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Encyclopedia > Universal suffrage

Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. Universal suffrage in colloquial speech often indicates nearly universal suffrage; for example, according to the CIA World Factbook, the United States is considered to have universal suffrage [1] despite the fact that roughly 5.3 million of its citizens cannot vote due to felony convictions.[2] (see disenfranchisement) This article is about the political process. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Sortition is the method of random selection, particularly in relation to the selection of decision makers also known as allotment. ... A by-election or bye-election is a special election held to fill a political office when the incumbent has died or resigned. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Electoral fraud is illegal interference with the process of an election. ... A show election or a sham election is an election that is held purely for show, that is, without any significant political purpose. ... A Fixed-term election is an election that occurs on a set date, and cannot be changed by the incumbent politician. ... A general election is an election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election. ... Indirect election is a process in which voters in an election do not actually choose between candidates for an office but rather elect persons who will then make the choice. ... Rules for, and experience with, local elections vary widely across jurisdictions. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Apportionment, or reapportionment, is the process of determining representation in politics within a legislative body by creating constituencies. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The Gerry-Mander first appeared in this cartoon-map in the Boston Gazette, 26 March 1812 Gerrymandering is a form of redistricting in which electoral district or constituency boundaries are manipulated for an electoral advantage. ... The process known as redistricting in the United States and redistribution in many Commonwealth countries is the changing of political borders (in many countries, specifically the electoral district/constituency boundaries) usually in response to periodic census results. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voters choices are confidential. ... This article is about the political process. ... “Political Parties” redirects here. ... Voting is a method of decision making wherein a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ... A voting system is a means of choosing between a number of options, based on the input of a number of voters. ... Elections by country gives information on elections. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The List of election results by country gives information on elections. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This electoral calendar 2007 lists the national/federal direct elections held in 2007 in the de jure and de facto sovereign states and their dependent territories. ... This electoral calendar 2007 lists the national/federal direct elections held in 2007 in the de jure and de facto sovereign states and their dependent territories. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Suffrage (from the Latin suffragium, meaning vote) is the civil right to vote, or the exercise of that right. ... For the adult insect stage, see Imago. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other uses, see Intelligence (disambiguation). ... Social status is the honor or prestige attached to ones position in society (ones social position). ... World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... For the record label, see Felony Records The term felony is a term used in common law systems for very serious crimes, whereas misdemeanors are considered to be less serious offenses. ... Disenfranchising refers to the removal of the ability to vote from a person or group of people. ...


In the first modern democracies only a limited number of people had a say in the running of the government - for example in the United Kingdom only male landowners with relatively large holdings had the right to vote. Suffrage depended on local custom before 1832, so there were exceptions. In all modern democracies the number of people who could vote increased gradually with time. The 19th century featured movements advocating universal male suffrage - the extension to all males regardless of social standing or race. The democratic movement of the late 19th century, unifying Liberals and Social Democrats, particularly in northern Europe, used the slogan Equal and Common Suffrage. The Movement for Universal Suffrage consisted of a social, economic and political movement aimed at extending suffrage to people of all races. Landowner or Landholder is a holder of the estate in land with considerable rights of ownership or, simply put, an owner of land. ... The shield and spear of the Roman god Mars, which is also the alchemical symbol for iron, represents the male sex. ... Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism[1] and laissez-faire liberalism[2]) is a doctrine stressing the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitations of government, free markets, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ...

Contents

Expanding suffrage

The first movements toward universal suffrage (or manhood suffrage) occurred in the early 19th century, and focused on removing property requirements for voting. In the late 19th and early 20th century, the focus of universal suffrage movement became the removal of restrictions against women having the right to vote. Suffragette with banner, Washington DC, 1918 The title of suffragette was given to members of the womens suffrage movement in the United Kingdom and United States, particularly in the years prior to World War I. The name was the Womens Social and Political Union (founded in 1903). ... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ...


Several countries which had enacted universal suffrage had their normal legal process, or their existence, interrupted during the Second World War. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


Many societies in the past have denied people the right to vote on the basis of race or ethnicity. For example, non-whites could not vote in national elections during apartheid-era South Africa, until the system came to an end with the first free multi-party elections in 1994. In the pre-Civil Rights Era American South, blacks often technically had the right to vote, but various means prevented many of them from exercising that right. The Ku Klux Klan formed after the American Civil War, largely to intimidate blacks and to prevent them from voting. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Historic Southern United States. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


Other disenfranchisement

Some so-called "universal" suffrage systems still exclude some potential voters. For example, some jurisdictions deny the vote to various categories of convicted criminals or the mentally ill, and almost all jurisdictions deny the vote to non-citizen residents and citizens under the age of 18. Many states within the USA used to disenfranchise paupers, persons who either paid no direct taxes or those receiving public assistance. Disenfranchising refers to the removal of the ability to vote from a person or group of people. ... Felony disenfranchisement is the term used to describe the practice of prohibiting persons from voting based on the fact that they have been convicted of a felony. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ...


There are also differing degrees of legal recognition of non-resident citizens: non-resident Italians have a representative at-large in the Italian parliament; U.S. citizens voting abroad vote as residents of the last state where they (or their parents) lived; Britons, however, can not vote for their national parliament unless they have lived in the U.K. in the last five years. A few nations also restrict those who are involved in the military or police forces, as it is in the case of Kuwait.[3] Bloc voting (or block voting) refers to a class of voting systems which can be used to elect several representatives from a single multimember constituency. ... The Parliament of Italy (Italian: Parlamento Italiano) is the national parliament of Italy. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons The Rt. ...


The development/integration of the European Union has changed a few matters. Citizens of an EU Member-State are allowed to vote in E.U. parliamentary elections, as well as some local elections. For example, a Briton living in Graz, Austria, would be able to vote in for the European Parliament as a resident of the "electoral district" of Austria, and to vote in Graz municipal elections. He would, however, not be able to vote in Austrian (federal) elections, or Styrian (state) elections. Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... Languages Cornish, Dgèrnésiais, English, French, Irish, Jèrriais, Manx, Scots, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh, Llanito Religions Anglican, Presbyterianism, Roman Catholicism - Related ethnic groups British-Americans, Anglo-Celtic Australian, Anglo-African, Belongers, English Canadians, Channel Islanders, Cornish, English, Anglo-Irish, Ulster-Scots, Irish, Manx, New Zealand European, Scottish, Welsh British... The Grazer Schloßberg Clock Tower Graz [graːts] (Slovenian: Gradec IPA: /gra. ... “Styria” redirects here. ...


Universal suffrage in the world

Part of a series of articles on
Discrimination
General forms

Racism · Sexism · Ageism · Religious intolerance · Xenophobia This article is about discrimination in the social science context. ... Racism is the prejudice that members of one race are intrinsically superior or inferior to members of other races. ... The sign of the headquarters of the National Association Opposed To Woman Suffrage Sexism is commonly considered to be discrimination and/or hatred against people based on their sex rather than their individual merits, but can also refer to any and all systemic differentiations based on the sex of the... Look up ageism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Religious intolerance is either intolerance motivated by ones own religious beliefs or intolerance against anothers religious beliefs or practices. ... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Specific forms

Social
Ableism · Adultism · Biphobia · Classism · Elitism · Ephebiphobia · Gerontophobia · Heightism · Heterosexism · Homophobia · Lesbophobia · Lookism · Misandry · Misogyny · Pediaphobia · Sizeism · Transphobia Ableism is a term used to describe discrimination against people with disabilities in favor of people who are able-bodied. ... Adultism is a predisposition towards adults, which some see as biased against children, youth, and all young people who arent addressed or viewed as adults. ... Biphobia is the fear of, discrimination against, or hatred of bisexuals (although in practice it extends to pansexual people too). ... Classism (a term formed by analogy with racism) is any form of prejudice or oppression against people who are in, or who are perceived as being like those who are in, a lower social class (especially in the form of lower or higher socioeconomic status) within a class society. ... Elitism is the belief or attitude that the people who are considered to be the elite — a selected group of persons with outstanding personal abilities, wealth, specialised training or experience, or other distinctive attributes — are the people whose views on a matter are to be taken the most seriously, or... Ephebiphobia (from Greek ephebos έφηβος = teenager, underage adolescent and fobos φόβος = fear, phobia), also known as hebephobia (from Greek hebe = youth), denotes both the irrational fear of teenagers or of adolescence, and the prejudice against teenagers or underage adolescents. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Heightism is a form of discrimination based on height. ... Heterosexism is the presumption that everyone is straight or heterosexual (i. ... A protest by The Westboro Baptist Church; a group identified by the Anti-Defamation League as virulently homophobic. ... Lesbophobia (sometimes Lesbiphobia) is a term which describes prejudice, discrimination, harassment or abuse, either specifically targeting a lesbian person, based on their lesbian identity, or, more generally, targetting lesbians as a class. ... Lookism is discrimination against or prejudice towards others based on their appearance. ... Look up Misandry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Misogyny (IPA: ) is hatred or strong prejudice against women; an antonym of philogyny. ... Fear of children and/or infants or childhood is alternately called pedophobia or pediaphobia. ... The fat acceptance movement, also referred to as the fat liberation movement, is a grass-roots effort to change societal attitudes about fat people. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights LGBT rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens/Fathers rights · Masculinism Children...

Against cultures:

Americans · Arabs · Armenians · Australians · Canadians · Catalans · Chinese · English · Europeans · French · Germans · Indians · Iranians · Irish · Italians · Japanese · Jews · Malay · Mexicans · Pakistanis · Poles · Portuguese · Quebecers · Roma · Romanians · Russians · Serbs · Turks Anti-Arabism is a term that refers to prejudice or hostility against people from Arabic origin. ... Anti-Catalanism is the collective name given to various political attitudes in Spain. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Anti-Europeanism is opposition or hostility toward the governments, culture, or people of the countries of Europe. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Anti-Quebec sentiment is opposition or hostility toward the government, culture, or people of Quebec, that is French-Canadians, English Quebecers and people from other origins. ... Antiziganism or Anti-Romanyism is hostility, prejudice or racism directed at the Romani people, commonly called Gypsies. ... Serbs rule ...

Against beliefs:

Atheism · Bahá'í · Catholicism · Christianity · Hinduism · Judaism · Mormonism · Islam · Neopaganism · Protestantism · Many atheists have experienced discrimination, mainly from religious entities. ... The persecution of Baháís refers to the religious persecution of Baháís in various countries, especially in Iran, the nation of origin of the Baháí Faith, Irans largest religious minority and the location of one of the largest Baháí populations in the world. ... Anti-Catholicism is discrimination, hostility or prejudice directed at Catholics or the Catholic Church. ... Anti-Christian discrimination, anti-Christian prejudice, Christianophobia or Christophobia is a negative categorical bias against Christians or the religion of Christianity. ... Anti-Hindu prejudice is a negative perception against the practice and practitioners of Hinduism. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is discrimination, hostility or prejudice directed at Jews. ... An anti-Mormon political cartoon from the late nineteenth century. ... It has been suggested that Persecution of Muslims be merged into this article or section. ... Religious discrimination against adherents of various neopagan denominations. ... Anti-Protestantism is an institutional, ideological or emotional bias against Protestantism and its followers. ...

Manifestations

Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching · Hate speech · Hate crime · Genocide · Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Pogrom · Race war · Religious persecution · Gay bashing · The Holocaust · Armenian Genocide · Blood libel · Black Legend · Paternalism · Police brutality Slave redirects here. ... Racial profiling, also known as ethnic profiling, is the inclusion of racial or ethnic characteristics in determining whether a person is considered likely to commit a particular type of crime (see Offender Profiling). ... Lynching is a form of violence, usually execution, conceived of by its perpetrators as extrajudicial punishment for offenders or as a terrorist method of enforcing social domination. ... Hate speech is a controversial term for speech intended to degrade, intimidate, or incite violence or prejudicial action against a person or group of people based on their race, gender, age, ethnicity, nationality, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, disability, language ability, moral or political views, socioeconomic class, occupation or appearance... A Jewish cemetery in France after being defaced by Neo-Nazis. ... Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction of an ethnic or national group. ... Ethnocide is a concept related to genocide; unlike genocide, which has entered into international law, ethnocide remains primarily the province of ethnologists, who have not yet settled on a single cohesive meaning for the term. ... Ethnic cleansing refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory in order to create a supposedly ethnically pure society. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Religious persecution is systematic mistreatment of an individual or group due to their religious affiliation. ... The persecution of gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and transgendered individuals is the practice of attacking a person, usually physically, because they are or are perceived to be lesbian, gay or transgender. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group eats people as a form of human sacrifice, often accompanied by the claim of using the blood of their victims in various rituals. ... The Black Legend (Spanish: La Leyenda Negra) is a term coined by Julián Juderías in his 1914 book La leyenda negra y la verdad histórica (The Black Legend and Historical Truth), to describe what he argued was the unfair depiction of Spain and Spaniards as bloodthirsty, cruel... Image of traditional cultural paternalism: Father Junipero Serra in a modern portrayal at Mission San Juan Capistrano, California Paternalism refers usually to an attitude or a policy stemming from the hierarchic pattern of a family based on patriarchy, that is, there is a figurehead (the father, pater in Latin) that... David Kirkwood on the ground after being struck by police batons Police brutality is a term used to describe the excessive use of physical force, assault, verbal attacks, and threats by police officers and other law enforcement officers. ...

Movements

Discriminatory
Hate groups · Aryanism · Ku Klux Klan · Neo-Nazism · American Nazi Party · South African National Party · Kahanism · Supremacism · UMNO ·
Anti-discriminatory
Abolitionism · Civil rights · LGBT rights · Women's/Universal suffrage · Feminism · Masculism Men's/Fathers rights
Children's rights · Youth rights · Disability rights · Inclusion · Autistic rights · Equalism A hate group is an organized group or movement that advocates hate, hostility or violence towards a group of people or some organization upon spurious grounds, despite a wider consensus that these people are not necessarily better or worse than any others. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Aryan race is a notion mentioned in the Old Persian inscriptions and other Persian sources from c. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The National Party (Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of South Africa from June 4th 1948 until May 9th 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. ... Speaking: US-born Rabbi Meir Kahane, leader of the Kach party in the Knesset. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with chauvinism. ... Sang Saka Bangsa The United Malays National Organisation, or UMNO, (Malay: Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu), is the right-Wing and the largest political party in Malaysia and a founding member of the Barisan Nasional coalition, which has ruled the country uninterruptedly since its independence. ... This English poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... This list indexes the articles on LGBT rights in each country and significant non-country region (e. ... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ... Feminists redirects here. ... Masculism (also referred to as masculinism) is an ideology associated with the mens movement. ... Mens Rights involves the promotion of male equality, rights, and freedoms in society. ... The Fathers rights movement is a loose network of interest groups, primarily in western countries, established to campaign for equal treatment by the courts in family law issues such as child custody after divorce, child support, and paternity determinations. ... The childrens rights movement was born in the 1800s with the orphan train. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth... The disability rights movement aims to improve the quality of life of people with disabilities. ... Inclusion is a term used by activist people with disabilities and other disability rights advocates for the idea that human beings should freely, openly and happily accommodate any other human being that happens to be differently-abled without question or qualification of any kind. ... The autism rights movement (which has also been called autistic self-advocacy movement [1] and autistic liberation movement [2]) was started by adult autistic individuals in order to advocate and demand tolerance for what they refer to as neurodiversity. ... Graffiti in Madrid promoting equality, reads todos somos iguales, or we are all equal. Equalism is a name often given to forms of egalitarianism (advocacy of equality) concerned with issues of gender or race. ...

Policies

Discriminatory
Affirmative action · Apartheid · Internment · Race/Religion/Sex segregation · Racial quota · Redlining · Reparations · Reservation · Forced busing
Anti-discriminatory
Emancipation · Civil rights · Desegregation · Integration
Affirmative action refers to policies intended to promote access to education or employment aimed at a historically socio-politically non-dominant group (typically, minorities or women). ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Internment camp for Japanese in Canada during World War II Internment is the imprisonment or confinement[1] of people, commonly in large groups, without trial. ... The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home[1]. Segregation... Sex segregation is the separation, or segregation, of people according to sex or gender. ... Segregation means separation. ... Racial quotas in employment and education are numerical requirements for hiring, promoting, admitting and/or graduating members of a particular racial group. ... For the automotive term, see redline. ... In the philosophy of justice, reparation is the idea that a just sentence ought to compensate the victim of a crime appropriately. ... Reservation in Indian law is a term used to describe the governmental policy whereby a percentage of seats are reserved in the Parliament of India, State Legislative Assemblies, Central and State Civil Services, Public Sector Units, Central and State Governmental Departments and in all Public and Private Educational Institutions, except... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up emancipation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Desegregation is the process of ending racial segregation, most commonly used in reference to the United States. ... Children at a parade in North College Hill, Ohio Racial integration, or simply integration includes desegregation (the process of ending systematic racial segregation). ...

Law

Discriminatory
Anti-miscegenation · Anti-immigration · Alien and Sedition Acts · Jim Crow laws · Black codes · Apartheid laws · Ketuanan Melayu · Nuremberg Laws
Anti-discriminatory
List of anti-discrimination acts
14th Amendment · Crime of apartheid
Anti-miscegenation laws (also known as miscegenation laws) were laws that banned interracial marriage and sometimes also interracial sex. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... ======== many recent edits that had nothing to do with article. ... The Jim Crow Laws were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965. ... The Black Codes were laws passed to restrict civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans, particularly former slaves. ... The Apartheid Legislation in South Africa was a series of different laws and acts which were to help the apartheid-government to enforce the segregation of different races and cement the power and the dominance by the Whites, of substantially European descent, over the other race groups. ... United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) Youth Chief Hishammuddin Hussein brandishing the kris (dagger), an action seen by some as a defence of ketuanan Melayu. ... Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ... This is a list of anti-discrimination acts (often called discrimination acts), which are laws designed to prevent discrimination. ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... The crime of apartheid is defined by the 2002 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court which established the International Criminal Court as inhumane acts of a character similar to other crimes against humanity committed in the context of an institutionalised regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial...

Other forms

Nepotism · Cronyism · Colorism · Linguicism · Ethnocentrism · Triumphalism · Adultcentrism · Isolationism · Gynocentrism · Androcentrism · Economic discrimination This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... “Crony” redirects here. ... Colorism is a form of discrimination that is an international phenomenon, where human beings are accorded differing social and/or economic status and treatment based on skin color. ... Linguicism is a form of prejudice, an -ism along the lines of racism, ageism or sexism. ... Ethnocentrism is the tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of ones own culture. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Supremacism. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth... Isolationism is a foreign policy which combines a non-interventionist military policy and a political policy of economic nationalism (protectionism). ... Gynocentrism (Greek γυνο, gyno-, woman, χεντρον, kentron, center) is the practice, often consciously adopted, of placing female human beings or the female point of view at the center of ones view of the world and its culture and history. ... Androcentrism (Greek ανδρο, andro-, man, male, χεντρον, kentron, center) is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing male human beings or the masculine point of view at the center of ones view of the world and its culture and... Economic discrimination is a term that describes a form of discrimination based on economic factors. ...

Related topics

Bigotry · Prejudice · Supremacism · Intolerance · Tolerance · Diversity · Multiculturalism · Political correctness · Reverse discrimination · Eugenics · Racialism · Speciesism A bigot is a prejudiced person who is intolerant of opinions, lifestyles, or identities differing from his or her own. ... For with(out) prejudice in law, see Prejudice (law). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with chauvinism. ... Intolerance is the lack of ability or willingness to tolerate something. ... It has been suggested that toleration be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Diversity (business). ... The multicultural national representation of the countries of origin at the student union of San Francisco City College. ... Political correctness is the alteration of language to redress real or alleged injustices and discrimination or to avoid offense. ... Reverse discrimination is a term that is used to describe policies or acts that are seen to benefit a historically socio-politically non-dominant group (typically minorities or women), at the expense of a historically socio-politically dominant group (typically men and majority races). ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The relevance of particular information in (or previously in) this article or section is disputed. ...

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States have granted and revoked universal suffrage at various times, including Brunei since 1962. // Government Under Bruneis 1959 constitution, His Majesty Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Muizzaddin Waddaulah, is the head of state with full executive authority, including emergency powers since 1962. ...

Universal suffrage by country/state in chronological order
Year Country / Territory Notes
1755 - 1769 Corsica First self-governing nation to practice equal suffrage for women (all inhabitants over 25). Annexed by France in 1769.
1776 - 1807 New Jersey First state to include both women and blacks. There was a property requirement; but its enforcement was and is disputed. New Jersey was independent until 1789.
1792 Principality of Liège Universal suffrage (all inhabitants over 18, without distinction) in the state of Liège to elect all the members of the National Convention.
1869 Wyoming The first U.S. territory to allow women to run for the legislature. Upon the state's admission into the Union in 1890, Wyoming was the first U.S. state to grant women the voting franchise. Other Western states also had universal suffrage before 1920.
1879 - 1887 Franceville First self-governing nation to practice universal suffrage without distinction of sex or race; however, only whites could hold office. After 1887 it was jointly ruled by France and Britain and is now part of Vanuatu.
1886 - 1896 Tavolara During its republican period 1886-1896, this small island country near Sardinia practiced universal suffrage. Later it became a part of Italy.
1893 New Zealand With the inclusion of women becomes the first major nation to grant universal suffrage; however, women were not eligible to stand for parliament until 1919.
1894 South Australia Women's suffrage, but not universal. First state to also allow women as candidates for parliament. Other Australian states followed 1899-1908. Aborigines of Australia were allowed to vote, but this right was taken away at the time of Federation in 1901 and they were not allowed to vote in South Australia again until 1963.
1901 Australia Women's suffrage, but not universal; the first federal election in Australia. In 1902 restrictions were imposed on Chinese, Indians, Polynesians (except Māori) and Indigenous Australians amongst others and some of these persisted until 1965.
1906 Grand Duchy of Finland As an autonomous Grand Duchy. including women, first nation to also allow women as candidates. This was the first time when women were actually elected (19 of 200 MPs). Finland became independent with same the Universal Suffrage in 1917.
1913 Norway Including women, first independent nation to also allow women as candidates.
1915 Denmark First voting rights to anyone came in 1849, and the rules was changed a number of times. But it was not until the change of the constitution in 1915 that all men and women had influence on all chambers.
1918 Canada Last province to enact women's suffrage was Quebec in 1940; status Indians gained the right to vote in 1960.
1918 Estonia
1918 United Kingdom Women over 30 had been given the vote in 1918 with some property restrictions and in 1928 universal suffrage for all.
1918 Soviet Union With the 1918 Soviet Constitution, although direct voting and the lifting of some political restrictions not until the 1936 Soviet Constitution.
1918 Austria After the Central Powers' defeat in World War I.
1918 Czechoslovakia After the Central Powers' defeat in World War I
1918 Germany After the Central Powers' defeat in World War I. Revoked during 1935-1945 by the Nuremberg Laws. The restrictions applied also to the territories occupied by the Nazis during World War II
1918 Hungary After the Central Powers' defeat in World War I
1919 Democratic Republic of Armenia became part of the Soviet Union in 1920
1919 Azerbaijan Democratic Republic became part of the Soviet Union in 1920
1919 Democratic Republic of Georgia became part of the Soviet Union in 1921
1919 Poland
1919 Luxembourg
1919 The Netherlands universal male suffrage in 1917
1920 United States After the Civil War, Male Blacks and other minorities were guaranteed suffrage in the Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution, de jure. However, it was not enforced in the South, and some parts of the North, until the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
1921 Sweden universal male suffrage 1909, female suffrage 1921
1922 Lithuania
1922 Republic of Ireland As the Irish Free State in 1922, law adopted from British law having been part of the United Kingdom. Law subsequently carried over during changes in constitutional status in 1937 and 1949.
1923 Romania
1931 Sri Lanka (as Ceylon) Indian Tamils disenfranchised 1949
1931 Spain Male suffrage over 23. In 1933: Universal (for both Male and Female) suffrage. Revoked during Franco era, 1939-1975
1932 Brazil
1934 Turkey
1935 Burma Last free elections held in 1990. [4]
1944 France Universal male suffrage used in 1792, for the National Convention, enacted in 1793 and 1848, but restricted with length of residence in 1851; reintroduced in 1852.
1945 Italy Universal male suffrage 1912 for people 30 or older, 1918 for people 21 or older
1945 Japan Universal male suffrage 1926
1947 Republic of China (now on Taiwan) Universal suffrage under the Constitution of the Republic of China
1948 Israel Universal suffrage since independence.
1948 South Korea
1948 Belgium
1950 India As part of Constitution of India.
1951 Argentina Universal male suffrage 1912.
1952 Greece Universal male suffrage 1864; women permitted to vote in local elections 1930.
1955 Malaysia The victory of Union Party convinces the British to grant Malaysia's Independence in 1957.
1956 Colombia
1963 Iran Reforms under Shah's "White Revolution"
1964 Afghanistan Constitution transformed Afghanistan into a modern democracy. [5]
1965 Australia A murky constitutional history regarding the voting rights of Aboriginals of Australia was clarified and ratified at the federal government level and in subsequent state governments in the following years - see Human rights in Australia for more.
1971 Switzerland Introduction of women's suffrage at the federal level; for cantonal elections this was not completed until 1990.
1976 Portugal
1979 European Community (now European Union)
1984 Liechtenstein
1990 Samoa
1994 South Africa White women's suffrage in 1930.
2002 Bahrain Universal male suffrage in 1973, although parliament was suspended and dissolved in 1975 for approximately 30 years.
2003 Oman
2005 Kuwait Universal adult male suffrage since 1962, for citizens who are 21 or older, with the exception of those who, at the time of elections, serve in the armed forces and, citizens who have been naturalized for fewer than 30 years. Note: As of 2005, women who satisfy the age and citizenship requirements are allowed to vote provided both men and women vote in separate polling locations.
2006 - 2010 U.A.E. Limited, will be fully expanded by 2010.[6]
2007 Qatar Municipal elections in 1999.

Pasquale Paoli (April 6, 1725 – February 5, 1807), was a Corsican patriot and military leader, most famous for being the chief rival of French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte. ... Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of organization. ... “NJ” redirects here. ... Coat of arms The Bishopric of Liège in 1477 Capital Liège Language(s) French, Dutch, German, Walloon Religion Roman Catholicism Government Principality Prince-Bishop  - 340s–384 Saint Servatius (first bishop)  - 972–1008 Notger (first prince-bishop)  - 1792–94 François-Antoine-Marie de Méan (last) Historical era... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... United States territory is any extent of region under the jurisdiction of the federal government of the United States, including all waters (around islands or continental tracts). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      In the United States of America, a state legislature is a generic term referring to the... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the... The history of Vanuatu begins obscurely. ... Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of organization. ... Tavolara Island. ... For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ... Capital Adelaide Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Marjorie Jackson-Nelson Premier Mike Rann (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 11  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $59,819 (5th)  - Product per capita  $38,838/person (7th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  1,558,200 (5th)  - Density  1. ... The federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia formed a federation. ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ... An autonomous (subnational) entity is a subnational entity that has a certain amount of autonomy. ... A grand duchy is a territory whose head of state is a Grand Duke or Grand Duchess. ... , Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... The Indian Register is the official record of Status Indians or Registered Indians in Canada. ... The first Soviet Constitution, which governed the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, described the regime that assumed power in the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. ... The 1936 Soviet constitution, adopted on December 5, 1936, and also known as the Stalin constitution, redesigned the government of the Soviet Union. ... European military alliances in 1914. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... European military alliances in 1914. ... European military alliances in 1914. ... Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... European military alliances in 1914. ... Motto None Anthem Mer Hayrenik (Our Fatherland) Map of the Democratic Republic of Armenia from March 1919 to March 1920. ... Motto: None Anthem: AzÉ™rbaycan Respublikasının DövlÉ™t Himni March of Azerbaijan Map of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1919 to 1920. ... Anthem: Dideba Zetsit Kurtheuls (Praise Be To The Heavenly Bestower of Blessings) Map of the Democratic Republic of Georgia from November 1918 to May 1920. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Amendment XV in the National Archives 1870 celebration of the 15th amendment as a guarantee of African American rights 1867 drawing depicting the first vote by African Americans Amendment XV (the Fifteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution provides that governments in the United States may not prevent a citizen... Historic Southern United States. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ... This article is about the prior state. ... Languages Tamil Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Gonds The Tamil people are a multi-ethnic group from the Indian subcontinent with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ... This article is about a legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... The Constitution of the Republic of China (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: JhongHuá MínGuó SiànFÇŽ) is currently the basic governing document for the areas controlled by the Republic of China (ROC) , namely all of Taiwan Province, Taipei and Kaohsiung municipalities, and Kinmen county and part of... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The White Revolution was a far-reaching series of reform programs launched in 1963 by the last Shah of Iran, His Imperial Majesty Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. ... Australian Aborigines are the indigenous peoples of Australia. ... Human rights in Australia are generally respected and recognised. ... The twenty-six cantons of Switzerland are the states of the federal state of Switzerland. ... Appenzell Innerrhoden (German; French: Appenzell Rhodes-Intérieures; in English sometimes Appenzell Inner Rhodes) is a canton of Switzerland. ... UAE redirects here; for other uses of that term, see UAE (disambiguation) The United Arab Emirates is an oil-rich country situated in the south-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, comprising seven emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Quwain. ... This article is about the year. ...

Women suffrage

Main article: Women's suffrage

The first women's suffrage was granted in Corsica in 1755 and lasted until 1769. The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ... Pasquale Paoli (April 6, 1725 – February 5, 1807), was a Corsican patriot and military leader, most famous for being the chief rival of French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte. ...


Women's suffrage (with the same property qualifications as for men) was next granted in New Jersey in 1776 (the word "inhabitants" was used instead of "men") and rescinded in 1807. “NJ” redirects here. ...


The Pitcairn Islands granted restricted women's suffrage in 1838. Various other countries and states granted restricted women's suffrage in the latter half of the nineteenth century, starting with South Australia in 1861.


The first unrestricted women's suffrage in terms of voting rights (women were not initially permitted to stand for election) in a major country was granted in New Zealand. The women's suffrage bill was adopted mere weeks before the general election of 1893.


South Australia first granted women suffrage and allowed them to stand for parliament in 1894.


In 1931, the Second Spanish Republic allowed women the right of passive suffrage with three women being elected. During the discussion to extend their right to active suffrage, the Radical Socialist Victoria Kent confronted the Radical Clara Campoamor. Kent argued that Spanish women were not yet prepared to vote and, since they were too influenced by the Catholic Church they would vote for right-wing candidates. Campoamor however pleaded for women's rights regardless of orientation. Her point finally prevailed and, in the election of 1933, the political right won with the vote of citizens of any sex over 23. Both Campoamor and Kent lost their seats. Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Surrender to Franco April 1, 1939 Currency Spanish peseta... Victoria Kent (Málaga, 1898 - New York, 1987) was a Spanish lawyer and republican politician. ...


References

See also

  • Suffragette
  • This entry is related to, but not included in the elections and voting series. Other related articles can be found at the Politics Portal.

Suffragette with banner, Washington DC, 1918 The title of suffragette (also occasionally spelled suffraget) was given to members of the womens suffrage movement in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the political process. ... Voting is a method of decision making wherein a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ...

External links


 
 

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