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Encyclopedia > Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Eleanor Roosevelt with the Spanish version of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Eleanor Roosevelt with the Spanish version of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Created 1948
Ratified December 10, 1948
Location
Authors John Peters Humphrey, among others
Purpose Human rights

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (abbreviated UDHR) is an advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). It consists of 30 articles which outline the view of the General Assembly on the human rights guaranteed to all people. The International Bill of Human Rights consists of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and its two Optional Protocols. In 1966 the General Assembly adopted the two detailed Covenants which complete the International Bill of Human Rights; and in 1976, after the Covenants had been ratified by a sufficient number of individual nations, the Bill took on the force of international law.[1] Image File history File links EleanorRooseveltHumanRights. ... Anna Eleanor Roosevelt known as Eleanor (IPA: ; October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was an American political leader who used her influence as an active First Lady from 1933 to 1945 to promote the New Deal policies of her husband, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, as well as taking a prominent... Ratification is the act of giving official sanction to a formal document such as a treaty or constitution. ... John Peters Humphrey (April 30, 1905 – May 14, 1995) was a Canadian legal scholar, jurist, and human rights advocate. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA, UNGA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations and the only one which all member nations have equal representation. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the 16th century, Catherine de Medici built herself a house in the country here on Chaillot hill, later occupied by the Marshall of Bassompière. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikisource. ... Parties to the ICCPR: members in green, non-members in grey The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is a United Nations treaty based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, created in 1966 and entered into force on 23 March 1976. ...

Contents

History

Prior to the proclamation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, several countries had proclaimed comparable declarations. Examples include the Bill of Rights in the United States, and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen in France. The United States Bill of Rights consists of the first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution. ... Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen: Revolutionary patriotism borrows familiar iconography of the Ten Commandments Wikisource has original text related to this article: Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (French: La...


Creation

When the atrocities committed by Nazi Germany became apparent after the Second World War, the consensus within the world community was that the United Nations Charter did not sufficiently define the rights it referenced. [citation needed] A universal declaration that specified the rights of individuals was necessary [2]. Canadian John Peters Humphrey was called upon by the UN Secretary-General to work on the project and became the Declaration's principal drafter. Humphrey was assisted by Eleanor Roosevelt of the United States, Jacques Maritain and René Cassin of France, Charles Malik of Lebanon, and P. C. Chang of the Republic of China, among others. The proclamation was ratified during the General Assembly on 10 December 1948 by a vote of 48 in favour, 0 against, with 8 abstentions (all Soviet Bloc states, South Africa and Saudi Arabia).[3] Despite the central role played by Canadian John Humphrey, the Canadian Government at first abstained from voting on the Declaration's draft, but later voted in favor of the final draft in the General Assembly.[4] Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... John Peters Humphrey (April 30, 1905 – May 14, 1995) was a Canadian legal scholar, jurist, and human rights advocate. ... The United Nations Secretary-General is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal divisions of the United Nations. ... Anna Eleanor Roosevelt known as Eleanor (IPA: ; October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was an American political leader who used her influence as an active First Lady from 1933 to 1945 to promote the New Deal policies of her husband, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, as well as taking a prominent... Jacques Maritain Jacques Maritain (November 18, 1882 – April 28, 1973) was a French Catholic philosopher. ... Memorial for Cassin in Forbach/France René Samuel Cassin (5 October 1887 – 20 February 1976) was a French jurist and judge. ... Charles Malik Charles Habib Malik (1906 - 1987) was a Lebanese Christian philosopher and diplomat. ... P. C. Chang (also: Peng-chun Chang, Zhang Pengjun) (1892 - 1957) was a Chinese professor, philosopher and playwright. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Structure and legal implications

The document is laid out in the civil law tradition, including a preamble followed by thirty articles. It was conceived as a statement of objectives to be followed by governments. Some international lawyers believe that the Declaration forms part of customary international law and is a powerful tool in applying diplomatic and moral pressure to governments that violate any of its articles. The 1968 United Nations International Conference on Human Rights advised that it "constitutes an obligation for the members of the international community" to all persons. The declaration has served as the foundation for the original two legally non-binding UN human rights covenants, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. It continues to be widely cited by academics, advocates, and constitutional courts. For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... Look up Preamble in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Customary international law Unwritten law applied to the behaviour of nations. ... Parties to the ICCPR: members in green, non-members in grey The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is a United Nations treaty based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, created in 1966 and entered into force on 23 March 1976. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikisource. ...


Praise and Criticism

Praise

  • "Taken as a whole, the Delegation of the United States believes that this is a good document – even a great document – and we propose to give it our full support. [...] In giving our approval to the Declaration today it is of primary importance that we keep clearly in mind the basic character of the document. It is not a treaty; it is not an international agreement. It is not and does not purport to be a statement of law or of legal obligation. It is a Declaration of basic principles of human rights and freedoms[....] This Universal Declaration of Human Rights may well become the international Magna Carta of all men everywhere."
Eleanor Roosevelt, first chairwoman of the Commission on Human Rights (CHR) that drafted the Declaration, [5] 9 December 1948.
  • "For people of good will around the world, that document is more than just words: It's a global testament of humanity, a standard by which any humble person on Earth can stand in judgment of any government on Earth."
Former U.S. President Ronald Reagan (March 1989, US Department of State Bulletin)
  • In a speech on 5 October 1995, Pope John Paul II called the UDHR "one of the highest expressions of the human conscience of our time".
  • Statement by Marcello Spatafora on behalf of the European Union on 10 December 2003: "Over the past 55 years, humanity has made extraordinary progress in the promotion and protection of human rights thanks to the creative force generated by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, undoubtedly one of the most influential documents in history. It is a remarkable document, full of idealism but also of determination to learn lessons from the past and not to repeat the same mistakes. Most importantly, it placed human rights at the centre of the framework of principles and obligations shaping relations within the international community."

Anna Eleanor Roosevelt known as Eleanor (IPA: ; October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was an American political leader who used her influence as an active First Lady from 1933 to 1945 to promote the New Deal policies of her husband, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, as well as taking a prominent... A Human Rights Commission is a body set up to investigate and protect human rights. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Human nature (disambiguation). ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... Reagan redirects here. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Official papal image of John Paul II. His Holiness Pope John Paul II, né Karol Józef Wojtyła (born May 18, 1920 in Wadowice, Poland), is the current Pope — the Bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church. ... François Chifflart (1825-1901), La Conscience (daprès Victor Hugo) Conscience is an ability or faculty or sense that leads to feelings of remorse when we do things that go against our moral values, or which informs our moral judgment before performing such an action. ... Image:Marcello Spatafora. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Banners of the international community at the United Nations in Geneva The term international community is a political phrase that can refer to either: All the lands represented within the United Nations. ...

Islamic criticism

  • Predominantly Islamic countries, like Sudan, Pakistan, Iran, and Saudi Arabia, frequently criticized the Universal Declaration of Human Rights for its perceived failure to take into account the cultural and religious context of non-Western countries. In 1981, the Iranian representative to the United Nations, Said Rajaie-Khorassani, articulated the position of his country regarding the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, by saying that the UDHR was "a secular understanding of the Judeo-Christian tradition", which could not be implemented by Muslims without trespassing the Islamic law.[6]

Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Occident redirects here. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... This article is about secularism. ... Jacob wrestling an angel, by Gustave Doré (1832-1883), a shared Judeo-Christian story. ... The flag of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) is an inter-governmental organization with a Permanent Delegation to the United Nations. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam The Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam (CDHRI) is a declaration of the member states of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, which provides an overview on the Islamic perspective on human rights, and...

Other criticism

  • Jeane Kirkpatrick, U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, argued that certain economic rights cannot be human rights, for they must be provided by others through forceful extraction, for example taxation, and that they negate other peoples' inalienable rights.[10] Kirkpatrick called the Declaration "a letter to Santa Claus",[11] saying "Neither nature, experience, nor probability informs these lists of 'entitlements', which are subject to no constraints except those of the mind and appetite of their authors."[12]
  • Article 29(3) of the UDHR states that "These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations." While some feel this effectively places the UN above its own law, which they argue is hypocritical, others point out that the "purposes and principles" of the United Nations refers to principles and goals agreed upon by its Member States, and directed towards world peace, rather than to any functions or operations of the United Nations as an organization.
  • Sometimes specific provisions are singled out for criticism because of their content. For example, Article 26 promotes the ideal of free universal education, and is sometimes derided as "the right to force someone else to pay for my child's education." The right to hold property in common with others is sometimes opposed by anti-corporate activists. The right to marry outside of your caste or clan is opposed by many segregationists.

Jeane Kirkpatrick Jeane Jordan Kirkpatrick (November 19, 1926 â€“ December 7, 2006) was an American ambassador and an ardent anticommunist. ... This is a list of ambassadors from the United States. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... See Franklin Roosevelts Second Bill of Rights. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... A typical depiction of Santa Claus. ...

Languages

The Guinness Book of Records describes the UDHR as the "Most Translated Document"[13] in the world. Suresh Joachim, minutes away from breaking the ironing world record at 55 hours and 5 minutes, at Shoppers World, Brampton. ...


References in entertainment

The rock band U2 projected the UDHR onto an enormous screen after performing their song "Miss Sarajevo", and "Running to Stand Still" during their Vertigo tour. Their presentation also included individuals from around the world speaking selected articles of the UDHR. The full UDHR was used during the European and South American legs whilst an edited version was used for audiences in the United States. This article is about the Irish rock band. ... Miss Sarajevo is the only single from Passengers 1995 album, Original Soundtracks No. ... Running to Stand Still is a song on U2s 1987 album The Joshua Tree. ...


The Australian Wave Aid concerts following the 2004 Boxing Day Tsunami featured a large banner containing certain articles of the UDHR. WaveAid was a fund raising concert held on Saturday the 25th of January, 2005 as a means for raising funds for the victims of the Boxing Day Tsunami. ... For related articles, including charities accepting donations, see Category:2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. ...


See also

Celebration of the 60th Anniversary of UDHR

  • UDHR 60 Connecticut Conference - December 2008,

Non-binding agreements

The Cyrus Cylinder. ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... The Declaration of Sentiments is a document signed in 1848 by 68 women and 32 men, delegates to the first womens rights convention, in Seneca Falls, New York, now known to historians as the 1848 Womens Rights Convention. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam The Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam (CDHRI) is a declaration of the member states of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, which provides an overview on the Islamic perspective on human rights, and... Human rights declaration adopted by the World Conference on Human Rights, 25 June 1993 in Vienna, Austria. ... The Millennium Declaration is a United Nations resolution, adopted at the 8th plenary meeting on September 8, 2000, with nine major development goals. ...

National human rights law

The Cáin Adomnáin (Law of Adomnán), also known as the Lex Innocentium (Law of Innocents) was promulgated amongst a gathering of Irish, Dal Ríatan and Pictish notables at a location known as Birr in 697. ... Magna Carta Magna Carta (Latin for Great Charter, literally Great Paper), also called Magna Carta Libertatum (Great Charter of Freedoms), is an English charter originally issued in 1215. ... The Bill of Rights 1689 is an English Act of Parliament with the long title An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties of the Subject and Settling the Succession of the Crown and known colloquially in the UK as the Bill of Rights. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Claim of Right The Claim of Right is an Act passed by the Parliament of Scotland in April 1689. ... The Virginia Declaration of Rights is a declaration by the Virginia Convention of Delegates of rights of individuals and a call for independence from Britain. ... The United States Bill of Rights consists of the first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution. ... Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen: Revolutionary patriotism borrows familiar iconography of the Ten Commandments Wikisource has original text related to this article: Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (French: La... The Soviet Union was governed by three versions of its Constitution, following the 1918 Soviet Constitution which established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, the immediate predecessor of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. ... The Charter, signed by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in 1981. ...

International human rights law

“ECHR” redirects here. ... The United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees is an international convention that defines who is a refugee, and sets out the rights of individuals who are granted asylum and the responsibilities of nations that grant asylum. ... The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD) is a United Nations convention adopted and opened for signature and ratification by United Nations General Assembly resolution 2106 (XX) December 21, 1965, and which entered into force January 4, 1969. ... Parties to the ICCPR: members in green, non-members in grey The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is a United Nations treaty based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, created in 1966 and entered into force on 23 March 1976. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikisource. ... Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women Opened for signature 18 December 1979 in New York City Entered into force 3 September 1981 Conditions for entry into force 20 ratifications Parties 185[1] The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW... Convention on the Rights of the Child Opened for signature 20 November 1989 in - Entered into force September 2, 1990 Conditions for entry into force 20 ratifications or accessions (Article 49) Parties 193 (only 2 non-parties: USA and Somalia) The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child... The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union is a document containing human rights provisions, solemnly proclaimed by the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, and the European Commission in December 2000. ...

Other

Peace Palace in The Hague Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard, or the Medina standard is the doctrine of hierarchical accountability in cases of war crimes. ... The Great Ape Project, founded by Italian philosopher Paola Cavalieri and Australian philosopher Peter Singer, is campaigning to have the United Nations endorse a Declaration on Great Apes. ... Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... John Peters Humphrey (April 30, 1905 – May 14, 1995) was a Canadian legal scholar, jurist, and human rights advocate. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Paul Williams, Ed., "The International Bill of Human Rights", Entwhistle, 1981. This is the first book edition (ISBN 0-034558-07-8) of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, with a forward by Jimmy Carter.
  2. ^ http://www.universalrights.net/main/creation.htm
  3. ^ See http://www.unac.org/rights/question.html under "Who are the signatories of the Declaration?"
  4. ^ http://www.journal.law.mcgill.ca/abs/vol43/2schab.pdf
  5. ^ Eleanor Roosevelt: Address to the United Nations General Assembly
  6. ^ Littman, David. "Universal Human Rights and Human Rights in Islam". Midstream, February/March 1999 http://mypage.bluewin.ch/ameland/Islam.html
  7. ^ http://www.oic-oci.org/
  8. ^ http://www.oic-oci.org/english/conf/fm/27/27th-fm-political(3).htm#60
  9. ^ http://www.religlaw.org/interdocs/docs/cairohrislam1990.htm
  10. ^ See Capitalism Magazine - United Nations Declaration of Human Rights Destroys Individual Rights Retrieved 22 June 2006.
  11. ^ http://www.humaninfo.org/aviva/ch65.htm
  12. ^ http://www.unsystem.org/SCN/archives/scnnews18/ch06.htm
  13. ^ "The United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education", 1995 - 2004", United Nations General Assembly, issued 7 Sept 2000, retrieved 7 May 2007.[1]

Paul Williams is the name of three popular music musicians: Paul Williams, songwriter for Carpenters and many others, as well as actor in movies and TV. Paul Williams, rhythm and blues saxophonist Paul Williams, one of the lead singers of the popular Motown act The Temptations Other Paul Williams: Paul... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ...

Further reading

  • Johannes Morsink, "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Origins, Drafting & Intent" (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999).
  • John Nurser, "For All Peoples and All Nations. Christian Churches and Human Rights.". (Geneva: WCC Publications, 2005).

External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Look up Universal Declaration of Human Rights in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Text of the UDHR (English)
  • Official translations of the UDHR
  • Librivox: Human-read audio recordings in several Languages
  • Questions and answers about the Universal Declaration
  • WORLD CONFERENCES ON HUMAN RIGHTS AND MILLENNIUM DECLARATION
  • Text, Audio, and Video excerpt of Eleanor Roosevelt's Address to the United Nations on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
  • Proposal for a Privacy Protection Guideline on Secret Personal Data Gathering and Transborder Flows of Such Data in the Fight against Terrorism and Serious Crime by Marcel Stuessi

 
 

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