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Encyclopedia > University
Representation of a university class in the 1350s
Representation of a university class in the 1350s
University Portal

A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees at all levels (bachelor, master, and doctorate) in a variety of subjects. A university provides both tertiary and quaternary education. The word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, roughly meaning "community of teachers and scholars". Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... University is an unincorporated census-designated place located in Hillsborough County, Florida. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1634, 326 KB) Description: Title: de: Liber ethicorum des Henricus de Allemania, Einzelblatt, Szene: Henricus de Allemania vor seinen Schülern Technique: de: Pergament Dimensions: de: 18 × 22 cm Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Berlin Current location... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1634, 326 KB) Description: Title: de: Liber ethicorum des Henricus de Allemania, Einzelblatt, Szene: Henricus de Allemania vor seinen Schülern Technique: de: Pergament Dimensions: de: 18 × 22 cm Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Berlin Current location... Image File history File links Portal. ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... This article is about the concept. ... A B.A. issued as a certificate A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ... A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course that generally lasts three or four years. ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate course of one or two years in duration. ... Students attend a lecture at a tertiary institution. ... Degree ceremony at Cambridge. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... A scholar is either a student or someone who has achieved a mastery of some academic discipline, perhaps receiving financial support through a scholarship. ...

Contents

History

Pre-history

The tower of the University of Coimbra, the oldest Portuguese university.
Degree ceremony at the University of Oxford. The Pro-Vice-Chancellor in MA gown and hood, Proctor in official dress and new Doctors of Philosophy in scarlet full dress. Behind them, a bedel, another Doctor and Bachelors of Arts and Medicine.

By the above definition, most of the following institutions of higher education do not meet the criteria of a university, since they were not known to grant academic degrees. The original Latin word "universitas", first used in time of renewed interest in Classical Greek and Roman tradition, tried to reflect this feature of the Academy of Plato. The choice for the oldest institution of higher learning is usually among Nalanda, Constantinople, Al Karaouine or Al-Azhar. Nalanda University, founded in Bihar, India around the 5th century BC conferred academic degree titles to its graduates, while also offering post-graduate courses. Another Indian university whose ruins were only recently excavated was Ratnagiri University in Orissa. Chinese institutions of higher learning were the semi-legendary Shang Hsiang, and later Taixue and Guozijian serve as the highest level of educational establishment while academies became very popular as non-governmental establishments teaching Confucianism and Chinese literature among other things. Also the acdemy of Gundishapour is one of the oldest universities in the world, made around 4 century AD in Iran. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2192 KB) Summary I made it myself with my own digital camera. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2192 KB) Summary I made it myself with my own digital camera. ... The University of Coimbra (Portuguese: Universidade de Coimbra) is a Portuguese public university in Coimbra, Portugal. ... Image File history File links Oxfordceremony. ... Image File history File links Oxfordceremony. ... Academic procession during the University of Canterbury graduation ceremony. ... The University of Oxford (usually abbreviated as Oxon. ... In the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin, the degree of Master of Arts (MA) is awarded to Bachelors of Arts of those universities on application after seven years seniority as members of the university. ... It has been suggested that Oxford University Police be merged into this article or section. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... Look up bedel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Academy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ancient town and university. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Interior of the Al Karaouine Mosque and University The University of Al Karaouine (Arabic: ‎) (other transliterations of the name include Kairouyine, Qaraouyine, Quarawin, Al-Qarawiyin, Kairaouine, Karaouine and El Qaraouiyn) is a university located in Fes, Morocco. ... Al-Azhar Mosque in Cairo Egypt Al-Azhar University (Arabic: الأزهر الشريف; al-Azhar al-Shareef, the Noble Azhar), is a premier Egyptian institution of higher learning, world-renowned for its position as a center of Islamic scholarship and education. ... This article is about the ancient town and university. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... Quaternary education or postgraduate education is the fourth-stage educational level which follows the completion of an undergraduate degree at a college or university. ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... Shang Hsiang or Shang Xiang (上庠, shàng hsiáng or shàng xiáng), was a school founded in Youyu (有虞) period in China. ... Taixue (chinese太学) which literaly means Greatest Study or Learning is the highest rank of educational etanlishment In Ancient China between Han Dynasty and Sui Dynasty. ... The Guozijian (国子监 guózǐjiàn), sometimes called the Imperial Academy or Imperial College, was the central national institute of learning in Chinese dynasties after the Sui. ... The ShÅ«yuàn (书院), usually known in English as Academies or Academies of Classical Learning, were a type of school in ancient China. ... Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, Peoples Republic of China. ... Chinese literature spans back thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the matured fictional novel arising in the medieval period to entertain the masses of literate Chinese. ...


Al-Azhar University, founded in Cairo, Egypt in the 10th century, offered a variety of post-graduate degrees, and is often regarded as the first full-fledged university. The University of Constantinople, founded in 849, by the regent Bardas of emperor Michael III, is generally considered the first institution of higher learning with the characteristics we associate today with a university (research and teaching, auto-administration, academic independence, et cetera). The Guinness Book of World Records recognizes the University of Al Karaouine in Fez, Morocco as the oldest university in the world with its founding in 859. For more on early universities see List of oldest universities in continuous operation. Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Guinness World Records 2008 edition. ... Interior of the Al Karaouine Mosque and University The University of Al Karaouine (Arabic: ‎) (other transliterations of the name include Kairouyine, Qaraouyine, Quarawin, Al-Qarawiyin, Kairaouine, Karaouine and El Qaraouiyn) is a university located in Fes, Morocco. ... This article is about the city Fez in Morocco. ... Events Battle of Abelda: Asturias beats the Muslims. ... Map of medieval European universities This is a list of the oldest extant universities in the world. ...


Medieval European universities

Main article: Medieval university

The first European medieval university was the University of Magnaura in Constantinople in Byzantium, now Istanbul in Turkey, founded in 849 by the regent Bardas of emperor Michael III, followed by the Bulgarian University of Preslav and the Macedonian University of Ohrid (9th century) in the Bulgarian Empire, founded by Tsar Simeon I of Bulgaria, University of Bologna (1088) in Bologna, Italy, the University of Paris (c. 1100) in Paris, France, later associated with the Sorbonne, and the University of Oxford (11th century) in England. Many of the medieval universities in Western Europe were born under the aegis of the Roman Catholic Church, usually as cathedral schools or by papal bull as Studia Generali (NB: The development of cathedral schools into Universities actually appears to be quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception - see Leff, Paris and Oxford Universities). In the early medieval period, most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools, usually when these schools were deemed to have become primarily sites of higher education. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by monasteries. The first European medieval institutions generally considered to be universities were established in Italy, France, and England in the late 11th and the 12th centuries for the study of arts, law, medicine, and theology. ... The University of Constantinople, sometimes known as the University of the palace hall of Magnavra Byzantine Empire was recognised as a University in 849. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Bardas was the regent (856-866) of Byzantine Emperor Michael III. Bardas was apparently the son of Marinos Mamikonian and the brother of Theodora, the wife of Byzantine Emperor Theophilus. ... This coin struck during the regency of Theodora shows how Michael was less prominent than his mother, who is represented as ruler alone on the obverse, and even than his sister Thecla, who is depicted together with the young Michael on the reverse of this coin. ... Ceramic icon of St. ... The Ohrid Literary School was one of the two major medieval Bulgarian cultural centres, along with the Preslav Literary School (Pliska Literary School). ... First Bulgarian Empire Second Bulgarian Empire This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Simeon (also Symeon)[1] I the Great (Bulgarian: , transliterated Simeon I Veliki;[2] IPA: ) ruled over Bulgaria from 893 to 927,[3] during the First Bulgarian Empire. ... The University of Bologna (Italian: , UNIBO) is the oldest continually operating degree-granting university in the world, and the second biggest university in Italy. ... Bologna (IPA , from Latin Bononia, Bulåggna in Emiliano-Romagnolo dialect) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The University of Oxford (usually abbreviated as Oxon. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... Studium Generale is the old name for a medieval university which was registered as an institution of international excellence by the Holy Roman Empire. ...


In Europe, young men proceeded to university when they had completed their study of the trivium–the preparatory arts of grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic or logic–and the quadrivium: arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy. (See Degrees of the University of Oxford for the history of how the trivium and quadrivium developed in relation to degrees, especially in anglophone universities). For any other uses see, see Trivium (disambiguation). ... For the rules of English grammar, see English grammar and Disputes in English grammar. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... In classical philosophy, dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is controversy, Viz. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... The quadrivium comprised the four subjects taught in medieval universities after the trivium. ... Arithmetic tables for children, Lausanne, 1835 Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek word αριθμός = number) is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics, used by almost everyone, for tasks ranging from simple day-to-day counting to advanced science and business calculations. ... Calabi-Yau manifold Geometry (Greek γεωμετρία; geo = earth, metria = measure) is a part of mathematics concerned with questions of size, shape, and relative position of figures and with properties of space. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... This article concerns the Degrees of Oxford University. ... Look up Anglophone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Outside of Europe, there were many notable institutions of learning throughout history. In China, there was the famous Hanlin Academy, established during the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD), and was once headed by the Chancellor Shen Kuo (1031-1095), a famous Chinese scientist, inventor, mathematician, and statesman. The Hanlin Academy (翰林院) was founded in China in the 8th century. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Events End of the Sui Dynasty and beginning of the Tang Dynasty in China. ... Events Oleg leads Kievan Rus in a campaign against Constantinople Yelü Abaoji establishes Liao (Khitan) dynasty Births Deaths Categories: 907 ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Shen Shen Kuo or Shen Kua (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (1031–1095) was a polymath Chinese scientist and statesman of the Song Dynasty (960–1279). ... Events Collapse of the Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba. ... Events The country of Portugal is established for the second time. ...


Emergence of modern universities

The end of the medieval period marked the beginning of the transformation of universities that would eventually result in the modern research university. Many external influences, such as eras of humanism, Enlightenment, Reformation, and revolution, shaped research universities during their development, and the discovery of the New World in 1492 added human rights and international law to the university curriculum. Logo of the University of Bologna European research universities have a long history that arguably dates back to the founding of the University of Bologna in 1088, although the University of Paris and the University of Magnaura are other contenders for this position. ... Renaissance humanism (often designated simply as humanism) was a European intellectual movement beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century. ... 18th century philosophy redirects here. ... “Reformation” redirects here. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Curriculum has many different conceptions. ...

Indoor tennis courts are part of extensive sports facilities at the University of Bath, England.
Indoor tennis courts are part of extensive sports facilities at the University of Bath, England.


By the 18th century, universities published their own research journals, and by the 19th century, the German and the French university models had arisen. The German, or Humboldtian model, was conceived by Wilhelm von Humboldt and based on Friedrich Schleiermacher’s liberal ideas pertaining to the importance of freedom, seminars, and laboratories in universities. The French university model involved strict discipline and control over every aspect of the university. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 519 pixelsFull resolution (2135 × 1385 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 519 pixelsFull resolution (2135 × 1385 pixel, file size: 2. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The University of Bath is a campus university located near Bath, England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Scientific journals are one type of academic journal An academic journal is a regularly-published, peer-reviewed publication that publishes scholarship relating to an academic discipline. ... Wilhelm von Humboldt Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand Freiherr von Humboldt (June 22, 1767 - April 8, 1835), government functionary, foreign diplomat, philosopher, founder of Humboldt Universität in Berlin, friend of Goethe and especially of Schiller, is especially remembered as a German linguist who introduced a knowledge of the Basque... Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (November 21, 1768 - February 12, 1834) was a theologian and philosopher. ... Mohandas K. Gandhi - Freedom can be achieved through inner sovereignty. ... A seminar is, generally, a form of academic instruction, either at a university or offered by a commercial or professional organization. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Universities concentrated on science in the 19th and 20th centuries, and they started to become accessible to the masses after 1914. Until the 19th century, religion played a significant role in university curriculum; however, the role of religion in research universities decreased in the 19th century, and by the end of the 19th century, the German university model had spread around the world. The British also established universities worldwide, and higher education became available to the masses not only in Europe. In a general sense, the basic structure and aims of universities have remained constant over the years. The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ...


Organization

Brooks Hall, home of the Terry College of Business at the University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia, United States

Although each institution is differently organized, nearly all universities have a board of trustees, a president, chancellor or rector, at least one vice president, vice-chancellor or vice-rector, and deans of various divisions. Universities are generally divided into a number of academic departments, schools or faculties. Public university systems are ruled over by government-run higher education boards. They review financial requests and budget proposals and then allocate funds for each university in the system. They also approve new programs of instruction and cancel or make changes in existing programs. In addition, they plan for the further coordinated growth and development of the various institutions of higher education in the state or country. However, many public universities in the world have a considerable degree of financial, research and pedagogical autonomy. Private universities are privately funded having generally a broader independence from state policies. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 1101 KB) Summary Photograph by: Fred Maidment (me) Location: UGA North Campus, Brooks Hall (Terry College of Business), Athens, GA Template:University of Georgia, Template:Terry College of Business Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 1101 KB) Summary Photograph by: Fred Maidment (me) Location: UGA North Campus, Brooks Hall (Terry College of Business), Athens, GA Template:University of Georgia, Template:Terry College of Business Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del... The University of Georgia (UGA) is the largest institution of higher learning in the U.S. state of Georgia. ... Athens-Clarke County is a unified city-county in Georgia, U.S., in the northeastern part of the state, at the eastern terminus of Georgia 316. ... Official language(s) English Capital Atlanta Largest city Atlanta Largest metro area Atlanta metro area Area  Ranked 24th  - Total 59,411 sq mi (154,077 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 2. ... A Chancellor is the head of a university. ... The word rector (ruler, from the Latin regere) has a number of different meanings, but all of them indicate someone who is in charge of something. ... A faculty is a division within a university. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... A private university is a university that is run without the control of any government entity. ...


Despite the variable policies, or cultural and economic standards available in different geographical locations create a tremendous disparity between universities around the world and even inside a country, the universities are usually among the foremost research and advanced training providers in every society. Most universities not only offer courses in subjects ranging from the natural sciences, engineering, architecture or medicine, to sports sciences, social sciences, law or humanities, they also offer many amenities to their student population including a variety of places to eat, banks, bookshops, print shops, job centres, and bars. In addition, universities have a range of facilities like libraries, sports centers, students' unions, computer labs, and research laboratories. In a number of countries, major classic universities usually have their own botanical gardens, astronomical observatories, business incubators and university hospitals. The term natural science as the way in which different fields of study are defined is determined as much by historical convention as by the present day meaning of the words. ... Engineering is the applied science of acquiring and applying knowledge to design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... This article is about building architecture. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Sports science is a discipline that studies the application of scientific principles and techniques with the aim of improving sporting performance. ... The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Humanities (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Library (disambiguation). ... A students union, student government, student leadership, student council, or students association is a student organization present in many elementary schools, middle schools, high schools, colleges and universities. ... This Computer lab, called by Marling School for boys, is laid out in such a way as to reduce cabling clutter, and maximise space for workstations. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Inside the United States Botanic Garden Inside the Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden (Brazil), 1890 Botanical gardens (in Latin, hortus botanicus) grow a wide variety of plants primarily categorized and documented for scientific purposes, but also for the enjoyment and education of visitors, a consideration that has become essential to... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Business incubators are organizations that support the entrepreneurial process, helping to increase survival rates for innovative startup companies. ... A university hospital is an institution which combines the services of a hospital with the education of medical students and with medical research. ...


Universities around the world

See also: List of colleges and universities by country
The University of Sydney is Australia's oldest university.
The University of Sydney is Australia's oldest university.

The funding and organization of universities is very different in different countries around the world. In some countries universities are predominantly funded by the state, while in others funding may come from donors or from fees which students attending the university must pay. In some countries the vast majority of students attend university in their local town, while in other countries universities attract students from all over the world, and may provide university accommodation for their students. This is a list of universities, colleges and other educational institutions providing higher education (meaning tertiary, quaternary or in some cases post-secondary education). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 205 KB) Summary Main Quadrangle of the University of Sydney. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 205 KB) Summary Main Quadrangle of the University of Sydney. ... The University of Sydney, established in Sydney in 1850, is the oldest university in Australia. ...


Classification in the United States

In the United States, there is no legal definition of the term "university." The usual practice in the United States today is to call an institution made up of undergraduate students a "college." This can be a two-year community college, which grants an AA or a four-year college, such as a liberal arts college, which grants a B.A. or B.S. An institution comprising both undergraduate and graduate students (and often several schools) is called a university. Some schools such as Boston College, Dartmouth College, and College of William and Mary, which offer a number of graduate programs, have retained the term "college" in their names for historical reasons. Similarly, some institutions granting few if any graduate degrees, such as Wesleyan University, may be called universities for historical reasons. Another criterion used to distinguish between a college and a university in the United States is the balance of teaching and research that occurs in the institution. Colleges have historically focused on teaching and universities on scholarship and research. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 300 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 480 pixel, file size: 129 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Seal of Texas Tech University. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 300 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 480 pixel, file size: 129 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Seal of Texas Tech University. ... Texas Tech University redirects here. ... “Lubbock” redirects here. ... In some educational systems, undergraduate education is post-secondary education up to the level of a Bachelors degree. ... College (Latin collegium) is a term most often used today to denote an educational institution. ... In Canada and the United States, a community college, sometimes called a county college, junior college or a city college, is an educational institution providing higher education and lower-level tertiary education, granting certificates, diplomas, and Associates degrees. ... An associate degree is an academic degree awarded by community colleges, junior colleges, business colleges and some bachelors degree-granting colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study usually lasting two years. ... Liberal arts colleges in the United States are institutions of higher education in the United States which are primarily liberal arts colleges. ... For other degrees, see Academic degree. ... For similarly-named academic institutions, see Boston (disambiguation)#Education. ... Dartmouth College is a private, coeducational university located in Hanover, New Hampshire, USA. Incorporated as Trustees of Dartmouth College,[6][7] it is a member of the Ivy League and one of the nine colonial colleges founded before the American Revolution. ... The College of William and Mary (also known as William & Mary, W&M or The College) is a small, selective, coeducational public university located in Williamsburg, Virginia, United States. ... Wesleyan University is a private liberal arts college founded in 1831 and located in Middletown, Connecticut. ... Scholarly method - or as it is more commonly called, scholarship - is the body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as valid and trustworthy as possible, and to make them known to the scholarly public. ...

Sherman Hall at Western Illinois University in Macomb, Illinois, United States.
Sherman Hall at Western Illinois University in Macomb, Illinois, United States.

The Carnegie Basic Classification system distinguishes among institutions on the basis of the prevalence of degrees they grant. As the names of their categories indicate, the Carnegie Foundation considers the granting of master's degrees necessary, though not sufficient, for an institution to be classified as a university.[1] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x800, 1219 KB) Summary Sherman Hall, Western Illinois University, Macomb, Illinois, 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x800, 1219 KB) Summary Sherman Hall, Western Illinois University, Macomb, Illinois, 2006. ... For another university which uses the abbreviation WIU, see Webber International University Western Illinois University is a public university founded in 1899 as Western Illinois State Normal School. ... Macomb is a city located in McDonough County, Illinois founded in 1831. ... The Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education is a report classifying all accredited degree_granting colleges and United States. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


University rankings

University rankings give an indication of the quality of institutions. Each has its own criteria for ranking and its own methodology. Two of the most internationally recognized are the THES - QS World University Rankings[2] and the Academic Ranking of World Universities. In higher education, college and university rankings are listings of universities and liberal arts colleges in an order determined by any combination of factors. ... In higher education, college and university rankings are listings of educational institutions in an order determined by any combination of factors. ... An institution is a group, tenet, maxim, or organization created by a group of humans. ... The THES - QS World University Rankings is an annual publication of university rankings around the world, published by The Times Higher Education Supplement (THES) and Quacquarelli Symonds (QS). ... // One of the well known rankings, THES - QS publishes an annual report about world rankings. ...


Admissions

Admission systems and university structures vary widely around the world (see college admissions). Differences are marked in countries where universities fulfill the role of community colleges in the United States and Europe. College admissions or university admission is the process through which students enter post-secondary education at universities and colleges. ... In Canada and the United States, a community college, sometimes called a county college, junior college or a city college, is an educational institution providing higher education and lower-level tertiary education, granting certificates, diplomas, and Associates degrees. ...


Colloquial usage

Colloquially, the term university may be used to describe a phase in one's life: "when I was at university…" (in the United States and the Republic of Ireland, college is used instead: "when I was in college..."). See the college article for further discussion. In Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the German speaking countries "university" is often contracted to "uni". In New Zealand and in South Africa it is sometimes called "varsity", which was also common usage in the UK in the 19th century. College (Latin collegium) is a term most often used today to denote an educational institution. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into German language. ...

Moscow State University at Sparrow Hills is the largest educational building in the world.
Moscow State University at Sparrow Hills is the largest educational building in the world.

Download high resolution version (1024x768, 170 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 170 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian: Московский государственный университет имени М.В.Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ, MSU, MGU) is the largest and the oldest university in Russia, founded in 1755. ... A view of central Moscow from Sparrow Hills Sparrow Hills (Sparrows Hills, Russian: Воробьёвы горы, former name in 1935 – 1999: Lenin Hills - Ленинские горы) is a part of the right bank of the Moscow River and one of highest point in Moscow with an altitude up to 220 m (60-70 m above...

Criticism

In his study of the American university since World War II, The Knowledge Factory, Stanley Aronowitz argues that the American university has been besieged by growing unemployment issues, the pressures of big business on the land grant university, as well as the political passivity and ivory tower naivete of American academics. Stanley Aronowitz Stanley Aronowitz (born 1933) is professor of sociology, cultural studies, and urban education at the CUNY Graduate Center. ...


In a somewhat more theoretical vein, the late Bill Readings contends in his 1995 study The University in Ruins that the university around the world has been hopelessly commodified by globalization and the bureaucratic non-value of "excellence." His view is that the university will continue to linger on as an increasingly consumerist, ruined institution until or unless we are able to conceive of advanced education in transnational ways that can move beyond both the national subject and the corporate enterprise. Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...


Under pressure

In some countries, in some political systems, universities are controlled by political and/or religious authorities, who forbid certain fields and/or impose certain other fields. Sometimes national or racial limitations exist - for students, staff, research.


Nazi universities

Main article: Nazi university

Books from university libraries, written by anti-Nazi or Jewish authors, were burned in places (eg. in Berlin) in 1933, and the curricula were subsequently modified. Jewish professors and students were expelled according to the racial policy of Nazi Germany, see also the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service. Martin Heidegger became the rector of Freiburg University, where he delivered a number of Nazi speeches. On August 21, 1933 Heidegger established the Führer-principle at the university, later he was appointed Führer of Freiburg University. University of Poznań was closed by the Nazi Occupation in 1939. 19411944 a German university worked there. University of Strasbourg was transferred to Clermont-Ferrand and Reichsuniversität Straßburg existed 1941–1944. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin The Humboldt University of Berlin (German Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) is Berlins oldest university, founded in 1810 as the University of Berlin (Universität zu Berlin) by the liberal Prussian educational reformer and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt whose university model has strongly influenced... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The racial policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the so-called Aryan race and based on a specific racist doctrine which claimed scientific legitimacy. ... The Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service (in German: Gesetze zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums or short: Berufsbeamtengesetz), also known as Civil Service Law, Civil Service Restoration Act, and Law to Re-establish the Civil Service, was a law which was passed by the National Socialist regime on... Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) (pronounced ) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... The University of Fribourg (in French: Université de Fribourg, in German: Universität Freiburg) is a university in the city of Fribourg, Switzerland. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... PoznaÅ„ in Poland The University of PoznaÅ„ (Polish: Uniwersytet im. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The University Palace in Strasbourg, and a monument to one of the universitys students, Johann Wolfgang Goethe The University of Strasbourg in Strasbourg, Alsace, France, is divided into three separate institutions. ... Clermont-Ferrand is a city of France, in the Auvergne region, with a population of approximately 140,000. ...


Nazi universities ended in 1945. Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Soviet universities

Soviet type universities existed in the Soviet Union and in other countries of the Eastern Bloc. Medical, technical, economical, technological and arts faculties were frequently separated from universities (compare the List of institutions of higher learning in Russia). Soviet ideology was taught divided into three disciplines: Scientific Communism, Marxism-Leninism and Communist Political Economy) and was introduced as part of many courses, eg. teaching Karl Marx' or Vladimir Lenin's views on energy or history. Sciences were generally tolerated, but humanities curbed. In 1922, the Bolshevik government expelled some 160 prominent intellectuals on the Philosophers' ship, later some professors and students were killed or worked in Gulag camps. Communist economy was preferred, liberal ideas criticized or ignored. Genetics was degradated to Lysenkoism from the middle of the 1930s to the middle of the 1960s. Communist parties controlled or influenced universities. The leading university was the Moscow State University. After Joseph Stalin's death, universities in some Communist countries obtained more freedom. The Patrice Lumumba Peoples' Friendship University provided higher education as well as a KGB training ground for young communists from developing countries. Any communist country had a network of (para-)universities working for communist party, police, political police or armed forces.[citation needed] The system failed during the years 1989-1991. In some countries a number of communists and political police informers were expelled from universities, political universities resolved or reorganized. Universities in North Korea continue the Soviet tradition. A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... The following is a list of universities and other higher educational institutions in Russia: // Academy of State Fire-Prevention Service of the MIA of Russia Academy of the National Economy attached to the Government of RF Adygeysky State University All-Russian Academy of Foreign Trade Altai State Technical University Altai... Scientific Communism was one of the three major ingredients of Marxism-Leninism as taught in the Soviet Union in all institutions of higher education and pursued in the corresponding research institutions, and departments. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... “Lenin” redirects here. ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... For other uses, see Humanities (disambiguation). ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Philosophers ship - collective name of two German boats, which transported more than 160 expelled Russian intellectuals in September and November 1922 from Petrograd to Stettin, Germany. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) was the government body responsible for administering prison camps across the former Soviet Union. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian: Московский государственный университет имени Ðœ.Ð’.Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ, MSU, MGU) is the largest and the oldest university in Russia, founded in 1755. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... The Peoples Friendship University of Russia (Росси́йский Университе́т Дру́жбы Наро́дов, РУДН) is located in southwest Moscow. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... The education in North Korea is strictly controlled by the government. ...


References

  1. ^ Basic Classification Technical Details. Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Retrieved on 2007-03-20.
  2. ^ http://www.topuniversities.com/worlduniversityrankings/
  • Stanley Aronowitz, The Knowledge Factory. Boston: Beacon, 2000. ISBN 0807031224
  • Clyde W. Barrow, Universities and the Capitalist State: Corporate Liberalism and the Reconstruction of American Higher Education, 1894–1928, University of Wisconsin Press 1990 ISBN needed
  • Sigmund Diamond, Compromised Campus: The Collaboration of Universities with the Intelligence Community, 1945–1955, Oxford University Press 1992 ISBN needed
  • Olaf Pedersen, The First Universities : Studium Generale and the Origins of University Education in Europe, Cambridge University Press, 1998 ISBN needed
  • Bill Readings, The University in Ruins. Harvard University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-674-92953-5.
  • Thomas F. Richards, The Cold War Within American Higher Education: Rutgers University As a Case Study,Pentland Press 1998 ISBN needed
  • Walter Ruegg (ed), A History of the University in Europe, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (3 vols) ISBN 0-521-36107-9 (vol 3 reviewed by Laurence Brockliss in the Times Literary Supplement, no 5332, 10 June 2005, pages 3–4)

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

A college application is something that you send to colleges and universities. ... Corporate Universities (CUs) are a growing trend in companies. ... Institute of Technology is also the name of a vocational school in California. ... An International university can be defined as one which is funded by the governments of many countries and thereby is controlled by the officials from the government of different countries. ... Contents   Overviews   Academia   Topics   Basic topics   Glossaries   Portals   Categories // This is a list of academic disciplines. ... A -- B -- C -- D -- E -- F -- G -- H -- I -- J -- K -- L -- M -- N -- O -- P -- Q -- R -- S -- T -- U -- V -- W -- X -- Y -- Z The alphabetical listing is based on Christina DeMellos pages at http://www. ... Map of medieval European universities This is a list of the oldest extant universities in the world. ... The first European medieval institutions generally considered to be universities were established in Italy, France, and England in the late 11th and the 12th centuries for the study of arts, law, medicine, and theology. ... This page lists institutions that have an overt Islamic or Muslim identity or charter. ... A private university is a university that is run without the control of any government entity. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Research I university was a category formerly used by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education to indicate those universities in the United States which received the highest amounts of Federal science research funding. ... School in literature Christine Anlauff: Good morning, Lehnitz F. Anstey: Vice Versa Louis Auchincloss: The Rector of Justin Alan Bennett: The History Boys E.R. Braithwaite: To Sir, with Love Sasthi Brata: My God Died Young Anthony Buckeridge: Jennings Goes to School Frances Hodgson Burnett: Sara Crewe (aka A Little... This article covers the topic of underground education in Poland (Polish Tajne szkolnictwo) during World War II. After the Polish defeat in the Polish Defence War of 1939 and the subsequent German occupation of most of Polish territory, Poland was divided onto the areas directly incorporated into the Reich and... The University of the Third Age is an international organisation whose aims are the education and stimulation of retired members of the community - those in the third age of life. ... In higher education, college and university rankings are listings of educational institutions in an order determined by any combination of factors. ... A useful definition of an urban university is an institution of higher learning that is socially involved and a resource to educate the citizens of the city in which it is located. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The goal of widening participation in higher education is a major component of government education policy in the United Kingdom. ...

Related terms

academia - academic rank - academy - admission - alumnus - aula - polytechnic - Brain farm - Bologna process - business schools - Grandes écoles - campus - college - college and university rankings - dean - degree - diploma - discipline - dissertation - faculty - fraternities and sororities - graduate student - graduation - Ivory Tower - lecturer - medieval university - medieval university (Asia) - mega university - perpetual student - professor - provost - rector - research - scholar - senioritis - student - tenure - Town and Gown - tuition - undergraduate - universal access - university administration

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