FACTOID # 28: Austin, Texas has more people than Alaska.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Universal Media Disc
A UMD
A UMD
Optical disc authoring
Optical media types
Standards

The Universal Media Disc (UMD) is an optical disc medium developed by Sony for use on the PlayStation Portable. It can hold up to 1.8 gigabytes of data, which can include games, movies, music, or a combination thereof. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (685x694, 215 KB)Source: [1] It does not impinge on Sonys ability to sell products. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (685x694, 215 KB)Source: [1] It does not impinge on Sonys ability to sell products. ... In computing, optical disc authoring, including CD authoring and DVD authoring, known often as burning, is the process of recording source material—video, audio or other data—onto an optical disc (compact disc or DVD). ... The optical lens of a compact disc drive. ... It has been suggested that ISO image be merged into this article or section. ... A CD recorder drive. ... Optical disc authoring software is computer software for authoring optical discs including CD-ROMs and DVDs. ... CD and DVD recorders for authoring optical discs such as CD-ROMs and DVDs have a history of various technologies. ... In optical disc authoring, there are multiple modes for recording, including Disc-At-Once, Track-At-Once, and Session-At-Once. ... Packet writing is an optical disc recording technology used to allow writeable CD and DVD media to be used in a similar manner to a floppy disk. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Compact Disc ReWritable (CD-RW) is a rewritable optical disc format. ... See also IBMs VM operating system family, where minidisk refers to a logical unit of storage. ... DVD (commonly known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ... A DVD+R disc The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... DVD-R DL (Dual Layer) (Also Known as DVD-R9) is a derivative of the DVD-R format standard. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... DVD+R DL (Double Layer), also known as DVD+R9, is a derivative of the DVD+R format created by the DVD+RW Alliance. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... You can recognize a DVD-RAM immediately because visually there are lots of little rectangles distributed on the surface of the data carrier. ... A Blu-ray Disc (also called BD) is a high-density optical disc format for the storage of digital media, including high-definition video. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... HD-DVD disc HD DVD (for High Density Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical media format which is being developed as one standard for high-definition DVD. HD DVD is similar to the competing Blu-ray Disc, which also uses the same CD sized (120 mm diameter) optical data... HD DVD-R is the writable disc variant of HD DVD, and is now currently available with a single-layer capacity of 15GB. Currently, HD DVD-R has slower write speeds than the competing BD-R format (1–2x vs 1–4x) and lower storage capacity. ... An example of proposed HD DVD-RAM media. ... Ultra Density Optical (UDO) is a next-generation optical disc format designed for high-density storage of high-definition video and data. ... The Rainbow Books are a collection of standards defining the allowed formats of Compact Discs. ... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... Joliet is the name of an extension to the ISO 9660 file system. ... The Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol (RRIP, IEEE P1282) is an extension to the ISO 9660 volume format which adds POSIX file system semantics. ... The Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol (RRIP, IEEE P1282) is an extension to the ISO 9660 volume format which adds POSIX file system semantics. ... The El Torito Bootable CD Specification is an extension to the ISO 9660 CD-ROM specification. ... Overview Apple Macintosh computers use the HFS (or HFS+) file system on hard disks, mainly. ... The Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a format specification of a file system for storing files on optical media. ... The Mount Rainier logo Mount Rainier is a format for re-writable optical discs which provides for packet writing and defect management. ... The optical lens of a compact disc drive. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... It has been suggested that GoMax be merged into this article or section. ... A gigabyte (derived from the SI prefix giga-) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to one billion (short scale, meaning a thousand million) bytes. ... It has been suggested that Multiplayer game be merged into this article or section. ... Film is a term that encompasses individual motion pictures, the field of film as an art form, and the motion picture industry. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Overview

Specifications

ECMA-365: Data Interchange on 60 mm Read-Only ODC - Capacity: 1.8 GB (UMD™)[1] Ecma International is an international membership-based standards organization for information and communication systems. ...

  • Dimensions: approx. 65 mm (W) × 64 mm (D) × 4.2 mm (H)
  • Maximum capacity: 1.80 GB (dual layer), 900 MB (single-layer)
  • Laser wavelength: 660 nm (red laser)
  • Encryption: AES 128-bit

A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter), symbol mm is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... The wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a wave pattern. ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer) is 1. ... For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ... This article is about algorithms for encryption and decryption. ... In cryptography, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known as Rijndael, is a block cipher adopted as an encryption standard by the U.S. government. ...

Regions

DVD region coding has been applied to most UMD movies, although this restriction mechanism is not enabled for game releases.

  • Region 0: Worldwide (in-flight-movies, cinemas, ferries etc.)
  • Region 1: United States, Canada
  • Region 2: European Union, Japan, Middle East, Egypt, South Africa, Greenland
  • Region 3: Taiwan, South Korea, the Philippines, Indonesia, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore
  • Region 4: Australia, New Zealand, Pacific Islands, Mexico & South America
  • Region 5: Russia, Eastern Europe, India, most of Africa, North Korea, Mongolia
  • Region 6: China

Digital Rights Management

In an effort to combat piracy and maintain exclusive control, the UMD Disk format is proprietary, and neither blank media nor media writers are available to the public.


Applications

The primary application for UMD discs is as a storage medium for PSP games, although the format is also being used for the storage of motion pictures, and to a lesser degree, television shows for playback on the PSP. The video is encoded in the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC format, with the audio in ATRAC3plus. It has been suggested that GoMax be merged into this article or section. ... H.264, MPEG-4 Part 10, or AVC (for Advanced Video Coding), is a digital video codec standard that is noted for achieving very high data compression. ... ATRAC (Adaptive TRansform Acoustic Coding) is an audio compression algorithm used to store information on Minidiscs and other Sony-branded audio players. ...


The BBC began releasing a number of its TV titles on UMD in the UK, including The Office, Doctor Who and Little Britain. The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion... For other uses, see Television (disambiguation). ... The Office is a British television comedy series, created, written and directed by Ricky Gervais and Stephen Merchant, and first aired in the UK on BBC Two on July 9, 2001. ... Doctor Who is a long-running British science fiction television programme (and 1996 television movie) produced by the BBC about the adventures of a mysterious time-traveller known as the Doctor, who explores time and space with his companions, solving problems and righting wrongs. ... Little Britain is a character-based BBC radio and television sketch show written by and starring Matt Lucas and David Walliams. ...


Some adult films have been released on UMD in Japan[2]. Sony does not officially approve of such content, however, the enormous market in Japan for these releases is supporting the PSP's sales. Sony has thus refrained from taking action. Pornographic movies appeared shortly after the creation of the movie technology that made them possible. ...


Circumvention

Despite Sony's best efforts, the UMD format has been cracked. Using a combination of insecure firmware and reverse engineering, the Sony PSP can now use a variety of homebrew games, and legally backed up games or illegally downloaded ISOs. Each disc uses a file system whose format follows the ISO 9660 standard. The ISO image can then be stored on a Memory Stick, and run via a special disc emulator program. The ISO images cannot be burned to UMD discs as UMD writables and burners are not available. The same game will load much faster when stored as an ISO image on a Memory Stick when compared with the original UMD. Software cracking is the modification of software to remove protection methods: copy prevention, trial/demo version, serial number, hardware key, CD check or software annoyances like nag screens and adware. ... Reverse engineering (RE) is the process of taking something (a device, an electrical component, a software program, etc. ... Homebrew is a term frequently applied only to video games that are produced by consumers on proprietary game platforms; in other words, game platforms that are not typically user-programmable, or use proprietary hardware for storage. ... In computing, a file system (often also written as filesystem) is a method for storing and organizing computer files and the data they contain to make it easy to find and access them. ... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... Sony 128 MB Memory Stick with MagicGate support. ...


Sony has attempted to halt this type of exploitation by updating the firmware. Versions 1.51 and later of the PSP firmware have attempted to patch the exploit. Recent games also come with a 'software switch' that force users to update before the game can be played. This has also been circumvented: some applications for 1.50 report the firmware version as being more recent than it actually is,or firmware spoofing, bypassing the need to update. This has since been fixed by Sony and no longer works. Firmware versions 1.5 to 3.33 have been decrypted and 1.50, 2.71, 3.02, 3.03 and 3.10 have been converted into custom firmwares. These firmwares allow people to run ISOs that they own from their XMB interface in addition to other homebrew available. In computing, firmware is software that is embedded in a hardware device. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


As of August 2005, the first batch of pirated UMD ISOs have reportedly been seen in Hong Kong for as little as HK $20 (less than US$3, €2 or £1.50).[citation needed] An ISO image (.iso) is an informal term for a disk image of an ISO 9660 file system. ...


Criticism

Although the UMD discs offer large capacity and the capability to store quality audio/video content, the format's proprietary nature and the unavailability of writers and blank media have spawned criticisms. Comparisons to Sony's unsuccessful MiniDisc format have brought forth further criticisms; for instance, the sliding shield which prevents direct disc contact on MiniDiscs is absent from all UMDs released to date, though it is an option according to the ECMA specification.[citation needed] See also IBMs VM operating system family, where minidisk refers to a logical unit of storage. ...


For security reasons, and to protect DVD sales, Sony has no plans to support UMD playback on normal televisions.[3] While the lack of this feature has little bearing on game sales, it has affected the sale of UMD format movies. To allow the PSP to output to a TV set requires either a third-party modification that requires the removal of the faceplate among other hardware modifications, or a device such as the Nyko PSP-to-TV adapter that uses a CCD camera to display the PSP screen on a TV using RCA connectors. It has yet to be seen if such products will help poor UMD movie sales. For other uses, see Television (disambiguation). ... Nyko is a manufacturer of 3rd party accesories for various gaming consoles. ... A specially developed CCD used for ultraviolet imaging in a wire bonded package. ... RCA Plugs for composite video and stereo audio An RCA jack, also referred to as a phono connector or CINCH/AV connector, is a type of electrical connector that is commonly used in the audio/video market. ...


The smaller capacity of the UMD discs necessitates that bonus content from DVD releases be removed in large part or entirely before the movie is released on UMD for PSP playback. This has made the UMD movie releases a difficult sell in the face of affordable portable DVD players that can output to TV sets and can play the full-featured DVD releases. UMD movie pricing was also originally higher than DVD pricing, although UMDs have largely fallen to a more reasonable price. Due to the slow sales of UMD movies, some retailers, such as Tower Records, began offering incentives on UMD purchases, such as 'buy one, get one free' deals.


In February 2006, Paramount Home Entertainment, Warner Home Video, and even Sony Pictures Home Entertainment announced that they were cutting back releases for the PSP, citing disappointing sales of about 50,000 per title. [4] In March 2006, Reuters reported that Wal-Mart was considering abandoning sales of the format, and that Universal Studios Home Entertainment and Image Entertainment had ceased production. [5] Other studios have reportedly reduced their commitment to the format as well. Paramount Home Entertainment (formerly Paramount Home Video) is a home video company founded in 1981. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sony Pictures Home Entertainment is the home video, DVD, and UMD distribution arm of Sony Pictures Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation. ... Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. ... Universal Studios Home Entertainment (formerly Universal Studios Home Video or MCA/Universal Home Video) is a home video company founded in 1979. ... Image Entertainment is a major home video and television distribution company that has handled digital media distribution of television programs, public domain and copyrighted feature films, and music concerts. ...


In summer 2006, Target began pulling UMDs from shelves and replacing them with a section of independent movies selected by the Independent Film Channel. [6] While not yet effective at all stores, the response from the corporation was that the UMDs will be shipped back to distribution centers to fulfill online orders through the Target website. [7] PSP games on UMD discs will be unaffected by this change and will still be carried by all Target stores. This article is about the United States retail company. ... An independent film, or indie film, is usually a low-budget film that is produced by a small movie studio. ... IFC logo The Independent Film Channel (IFC), launched in September, 1994, is a premium digital cable channel dedicated to presenting independent films, unedited and commercial-free. ...


In September 2006, a lower pricing led to a tenfold increase of sales in Japan, suggesting one of the main causes of slow sales was too high a price tag. [8]


Games on UMD take a long time to load, the worst take up to 4 minutes to start.[9]


References

  1. ^ Ecma International (June 2005). Data Interchange on 60 mm Read-Only ODC—Capacity: 1,8 Gbytes (UMD™) (PDF).
  2. ^ GameSpot Staff (June 2005). PSP procures porn in Japan.
  3. ^ Taylor, Jim; Johnson, Mark R.; Crawford, Charles G. [2006]. DVD Demystified, third edition, McGraw-Hill: New York, 9:71. 
  4. ^ Sony PSP UMD movie sales not so hot – Mobilemag
  5. ^ "Sony's UMD facing last rites", Reuters
    UMD about to be ditched by Wal-Mart? – Engadget
  6. ^ Target Rep Confirms: UMDs "Discontinued" Nationwide – Gamepro
  7. ^ UMDs shipped back to Target distribution centers - Video Business
  8. ^ UMD price drop leads to sales jump in Japan – Engadget
  9. ^ [1]

Ecma International is an international membership-based standards organization for information and communication systems. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Universal Media Disc: Information from Answers.com (1518 words)
The Universal Media Disc (UMD) is an optical disc medium developed by Sony for use on the PlayStation Portable.
The primary application for UMD discs is as a storage medium for PSP games, although the format is also being used for the storage of motion pictures, and to a lesser degree, television shows for playback on the PSP.
Although the UMD discs offer large capacity and the capability to store quality audio/video content, the format's proprietary nature and the unavailability of writers and blank media have spawned criticisms, especially of Sony's use of the word 'Universal' in the format name.
Disc Labeling (515 words)
The Universal Media Disc itself comes in a small protective cartridge which is packaged in a special UMD box.
UMD is a brand-new and ground-breaking optical storage medium, designed for the high speed and efficient delivery of digital entertain-ment content, including game, music and movies across a wide range of consumer electronic devices.
Kutaragi says that they have already proposed UMD disc media as an open standard for everyone and the game profile will be unique for PSP but movie and music should be a common application for everyone.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m