated in a letter addressed in Feb., 1254, by the university to the prelates of Christendom, wherein mention is made of "theology, jurisprudence, medicine, and rational, natural, and moral philosophy". In the celebrated Bull "Quasi Lignum" (April, 1255), Alexander IV speaks of "the faculties of theology" of other "faculties", namely those of canonists, physicians, and artists. If the masters in theology set the example in this special organization, those in decretals and medicine hastened to follow it. This is proved by the seals which the last-named adopted some years later, as the masters in arts had already done.


The faculties of theology, or canon law, and medicine, were called "superior faculties". The title of "Dean" as designating the head of a faculty, was not in use until the second half of the thirteenth century. In this matter the faculties of decretals and medicine seem to have taken the lead, which the faculty of theology followed, for in authentic acts of 1268 we read of the deans of decretals and medicine, while the dean of theology is not mentioned until 1296. It would seem that at first the deans were the oldest masters. The faculty of arts continued to have four procurators of its four nations and its head was the rector. As the faculties became more fully organized, the division into four nations partially disappeared for theology, decretals and medicine, while it continued in arts. Eventually the superior faculties were to include only doctors, leaving the bachelors to the nations. At this period, therefore, the university had two principal degrees, the baccalaureate and the doctorate. It was not until much later that the licentiate, while retaining its early character, became an intermediate degree: Besides, the university numbered among its members beadles and messengers, who also performed the duties of clerks. In an educational setting, a dean is a person with significant authority . ... It has been suggested that Professional degree be merged into this article or section. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Licentiate is the title of a person who holds an academic degree called a license. ...


Colleges

Rue Saint-Jacques and the Sorbonne in Paris
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Rue Saint-Jacques and the Sorbonne in Paris

The scattered condition of the scholars in Paris often made the question of lodging difficult. Recourse was had to the townsfolk, who exacted high rates while the students demanded lower. Hence arose friction and quarrels, which, as the scholars were very numerous, would have developed into a sort of civil war if a remedy had not been found. The remedy sought was taxation. This right of taxation, included in the regulation of Robert de Courçon, had passed on to the university. It was upheld in the Bull of Gregory IX of 1231, but with an important modification, for its exercise was to be shared with the citizens. These circumstances had long shown the need of new arrangements. The aim was to offer the students a shelter where they would fear neither annoyance from the owners nor the dangers of the world. The result was the foundation of the colleges (colligere, to assemble). This measure also furthered the progress of studies by a better employment of time, under the guidance sometimes of resident masters and out of the way of dissipation. These colleges were not usually centres of instruction, but simple boarding-houses for the students, who went from them to the schools. Each had a special object, being established for students of the same nationality or the same science. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1506x1503, 532 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): University of Paris ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1506x1503, 532 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): University of Paris ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Four colleges appear in the twelfth century; they became more numerous in the thirteenth, and among them may be mentioned Collège d'Harcourt (1280) and the Collège de Sorbonne (1257). Thus the University of Paris, which in general was the type of the other universities, had already assumed the form which it afterwards retained. It was composed of seven groups, the four nations of the faculty of arts, and the three superior faculties of theology, law, and medicine. Ecclesiastical dignities, even abroad, seemed reserved for the masters and students of Paris. This preference became a general rule, and eventually a right, that of eligibility to benefices. Such was the origin and early organization of the University of Paris which might even then, in virtue of their protection, call itself the daughter of kings, but which was in reality the daughter of the Church. St. Louis, in the diploma which he granted to the Carthusians for their establishment near Paris, speaks of this city, where "flow the most abundant waters of wholesome doctrine, so that they become a great river which after refreshing the city itself irrigates the Universal Church". Clement IV uses a no less charming comparison: "the noble and renowned city, the city which is the source of learning and sheds over the world a light which seems an image of the celestial splendour; those who are taught there shine brilliantly, and those who teach there will shine with the stars for all eternity" (cf. César-Egasse du Boulay, "Hist. Univers. Paris", III, 360-71). The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The Sorbonne today, from the same point of view The Collège de Sorbonne was a theological college of the University of Paris, founded in 1257 by Robert de Sorbon, after whom it is named. ... Clement IV, né Guy Foulques (d. ... César-Egasse du Boulay (b. ...


Besides the famous Collège de Sorbonne, there were other collegia, providing housing and meals to students, sometimes for those of the same geographical origin in a more restricted sense than that represented by the nations. There were 8 or 9 collegia for foreign students: The oldest one was the Danish college, the Collegium danicum or dacicum, founded in 1257. Swedish students could during the 13 and 14th centuries live in one of three Swedish colleges, the Collegium Upsaliense, the Collegium Scarense or the Collegium Lincopense, named after diocesal centres in Sweden (Uppsala, Skara and Linköping), the cathedral schools of which the scholars had presumably attended before travelling to Paris. The German College, Collegium alemanicum is mentioned as early as 1345, the Scottish college or Collegium scoticum was founded in 1325. The Lombard college or Collegium lombardicum was founded in the 1330s. The Collegium constantinopolitanum was, according to a tradition, founded in the 13th century to facilitate a remerger of the eastern and western churches. It was later reorganized as a French institution, the Collège de la Marche-Winville. The Collège de Montaigu was founded by the Archbishop of Rouen in the 14th century and reformed in the next by the humanist Jan Standonck, when it attracted reformers from within the Roman Catholic Church (such as Erasmus and Loyola) and those who subsequently became Protestants (namely Calvin and Knox). Uppsala (older spelling Upsala) is a Swedish City in central Sweden, located about 70 km north of Stockholm. ... Skara is a Municipality in Västra Götaland County, in western Sweden. ... Linköping in Sweden Aerial photo of Linköping. ... In medieval europe, cathedral schools were schools operated by cathedrals, typically having fewer than 100 students. ... The Collège de Montaigu was one of the constituent colleges of the Faculty of Arts of the University of Paris. ... The Archbishop of Rouen is Primate of Normandy and one of the fifteen Archbishops of France. ... Humanist may refer to: a scholar or academic in the Humanities a proponent of the group of ethical stances referred to as Humanism a long-running email discussion list on humanities computing in typography, a group of sans-serif typefaces with some calligraphic features, such as Humana, Optima, Frutiger, Johnston... Jan Standonck (1454 - 1504) (or Standonk) was a Dutch priest and reformer. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see Terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins and sees itself as the true Church founded by Jesus of Nazareth and maintained through Apostolic Succession from the Twelve... Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... Loyola - is the name of: Íñigo López, Ignatius of Loyola (St. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The name Calvin origionated from the word scritonious, or ass-like. ... Knox is originally an English surname that comes from the Old English, Cnoc, meaning ‘round-topped hill’ (knoll), particularly one in Renfrewshire. ...


Later history

Abuses crept in; to correct these and to introduce various needed modifications in the work of the university was the purpose of the reform carried out in the fifteenth century by Guillaume d'Estouteville, Cardinal and Apostolic legate in France. As a whole it was less an innovation than a recall to the better observance of the ancient statutes. The reform of 1600, undertaken by the royal government, was of the same character with regard to the three superior faculties. As to the faculty of arts, the study of Greek was added to that of Latin, only the best classical authors were recommended; the French poets and orators were used along with Hesiod, Plato, Demosthenes, Cicero, Virgil, and Sallust. The prohibition to teach civil law was never well observed at Paris. But in 1679 Louis XIV authorized the teaching of civil law in the faculty of decretals. As a logical consequence the name "faculty of law" replaced that of "faculty of decretals". The colleges meantime had multiplied; those of Cardinal Le-Moine and Navarre were founded in the fourteenth century. The Hundred Years' War was fatal to these establishments, but the university set about remedying the injury. Guillaume dEstouteville (1403 - 1483), French ecclesiastic, was bishop of Angers, of Digne, of Porto and Santa Rufina, of Ostia and Velletri, archbishop of Rouen, prior of Saint Martin des Champs, abbot of Mont St Michel, of St Ouen at Rouen, and of Montebourg. ... A Papal Nuncio (also known as an Apostolic Nuncio) is a permanent diplomatic representative (head of mission) of the Holy See to a state, having ambassadorial rank. ... Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Demosthenes (384–322 BC, Greek: Δημοσθένης) was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. ... Cicero at about age 60, from an ancient marble bust Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA: ; Classical pronunciation:  ; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was an orator, statesman, political theorist, lawyer and philosopher of Ancient Rome. ... A sculpture of Virgil, probably from the 1st century AD. For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Gaius Sallustius Crispus, simply known as Sallust, (86-34 BC). ... Events January 24 - King Charles II of England disbands Parliament August 7 - The brigantine Le Griffon, which was commissioned by René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, is towed to the southern end of the Niagara River, to become the first ship to sail the upper Great Lakes. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... The College of Navarre (French: Collège de Navarre) was founded by Johanna, queen of Navarre in 1304, who provided for 3 departments, the arts with 20 students, philosophy with 30 and theology with 20 students. ...


Remarkable for its teaching, the University of Paris played an important part: in the Church, during the Great Schism; in the councils, in dealing with heresies and deplorable divisions; in the State, during national crises; and if under the domination of England it dishonoured itself in the trial of Joan of Arc, it rehabilitated itself by rehabilitating the heroine herself. Proud of its rights and privileges, it fought energetically to maintain them. Hence the long struggle against the mendicant orders on academic as well as on religious grounds. Hence also the conflict, shorter but also memorable, against the Jesuits, who claimed by word and action a share in its teaching. It made liberal use of its right to decide administratively according to occasion and necessity. In some instances it openly endorsed the censures of the faculty of theology and in its own name pronounced condemnation, as in the case of the Flagellants. The term Great Schism refers to either of two splits in the history of Christianity: Most commonly, it refers to the great East-West Schism, the event that separated Eastern Orthodoxy and Western Roman Catholicism in the eleventh century (1054). ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2005 est. ... Image of Joan of Arc, painted between 1450 and 1500 (Centre Historique des Archives Nationales, Paris, AE II 2490). ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... The Flagellants were a 13th and 14th century Christian movement. ...


Its patriotism was especially manifested on two occasions. During the captivity of King John, when Paris was given over to factions, the university sought energetically to restore peace; and under Louis XIV, when the Spaniards had crossed the Somme and threatened the capital, it placed two hundred men at the king's disposal and offered the Master of Arts degree gratuitously to scholars who should present certificates of service in the army (Jourdain, Hist. de l'Univers. de Paris au XVIIe et XVIIIe siècle, 132-34; Archiv. du ministère de l'instruction publique).


Suppression of the colleges and establishment of the University of France

The ancient university was to disappear with ancient France under the Revolution. On 15 Sept., 1793, petitioned by the Department of Paris and several departmental groups, the National Convention decided that independently of the primary schools, already the objects of its solicitude, "there should be established in the Republic three progressive degrees of instruction; the first for the knowledge indispensable to artisans and workmen of all kinds; the second for further knowledge necessary to those intending to embrace the other professions of society; and the third for those branches of instruction the study of which is not within the reach of all men". Measures were to be taken immediately: "For means of execution the department and the municipality of Paris are authorized to consult with the Committee of Public Instruction of the National Convention, in order that these establishments shall be put in action by 1 November next, and consequently colleges now in operation and the faculties of theology, medicine, arts, and law are suppressed throughout the Republic". This was the death-sentence of the university. It was not to be restored after the Revolution had subsided, any more than those of the provinces. All were replaced by a single centre, viz., the University of France. The lapse of a century brought the recognition that the new system was less favourable to study, and it was sought to restore the old system, but without the faculty of theology. The University of France (Fr. ...


Student revolt and reorganisation

In 1968 it was the starting point of the cultural revolution commonly known as "the French May" (see also situationism), resulting in the closing of the university for only the third time in history (the first one in 1229 and the second having been the invasion by the German army of 1940). 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... A May 1968 poster: Be young and shut up, with the stereotypical silhouette of the General de Gaulle. ... The Situationist International (SI), an international political and artistic movement, originated in the Italian village of Cosio dArroscia on 28 July 1957 with the fusion of several extremely small artistic tendencies: the Lettrist International, the International movement for an imaginist Bauhaus, and the London Psychogeographical Association. ... Events February 18 - The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor signs a ten-year truce with al-Kamil, regaining Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem with neither military engagements nor support from the papacy. ... Combatants France United Kingdom Canada Poland Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Germany Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand (French) Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) H.G. Winkelman (Dutch) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R.H. Umberto di Savoia (Army... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ...


The University of Paris has since been reorganised into several autonomous universities and schools, some of which still carry the Sorbonne name. The historical campus, located in the Quartier Latin, in the 5th arrondissement of Paris, featuring mural paintings by Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, was split for use between several of the universities of Paris and the Rector's services. The Quartier Latin (Latin Quarter) is an area in the 5th arrondissement and parts of the 6th arrondissement of Paris, France, on the left bank (south side) of the Seine, around the Sorbonne University. ... The 5e arrondissement is one of the central arrondissements of Paris, France, located on the Left Bank. ... The Poor Fisherman Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Pierre-Cécile Puvis de Chavannes Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, (December 14, 1824 – October 24, 1898) was a French painter. ...


La Sorbonne was occupied again in March 2006 as part of country-wide protests against the introduction of the CPE (first employment contract). Demonstration against CPE, March 28, 2006, Paris Jussieu en lutte (Jussieu is fighting), Villepin va précariser. ...


Present universities

Sorbonne seen from the rue des écoles
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Sorbonne seen from the rue des écoles

The present thirteen universities are: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1605x2823, 2844 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): University of Paris Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1605x2823, 2844 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): University of Paris Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used...

I Panthéon-Sorbonne Website
II Panthéon-Assas Website
III Sorbonne Nouvelle Website
IV Paris-Sorbonne Website
V René Descartes Website
VI Pierre & Marie Curie Website
VII Denis Diderot Website
VIII Vincennes–Saint-Denis Website
IX Dauphine Website
X Nanterre Website
XI Paris-Sud Website
XII Val-de-Marne Website
XIII Paris-Nord Website

Paris IX's long name is Université de technologie en sciences des organisations et de la décision de Paris-Dauphine. The University of Paris-Dauphine (Université Paris-Dauphine) was founded as a faculty of economic and management sciences in 1968 in the former NATO headquarters in western Paris. ...


See also

lecture hall
lecture hall

Image File history File links Paris_sorbonne_colloque_prog. ... Image File history File links Paris_sorbonne_colloque_prog. ... In 1229, a student riot at the University of Paris resulted in the deaths of a number of students, and the student strike in protest which followed lasted more than two years and led to a number of reforms of the medieval university. ... The Condemnations at the medieval University of Paris were enacted with papal authority to restrict certain teachings as being heretical. ... This is an incomplete list of notable people affiliated with the University of Paris (often called La Sorbonne). ... Public universities in France are administered at the national level, by the Ministry of Education. ... The quadrangle at the main ENS building on rue dUlm is known as the Cour aux Ernests – the Ernests being the goldfish in the pond. ...

Further reading

  • André Tuiler: Histoire de l'Université de Paris et de la Sorbonne ("History of the University of Paris and of the Sorbonne"), in 2 volumes (From the Origins to Richelieu, From Louis XIV to the Crisis of 1968), Paris: Nouvelle Librairie de France, 1997 ;
  • Jean-Louis Leutrat: De l'Université aux Universités ("From the University to the Universities"), Paris: Association des Universités de Paris, 1997
  • Philippe Rive: La Sorbonne et sa reconstruction ("The Sorbonne and its Reconstruction"), Lyon: La Manufacture, 1987
  • Jacques Verger: Histoire des Universités en France ("History of French Universities"), Toulouse: Editions Privat, 1986

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
University of Paris - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4522 words)
As of 2006, the Rector of the Academy of Paris and Chancellor of the Universities of Paris is Maurice Quénet.
The University of Paris remains one of the most famous and prestigious of universities in the world, having produced Nobel Prize winners from its faculty and student body, as well as a number of the greatest intellectuals, political theorists, scientists, physicians, theologians, and artists of the Western tradition and canon.
Such was the origin and early organization of the University of Paris which might even then, in virtue of their protection, call itself the daughter of kings, but which was in reality the daughter of the Church.
Paris University - definition of Paris University in Encyclopedia (93 words)
The University of Paris (French: Université de Paris) was founded in 1150 and was known as the Sorbonne.
Following the events of May 1968, the University of Paris was split in 1970 into a number of administratively separate universities, in an attempt to make it 'more manageable'.
Paris VIII: Centre universitaire expérimental de Vincennes - Saint-Denis
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