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Encyclopedia > United Kingdom
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland[11]
Flag of the United Kingdom Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom
Flag Royal coat of arms
Motto
"Dieu et mon droit"[12]  (French)
"God and my right"
Anthem
"God Save the Queen"[13]
Location of the  United Kingdom  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (light green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (light green) UK or Uk may represent any number of things: United Kingdom: commonly UK, country code GB, internet domain . ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links UK_Royal_Coat_of_Arms. ... Flag Ratio: 1:2 Flag Ratio: 3:5 The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland uses as its national flag the Royal Banner commonly known as the Union Flag or, popularly, Union Jack (although officially this title should only be given to the flag when it is flown... The Royal Arms as used in England, Wales and Northern Ireland The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. These arms are used by the Queen in her official capacity as monarch, and are officially... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... Dieu et mon droit (French for God and my [birth] right) has generally been used as the motto of the British monarch since it was adopted by Henry V (1413-22). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Publication of an early version in The Gentlemans Magazine, 15 October 1745. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 721 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2056 × 1710 pixel, file size: 176 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

Capital
(and largest city)
London
51°30′N, 0°7′W
Official languages English[14] (de facto)
Recognised regional languages Irish Gaelic, Ulster Scots, Scots, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh, Cornish[15]
Demonym British, Briton
Government Constitutional monarchy (Parliamentary democracy)
 -  Monarch HM Queen Elizabeth II
 -  Prime Minister Gordon Brown
Formation
 -  Acts of Union May 1, 1707 
 -  Act of Union January 1, 1801 
 -  Anglo-Irish Treaty April 12, 1922 
Accession to
the
 European Union
January 1, 1973
Area
 -  Total 244,820 km² (79th)
94,526 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.34
Population
 -  mid-2006 estimate 60,587,300[1] (22nd)
 -  2001 census 58,789,194[16] 
 -  Density 246 /km² (48th)
637 /sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $2.375 trillion (5th)
 -  Per capita $35,051 (11th)
GDP (nominal) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $2.660.7 trillion[17] (5th)
 -  Per capita $38,624 (13th)
Gini? (1999) 36.8 (medium
HDI (2006) 0.940 (high) (18th)
Currency Pound sterling (£) (GBP)
Time zone GMT (UTC+0)
 -  Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1)
Internet TLD .uk[18]
Calling code +44
^  In the United Kingdom and Dependencies, some other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous (regional) languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, the UK's official name is as follows:
Cornish: Rywvaneth Unys Breten Veur ha Kledhbarth Iwerdhon; Irish: Ríocht Aontaithe na Breataine Móire agus Thuaisceart Éireann; Scots: Unitit Kinrick o Graet Breetain an Northren Irland; Scottish Gaelic: An Rìoghachd Aonaichte na Breatainn Mhòr agus Eirinn a Tuath; Welsh: Teyrnas Unedig Prydain Fawr a Gogledd Iwerddon.
^  This is the royal motto. In Scotland, the royal motto is the Latin phrase Nemo Me Impune Lacessit ("No-one provokes me with impunity"). There is also a variant form of the coat-of-arms for use in Scotland; see Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom.
^  See #Symbols below. It also serves as the Royal anthem.
^  English is established by de facto usage. In Wales, the Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg is tasked with ensuring that, "in the conduct of public business and the administration of justice, the English and Welsh languages should be treated on a basis of equality".[2][3] The Bòrd na Gàidhlig is tasked with "securing the status of the Gaelic language as an official language of Scotland commanding equal respect to the English language".[4]
^ Under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages the Welsh, Scottish Gaelic, Cornish, Irish, Ulster Scots and Scots languages are officially recognised as Regional or Minority languages by the UK Government.[5] See also Languages in the United Kingdom.
^  CIA Factbook. Official estimate provided by the UK Office for National Statistics.[6]
^  ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 is GB, but .gb is practically unused. The .eu domain is also shared with other European Union member states.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK, or Britain)[7] is a country[8][9] to the north-west of mainland Europe. It comprises the island of Great Britain, the north-east part of the island of Ireland and many small local islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the UK with a land border, sharing it with the Republic of Ireland.[10][11][12] Apart from this land border, the UK is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, the English Channel and the Irish Sea. The largest island, Great Britain, is linked to France by the Channel Tunnel. Not to be confused with capitol. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with English population statistics. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... This article is about the modern Goidelic language. ... Ulster Scots, also known as Ullans, Hiberno-Scots, or Scots-Irish, refers to the variety of Scots (sometimes referred to as Lowland Scots) spoken in parts of the province of Ulster, which spans the six counties of Northern Ireland and three of the Republic of Ireland. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Languages Cornish, Dgèrnésiais, English, French, Irish, Jèrriais, Manx, Scots, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh, Llanito Religions Anglican, Presbyterianism, Roman Catholicism - Related ethnic groups British-Americans, Anglo-Celtic Australian, Anglo-African, Belongers, English Canadians, Channel Islanders, Cornish, English, Anglo-Irish, Ulster-Scots, Irish, Manx, New Zealand European, Scottish, Welsh British... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not bound by a... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... The Act of Union 1800 merged the Kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain (itself a merger of England and Wales and Scotland under the Act of Union 1707) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty, officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the extra-judicial Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... Gross domestic product (by purchasing power parity) in 2006 The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... One million million (1,000,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,000,001. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita for the year 2006. ... One million million (1,000,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,000,001. ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita for the year 2006. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2006). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (2006) (colour-blind compliant map) This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ... “GBP” redirects here. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... “GMT” redirects here. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... Though DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving British Summer Time (BST) is the changing of the clocks in effect in the United Kingdom and Irish Summer Time (IST) in Republic of Ireland between the last Sunday in March and the last Sunday in October each... “UTC” redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... A telephone number is a sequence of decimal digits (0-9) that is used for identifying a destination telephone line in a telephone network. ... This is a trivia section. ... The United Kingdom does not have a constitutionally defined official language. ... An autochthonous language is an indigenous language, one resident for a considerable length of time in a territory or region spoken by an autochthonous group. ... A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... // The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe. ... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one wounds me with impunity, literally meaning (lacessere = to appeal to, to provoke, to attack): No one provokes me with impunity) is the royal Scottish motto, used historically for the Kingdom of Scotland where it appeared on the Royal Arms of Scotland. ... The Royal Arms as used in England, Wales and Northern Ireland The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. These arms are used by the Queen in her official capacity as monarch, and are officially... A royal anthem is a patriotic song, much like a national anthem that recognizes the nations monarch. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... This article is about the country. ... The Welsh Language Board (in Welsh, Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg) is a statutory body set up by the British Government as part of the 1992 Welsh Language Act. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Bòrd na Gàidhlig /borst na ga:lIk/ is the Scottish government appointed agency with responsibility for Scottish Gaelic. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... This article is about the country. ... // The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe. ... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ... Ulster-Scots are an Irish ethnic group descended from mainly Lowland Scots who settled in the Province of Ulster in Ireland, first beginning in large numbers during the 17th century. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a country. ... The agencies responsible for the government of the United Kingdom consist of a number of ministerial departments (usually headed by a Secretary of State) and non-ministerial departments headed by senior civil servants. ... The United Kingdom does not have a constitutionally defined official language. ... Office for National Statistics logo The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the United Kingdom government executive agency charged with the collection and publication of statistics related to the economy, population and society of the United Kingdom at national and local levels. ... ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 codes are two-letter country codes in the ISO 3166-1 standard to represent countries and dependent areas. ... For an explanation of terms such as Great Britain, British, United Kingdom, England, Scotland and Wales, see British Isles (terminology). ... .gb is a reserved Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Satellite view of the English Channel The English Channel (French: , the sleeve) is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. ... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... The British terminal at Cheriton in west Folkestone, from the Pilgrims Way. ...


The United Kingdom is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy comprising four constituent countriesEngland, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales — with Elizabeth II as head of state. The Crown Dependencies of the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man, formally possessions of the Crown, are not part of the UK but form a federacy with it.[13] The UK has fourteen overseas territories,[14] all remnants of the British Empire, which at its height encompassed almost a quarter of the world's land surface. It is a highly developed country, with the fifth-largest economy in the world. A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not bound by a... Constituent countries is a phrase used, often by official institutions, in contexts in which a number of countries make up a larger entity or grouping; thus the OECD has used the phrase in reference to the former Yugoslavia[1], the Soviet Union and European institutions such as the Council of... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... The Isle of Man is situated in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland, and the bailiwicks of Jersey and Guersey are situated in the English Channel to the west of the Cotentin Crown dependencies are possessions of The Crown in Right of the United Kingdom, as opposed to... This article is about the British dependencies. ... This article refers to the Commonwealths concept of the monarchys legal authority. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Federation. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (almost exclusively Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


Britain was the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th century,[15] but the economic cost of two world wars and the decline of its empire in the latter half of the 20th century diminished its leading role in global affairs. The UK nevertheless retains major economic, cultural, military and political influence today and is a nuclear power, with the second highest defence spending in the world. It holds a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council, and is a member of the G8, NATO, the European Union and the Commonwealth of Nations. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of states with nuclear weapons, sometimes called the nuclear club. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... Group of Eight redirects here. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total...

Contents

History

Main article: History of the United Kingdom
The Battle of Waterloo marked the end of the Napoleonic Wars.
The Battle of Waterloo marked the end of the Napoleonic Wars.

England and Scotland had existed as separate sovereign and independent states with their own monarchs and political structures since the 9th century. The once independent Principality of Wales fell under the control of English monarchs from the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284. Under the Acts of Union 1707, England (including Wales) and Scotland, which had been in personal union since the Union of the Crowns in 1603, agreed to a political union in the form of a unified Kingdom of Great Britain.[16] The Act of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland, which had been gradually brought under English control between 1541 and 1691, to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801.[17] Independence for the Irish Free State in 1922 followed the partition of the island of Ireland two years previously, with six of the nine counties of the province of Ulster remaining within the UK, which then changed to the current name in 1927 of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.[18] This does not cite any references or sources. ... The battle of Waterloo, by William Sadler This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The battle of Waterloo, by William Sadler This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Combatants First French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of the United Netherlands Kingdom of Hanover Duchy of Nassau Duchy of Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Prince William of Orange Strength 73,000 67,000 Coalition 60,000 Prussian... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich João Francisco de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun Gebhard von... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... This article treats the generic title monarch. ... This article is about the country. ... The Statute of Rhuddlan was enacted on 3 March 1284 after the conquest of Wales by the English king Edward I. The Statute of Rhuddlan was issued from Rhuddlan Castle in North Wales, which was built as one of the iron ring of fortresses by Edward I, in his late... The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ... The Union of the Crowns refers to the accession of James VI, King of Scots, to the thrones of England and Ireland, in March 1603. ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... The Act of Union 1800 merged the Kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain (itself a merger of England and Wales and Scotland under the Act of Union 1707) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801. ... Coat of arms1 Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Monarchy King2  - 1542-1547 Henry VIII  - 1760-1801 George III Chief Secretary  - 1660 Matthew Lock  - 1798-1801 Viscount Castlereagh Legislature Parliament of Ireland  - Upper house Irish House of Lords  - Lower house Irish House of Commons History  - Act of Parliament 1541... The Treaty of Limerick ended the Williamite war in Ireland between the Jacobites and the supporters of William of Orange. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right1 Anthem God Save the King (Queen) Territory of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Capital London Language(s) English² Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1801–1820 George III  - 1820–1830 George IV  - 1830–1837 William IV  - 1837–1901... This article is about the prior state. ... An Act to Provide for the Better Government of Ireland, more usually the Government of Ireland Act, 1920 (this is its official short title; the formal citation is 10 & 11 Geo. ... For much of its history, the island of Ireland was divided into 32 counties (Irish language contae or condae, pronounced IPA: ). Two historical counties, County Desmond and County Coleraine, no longer exist, while several county names have changed. ... When under Gaelic rule, Ireland was divided into provinces to replace the earlier system of the túatha. ... This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ... Passed on April 12, 1927, the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 () was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom that formed a significant landmark in the constitutional history of the UK and British Empire as a whole. ...


Britain played an important part in the Age of Enlightenment with philosophical and scientific input and a literary and theatrical tradition. Over the next century the United Kingdom played an important role in developing Western ideas of parliamentary democracy with significant contributions to literature, the arts and science.[19] The UK-led Industrial Revolution transformed the country and fuelled the British Empire. During this time, like other Great Powers, the UK was involved in colonial exploitation, including the slave trade, while the passing of the 1807 Slave Trade Act also made the UK the first nation to prohibit trade in slaves. The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Literature is literally an acquaintance with letters as in the first sense given in the Oxford English Dictionary (from the Latin littera meaning an individual written character (letter)). The term has, however, generally come to identify a collection of texts. ... For other usages see Theatre (disambiguation) Theater (American English) or Theatre (British English and widespread usage among theatre professionals in the US) is that branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound and spectacle &#8212... The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... The Arts is a broad subdivision of culture, comprised of many expressive disciplines. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... The Atlantic slave trade was the trade of African slaves by Europeans that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ... A replica of the slave ship the Zong, moored by Tower Bridge to mark 200 years since the Slave Trade Act 1807 (April 2007). ...

The British Empire in 1897. The British Empire led to the spread of the English language.
The British Empire in 1897. The British Empire led to the spread of the English language.

After the defeat of Napoleon in the Napoleonic Wars, Britain became the principal naval power of the 19th century. At its peak the British Empire controlled large amounts of territory in Asia, Africa, Oceania and America. Download high resolution version (1116x849, 158 KB)The World in 1897. ... Download high resolution version (1116x849, 158 KB)The World in 1897. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich João Francisco de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun Gebhard von... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


In the 19th century the country played an important role in the development of parliamentary democracy, partly through the emergence of a multi-party system. At the end of the Victorian era the United Kingdom lost its industrial leadership, particularly to the German Empire, which surpassed the UK in industrial production and trade in the 1890s, and to the United States. Britain remained an eminent power and its empire expanded to its maximum size by 1921, gaining the League of Nations mandate over former German and Ottoman colonies after World War I. A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her accession to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ...


After the Great War, the world's first large-scale international broadcasting network, the BBC, was created. In 1924 the country's Labour movement, which had been gaining strength since the late 1890s, formed the first Labour government. Britain fought Nazi Germany in World War II, with its Commonwealth allies including Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and India, later to be joined by further allies such as the United States. Wartime leader Winston Churchill and his peacetime successor Clement Atlee helped create the post-war world as part of the "Big Three". World War II left the United Kingdom financially damaged. Loans taken out during and after World War II from both Canada and the United States were economically costly but, along with post-war Marshall aid, the UK began the road to recovery. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... The first Labour government of the United Kingdom lasted from January to November 1924. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... “Churchill” redirects here. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, FRS (January 3, 1883 - October 8, 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ... A loan is a type of debt. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ...


The immediate post-war years saw the establishment of the British Welfare State and one of the world's first and most comprehensive health services, while the demands of a recovering economy brought people from all over the Commonwealth to create a multi-ethnic Britain. Although the new post-war limits of Britain's political role were confirmed by the Suez Crisis of 1956, the international spread of the language meant the continuing impact of its literature and culture, while at the same time from the 1960s its popular culture found influence abroad. Following a period of economic stagnation and industrial strife in the 1970s after a global economic downturn, the 1980s saw the inflow of substantial oil revenues, and the premiership of Margaret Thatcher, under whom there was a marked break with the post-war political and economic consensus. Her supporters credit her with economic success, but her critics blame her for greater social division. From 1997 onward these trends of growth largely continued under the leadership of Tony Blair. The Welfare State of the United Kingdom was prefigured in the William Beveridge Report in 1942, which identified five Giant Evils in society: squalor, ignorance, want, idleness and disease. ... “NHS” redirects here. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... Multiethnic societies, in contrast to monoethnic societies, integrate different ethnic groups irrespective of differences in culture, race, and history under a common social identity larger than one nation in the conventional sense. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Popular culture, sometimes abbreviated to pop culture, consists of widespread cultural elements in any given society. ... // North Sea Oil Platforms North Sea oil refers to oil and natural gas (hydrocarbons) produced from oil reservoirs beneath the North Sea. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and to date only woman to hold either post. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency...


The United Kingdom has been a member of the European Union since 1973. The attitude of the present Labour government towards further integration with this organisation is mixed,[20] with the Conservative Party favouring a return of some powers and competencies to the state,[21] and the Liberal Democrats supportive of current engagement. The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a liberal political party based in the United Kingdom. ...


Government and politics

The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy with Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, as head of state; the monarch of the UK also serves as head of state of fifteen other Commonwealth countries, putting the UK in a personal union with those other states. The UK uses a parliamentary government based on strong democratic traditions, a system that has been emulated around the world — a legacy of the British Empire. The Politics of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland takes place in the framework of a constitutional monarchy in which the Monarch is head of state and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 433 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1488 × 2060 pixel, file size: 745 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 433 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1488 × 2060 pixel, file size: 745 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not bound by a... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


The UK's constitution governs the legal framework of the country and consists mostly of written sources, including statutes, judge made case law, and international treaties. As there is no technical difference between ordinary statutes and law considered to be "constitutional law," the British Parliament can perform "constitutional reform" simply by passing Acts of Parliament and thus has the power to change or abolish almost any written or unwritten element of the constitution. However, no Parliament can pass laws that future Parliaments cannot change.[22] The United Kingdom is one of the three countries in the world today that does not have a codified constitution (the other two being New Zealand and Israel).[23] The Constitution of the United Kingdom is uncodified, consisting of both written and unwritten sources. ... The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ... Case law (precedential law) is the body of judge-made law and legal decisions that interprets prior case law, statutes and other legal authority -- including doctrinal writings by legal scholars such as the Corpus Juris Secundum, Halsburys Laws of England or the doctinal writings found in the Recueil Dalloz... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons The Right Honourable Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, Baroness Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups (as of May 5, 2005 elections) Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats... In Westminster System parliaments, an Act of Parliament is a part of the law passed by the Parliament. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


The position of Prime Minister, the UK's head of government, belongs to the current leader of the political party that can obtain the confidence of a plurality in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister and their Cabinet are formally appointed by the Monarch to form Her Majesty's Government. However, the Prime Minister chooses the Cabinet, and by convention, the Queen respects the Prime Minister's choices. The Cabinet is traditionally drawn from members of the Prime Minister's party in both legislative houses, and mostly from the House of Commons, to which they are responsible. Executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister and Cabinet, all of whom are sworn into Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, and become Ministers of the Crown. Gordon Brown, leader of the Labour Party, has been Prime Minister, First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service since 27 June 2007. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... This is a list of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor state the Kingdom of Great Britain, from when the first Prime Minister (in the modern sense), Robert Walpole, took office in 1721, until the present day. ... Type Lower House Speaker of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Commons Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Harriet Harman, QC, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader of the House of Commons Theresa May, PC, (Conservative) since December 6, 2005 Members 646 Political groups... Her Majestys Government, or when the Sovereign is male, His Majestys Government, abbreviated HMG or HM Government, is the formal title used by the Government of the United Kingdom. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Responsible government is a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability which is the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... A minister or a secretary is a politician who heads a government ministry or department (e. ... For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, usually but not always the Prime Minister. ... The Minister of the Civil Service is the head of the British Civil Service. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ...


The Parliament is the national legislature of the United Kingdom; housed in the Palace of Westminster, it is the ultimate legislative authority in the UK, according to the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty. However, questions over sovereignty have been brought forward due to the UK's membership within the European Union.[24] The parliament is made up of the Queen and two houses: an elected House of Commons and an appointed House of Lords. Each member in the House of Commons is elected by simple plurality in a constituency; general elections are called by the Monarch when the Prime Minister so advises. There is no minimum term for a Parliament, but a new election must be called within five years of the last general election. Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons The Right Honourable Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, Baroness Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups (as of May 5, 2005 elections) Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats... “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... Parliamentary sovereignty, parliamentary supremacy, or legislative supremacy is a concept in constitutional law that applies to some parliamentary democracies. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... The plurality electoral system (or first past the post electoral system), is a voting system for single-member districts. ... In the United Kingdom each of the electoral areas or divisions called constituencies elects one or more members to a parliament or assembly. ...

The UK's three major political parties are the Labour Party, the Conservative Party, and the Liberal Democrats. Other parties such as the Democratic Unionist Party, the Scottish National Party, Plaid Cymru, the Social Democratic and Labour Party, the Ulster Unionist Party, and Sinn Féin (from Northern Ireland) hold most of the remaining seats in the House. The four Sinn Féin MPs have never attended Parliament but, since 2002, they have made use of the offices and other facilities made available to them at Westminster.[25] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 238 KB) Westminster Palace in London, Big Ben Author : Karrackoo Date : 15. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 238 KB) Westminster Palace in London, Big Ben Author : Karrackoo Date : 15. ... This may refer to the: British Houses of Parliament. ... This is a list of political parties in the United Kingdom. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... “DUP” redirects here. ... The Scottish National Party (SNP) (Scottish Gaelic: is a centre-left political party which campaigns for Scottish independence. ... Plaid Cymru (IPA:; English: ; often referred to simply as Plaid) is a political party in Wales. ... The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP — Irish: Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is the smaller of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP or, in a historic sense, simply the Unionist Party) is a moderate unionist political party in Northern Ireland. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ...


Administrative subdivisions

The United Kingdom is divided into four home nations or constituent countries: England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. The latter three each has a unicameral legislature, devolved from the United Kingdom Parliament, which relates specifically to each constituent country: the Scottish Parliament, the National Assembly for Wales, and the Northern Ireland Assembly. Each also has its own Executive, led by a First Minister, which controls separate law making and constitutional powers devolved from Westminster. However, despite being the largest of the United Kingdom's four constituent countries, England, (with the exception of the Greater London Authority), has no devolved executive; it is ruled directly by the UK government. The United Kingdom The subdivisions of the United Kingdom are complex, multi-layered and non-uniform, varying between England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. ... Home Nations (often written as the common noun home nations) is a term used to refer to the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom — England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland — collectively but as separate entities, distinct from the United Kingdom as a state. ... Constituent countries is a phrase used, often by official institutions, in contexts in which a number of countries make up a larger entity or grouping; thus the OECD has used the phrase in reference to the former Yugoslavia[1], the Soviet Union and European institutions such as the Council of... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... For unicameral alphabets, see the article letter case. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... Look up Devolution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... Type Unicameral Presiding Officer Dafydd Elis-Thomas Members 60 Political groups Labour Plaid Cymru Conservative Liberal Democrats Last elections May 3, 2007 Meeting place Senedd, Cardiff, Wales Web site http://www. ... The logo of the Northern Ireland Assembly, a six flowered linen or flax plant. ... The term First Minister refers to the leader of a cabinet United Kingdom In the United Kingdom, the term First Minister was once used interchangeably with Prime Minister, as in Winston Churchills famous line: I did not become Her Majestys First Minister so that I might oversee the... The Greater London Authority (GLA) administers the 1579 km² (610 sq. ...


Each nation is further subdivided for the purposes of local government. The Queen appoints a Lord-Lieutenant as her personal representative in lieutenancy areas across the UK; this is little more than a ceremonial role. The following table highlights the arrangements for local government, lieutenancy areas and cities across the home nations: There is no single system of local government in the United Kingdom. ... Flag of a Lord Lieutenant The title Lord Lieutenant is given to the British monarchs personal representatives around the United Kingdom, usually in a county or similar circumscription, with varying tasks throughout history. ...

Manchester Town Hall. Many towns and cities reflect their "civic pride" with public buildings.
Manchester Town Hall. Many towns and cities reflect their "civic pride" with public buildings.
Country Status[26] Population Subdivisions Cities
England Kingdom 50,431,700

Regions
Metropolitan and
non-metropolitan counties
Lieutenancy areas Download high resolution version (600x800, 94 KB)Manchester Town Hall (old building). ... Download high resolution version (600x800, 94 KB)Manchester Town Hall (old building). ... Manchester Town Hall Manchester Town Hall is a building in Manchester, England that houses the citys government and administrative functions. ... A street in Ynysybwl, Wales, relatively stereotypical of a small town A town is usually an urban area which is not considered to rank as a city. ... A city is an urban area, differentiated from a town, village, or hamlet by size, population density, importance, or legal status. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... In politics, a country (or in some cases, a group of countries) over which a king or queen reigns, is a kingdom, see: monarchy. ... The region, also known as Government Office Region, is currently the highest tier of local government subnational entity of England in the United Kingdom. ... Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties are one of the four levels of English administrative division used for the purposes of local government. ... The Ceremonial counties of England are areas of England that are appointed a Lord-Lieutenant, and are defined by the government with reference to the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England. ...

English cities
Scotland Kingdom 5,094,800

Council areas
Lieutenancy areas This article is about the country. ... In politics, a country (or in some cases, a group of countries) over which a king or queen reigns, is a kingdom, see: monarchy. ... For local government purposes, Scotland is divided into 32 areas designated as Council Areas of Scotland which are all governed by unitary authorities designated as Councils which have the option under the Local Government (Gaelic Names) (Scotland) Act 1997 (as chosen by Na h-Eileanan an Iar) of being known... The Lieutenancy areas of Scotland are the areas used for the ceremonial lords-lieutenant, the monarchs representatives, in Scotland. ...

Scottish cities
Wales Principality 2,958,600

Unitary authorities
Lieutenancy areas This article is about the country. ... A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... For local government purposes, Wales is divided into 22 unitary authorities. ... The Preserved counties of Wales are the current areas used in Wales for ceremonial purposes such as Lieutenancy. ...

Welsh cities
Northern Ireland Province 1,724,400

Districts
Traditional counties Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... Northern Ireland is divided into 26 districts for local government purposes. ... Northern Ireland is one of the four constituent parts of the United Kingdom. ...

Northern Ireland cities

Historically, the four nations were divided into counties as areas for local government administration. Although these are still used to some extent for this purpose and as geographical areas, they are no longer the sole basis for local government administration. Traditional counties are unofficial, informal and non-administrative divisions of the British Isles which are based on previous administrative divisions. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ...


In recent years, England has, for some purposes, been divided into nine intermediate-level Government Office Regions. Each region is made up of counties and unitary authorities, apart from London, which consists of London boroughs. Although at one point it was intended that these regions would be given their own elected regional assemblies, the plan's future is uncertain following a rejection, by referendum, of a proposed assembly in the North East region. The region, also known as Government Office Region, is currently the highest tier of local government subnational entity of England in the United Kingdom. ... Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties are one of the four levels of English administrative division used for the purposes of local government. ... A unitary authority is a term used in a two-tier local government system to describe a unit of local government that operates as a single tier. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The administrative area of Greater London contains thirty-two London boroughs. ... North-East England is one of the nine official regions of England and comprises the combined area of Northumberland, County Durham, Tyne and Wear and a small part of North Yorkshire. ...


City status is governed by Royal Charter. There are sixty-six British cities: fifty in England; six in Scotland; five in Wales; and five in Northern Ireland. Historically, city status in England and Wales was associated with the presence of a cathedral, such as York Minster. ... For the ship of the same name, see Royal Charter (ship). ...


The Crown has sovereignty over the Isle of Man and the Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey. Collectively, these three territories are known as the Crown dependencies, lands owned by the British monarch but not part of the United Kingdom. They are also not part of the European Union. However, the Parliament of the United Kingdom has the authority to legislate for the dependencies, and the British government manages their foreign affairs and defence. The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen_in_Parliament) legislative power. ... A bailiwick is the area of jurisdiction of a bailiff. ... Crown dependencies are possessions of the British Crown, as opposed to overseas territories or colonies. ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen-in-Parliament) legislative power. ...


The UK also has fourteen overseas territories around the world, the last remaining territories of the British Empire. The overseas territories are also not considered part of the UK, but in most cases the local populations have British citizenship and the right to abode in the UK. This has been the case since 2002. A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (almost exclusively Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


Law

Parliament House, Edinburgh is the seat of the supreme courts of Scotland.
Parliament House, Edinburgh is the seat of the supreme courts of Scotland.

The United Kingdom has three distinct systems of law. English law, which applies in England and Wales, and Northern Ireland law, which applies in Northern Ireland, are based on common-law principles. Scots law, which applies in Scotland, is a hybrid system based on both common-law and civil-law principles. The Act of Union 1707 guarantees the continued existence of a separate law system for Scotland. The Middlesex Guildhall will be home to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom has three distinct legal systems. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 711 KB) Parliament House in Edinburgh Image taken by Maccoinnich April 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Kingdom of Scotland User:Maccoinnich Parliament House, Edinburgh Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 711 KB) Parliament House in Edinburgh Image taken by Maccoinnich April 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Kingdom of Scotland User:Maccoinnich Parliament House, Edinburgh Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... The Robert Reid designed facade to Parliament Square Parliament House in Edinburgh, Scotland was home to the Scottish Parliament, and is now used by the High Court of Justiciary and the Court of Session. ... World distribution of major legal traditions The three major legal systems of the world today consist of civil law, common law and religious law. ... English law is a formal term of art that describes the law for the time being in force in England and Wales. ... The United Kingdom does not have a single unified judicial system — England and Wales have one system, Scotland another, and Northern Ireland a third. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Scots law is a unique legal system with an ancient basis in Roman law. ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... The Acts of Union were twin Acts of Parliament passed in 1707 (taking effect on 26 March) by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ...


The Appellate Committee of the House of Lords (usually just referred to, as "The House of Lords") is the highest court in the land for all criminal and civil cases in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, and for all civil cases in Scots law. Recent constitutional changes will see the powers of the House of Lords transfer to a new Supreme Court of the United Kingdom.[27] This article is about the British House of Lords. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom will be created under the provisions of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 to take over the judicial functions of the Law Lords in the House of Lords and from the Judicial committee of the Privy Council. ...


In England and Wales, the court system is headed by the Supreme Court of Judicature of England and Wales, consisting of the Court of Appeal, the High Court of Justice (for civil cases) and the Crown Court (for criminal cases). In Scotland the chief courts are the Court of Session, for civil cases, and the High Court of Justiciary, for criminal cases, while the sheriff court is the Scottish equivalent of the county court. Schematic of court system for England and Wales The Courts of England and Wales are the civil and criminal courts responsible for the administration of justice in England and Wales; they are constituted and governed by the Law of England and Wales and are subordinate to the Parliament of the... Her Majestys Court of Appeal is the second most senior court in the English legal system, with only the Judicial Committee of the House of Lords above it. ... Her Majestys High Court of Justice (usually known more simply as the High Court) is, together with the Crown Court and the Court of Appeal, part of the Supreme Court of Judicature of England and Wales (which under the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, is to be known as the... Crown Court and County Court in Oxford. ... This article is about the country. ... The Court of Session is the supreme civil court in Scotland. ... Seal of the High Court of Justiciary © Crown Copyright The High Court of Justiciary is Scotlands supreme criminal court. ... The Sheriff Courts are the local Court system in Scotland. ...


The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, comprising the same members as the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords, is the highest court of appeal for several independent Commonwealth countries, the UK overseas territories, and the British crown dependencies. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ...


Foreign relations

The United Kingdom is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, a member of the G8 and NATO, and a member state of the European Union. The UK has a "Special Relationship" with the United States. Apart from the US and Europe, Britain's close allies include Commonwealth nations and other English speaking countries. Britain's global presence and influence is further amplified through its trading relations and its armed forces, which maintain approximately eighty military installations and other deployments around the globe.[28] The United Kingdom (UK) is a major player in international politics, with interests throughout the world. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... Group of Eight redirects here. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Prime Minister Winston Churchill, (left) with President Franklin Roosevelt, at the 1945 Yalta Conference. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... Definitions of the Anglosphere vary: Countries in which English is the first language of a large fraction of the population are shown in blue. ...


Geography

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is in Western Europe. It comprises the island of Great Britain (most of England, Scotland and Wales) and the north-eastern one-sixth of the island of Ireland (Northern Ireland), together with many smaller islands. The mainland areas lie between latitudes 49° and 59° N (the Shetland Islands reach to nearly 61° N), and longitudes 8° W to 2° E. The Royal Greenwich Observatory, near London, is the defining point of the Prime Meridian. The United Kingdom has a total area of approximately 245,000 square kilometres (94,600 sq mi). The UK lies between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea, and comes within 35 kilometres (22 mi) of the north-west coast of France, from which it is separated by the English Channel. Northern Ireland shares a 360 kilometres (224 mi) land boundary with the Republic of Ireland. The Channel Tunnel ("Chunnel") now links the UK with France beneath the English Channel. The United Kingdom occupies a substantial part of the British Isles. ... Location of the Prime Meridian Prime Meridian in Greenwich A GPS receiver at the Greenwich Meridian Laser projected from the Royal Observatory in Greenwich marking the Prime Meridian The Royal Observatory, Greenwich (today a museum) The 24-hour clock at Greenwich The Prime Meridian, also known as the International Meridian... “km” redirects here. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... Satellite view of the English Channel The English Channel (French: , the sleeve) is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. ...


Topography

Map of the United Kingdom.
Map of the United Kingdom.
Ben Nevis in the Grampian Mountains, is the highest point in the British Isles
Ben Nevis in the Grampian Mountains, is the highest point in the British Isles

Most of England consists of lowland terrain, with some mountainous terrain in the north-west (Cumbrian Mountains of the Lake District), north (the upland moors of the Pennines and limestone hills of the Peak District) and south-west (Exmoor and Dartmoor) by the Tees-Exe line. Lower ranges include the limestone hills of the Isle of Purbeck, Cotswolds and Lincolnshire Wolds, and the chalk downs of the Southern England Chalk Formation. The main rivers and estuaries are the Thames, Severn and the Humber Estuary. The largest urban area is Greater London. England's highest mountain is Scafell Pike, which is in the Lake District 978 metres (3,209 ft). Image File history File links Uk-map. ... Image File history File links Uk-map. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 431 KB) Ben Nevis, Scotland. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 431 KB) Ben Nevis, Scotland. ... Ben Nevis (Gaelic: Beinn Nibheis) is the highest mountain in the British Isles. ... The Grampian Mountains or Grampians are one of the three major mountain ranges in Scotland. ... This article describes the archipelago in north-Western Europe. ... Crinkle Crags as seen from the adjoining fell of Cold Pike. ... Typical Pennine scenery. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... The Peak District is an upland area in central and northern England, lying mainly in northern Derbyshire, but also covering parts of Cheshire, Greater Manchester, Staffordshire, and South and West Yorkshire. ... Dunkery Beacon, with heather in bloom Exmoor National Park is a national park situated on the Bristol Channel coast of Devon and Somerset in South West England. ... High Willhays, the highest point on Dartmoor and southern England at 621 m (2037 ft) above sea level, with Yes Tor beyond. ... The Tees-Exe line is an imaginary line that can be draw on a map of the British mainland which roughly divides the lowland and upland regions of the country. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Corfe Castle The Isle of Purbeck, not a true island but a peninsula, is in the county of Dorset, England. ... The Cotswolds is the name given to a range of hills in central England, sometimes called the Heart of England, a hilly area reaching over 300 m or 1000 feet. ... The Lincolnshire Wolds is an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (designated as such in 1973) covering 560 square kilometres of north and east Lincolnshire, England. ... The Needles, situated on the Isle Of Wight, are part of the extensive Southern England Chalk Formation. ... In this geological map of Great Britain the Chalk is labled 6 The Chalk Formation of Southern England is a system of chalk downland in the south of England. ... Several places exist with the name Thames, and the word is also used as part of several brand and company names Most famous is the River Thames in England, on which the city of London stands Other Thames Rivers There is a Thames River in Canada There is a Thames... The Severn is the name of a river in the United Kingdom. ... River Hull tidal barrier. ... Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ... At 978 metres (3,210 feet), Scafell Pike is the highest mountain in England. ... The panorama across Eskdale from Ill Crag. ...


Scotland's geography is varied, with lowlands in the south and east and highlands in the north and west, including Ben Nevis, the highest mountain in the British Isles at 1,344 metres (4,409 ft). There are many long and deep sea arms, firths, and lochs. There are nearly eight hundred islands in Scotland, mainly west and north of the mainland, notably the Hebrides, Orkney Islands and Shetland Islands. In total, it is estimated that the UK includes around one thousand islands.[29] Map of Scotland Although Scotland is a relatively small country, with a land area of 78 772 km², its geography is highly varied, from the rural lowlands, to the barren highlands, and from large cities to uninhabited islands. ... Lowland-Highland divide The Scottish Lowlands (a Ghalldachd, meaning roughly the non-Gaelic region, in Gaelic), although not officially a geographical area of the country, in normal usage is generally meant to include those parts of Scotland not referred to as the Highlands (or Gàidhealtachd), that is, everywhere due... Lowland-Highland divide Highland Sign with welcome in English and Gaelic The Scottish Highlands (A Ghàidhealtachd in Gaelic) include the rugged and mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... Ben Nevis (Gaelic: Beinn Nibheis) is the highest mountain in the British Isles. ... Firth is the Scots word used to denote various coastal waters in Scotland. ... View across Loch Lomond, towards Ben Lomond. ... This is a list of the islands of Scotland, the mainland of which is part of the island of Great Britain, as well as a table of the largest Scottish islands. ... This article is about the Hebrides islands in Scotland. ... The Orkney Islands, usually called simply Orkney, are one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. ... The Shetland Islands, also called Shetland (archaically spelled Zetland) formerly called Hjaltland, comprise one of 32 council areas of Scotland. ...


Wales is mostly mountainous, the highest peak being Snowdon (Yr Wyddfa) at 1,085 metres (3,560 ft) above sea level, however South Wales is less mountainous than North and Mid Wales. North of the mainland is the island of Anglesey (Ynys Môn). Snowdon, the highest mountain in Wales and the highest British mountain south of the Scottish Highlands, is probably the busiest mountain in Britain [1]. It is located in Snowdonia National Park (Welsh: Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri). ... Anglesey (historically Anglesea; Welsh: , pronounced (IPA)) is a predominantly Welsh-speaking island off the northwest coast of Wales. ...

Three Cliffs Bay, Gower Peninsula.
Three Cliffs Bay, Gower Peninsula.

Northern Ireland, making up the north-eastern part of Ireland, is mostly hilly. It includes Lough Neagh, at 388 square kilometres (150 sq mi), the largest body of water in the UK and Ireland.[30] The highest peak is Slieve Donard at 849 metres (2,785 ft) in the province's Mourne Mountains. Three Cliffs Bay on the Gower peninsular of South Wales. ... Three Cliffs Bay on the Gower peninsular of South Wales. ... “Gower” redirects here. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Slieve Donard (Sliabh Domangard or Sliabh Dónairt in Irish) is the highest mountain in Northern Ireland at 849 m (2,786 ft). ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The granite Mountains of Mourne are located in the first proposed national park of Northern Ireland. ...


The greatest distance between two points on the UK mainland of Great Britain is 1,350 kilometres (840 mi) between Land's End in Cornwall (near Penzance) and John O'Groats in Caithness (near Thurso), a two day journey by car. When measured directly north-south it is a little over 1,100 kilometres (700 mi) in length and is a fraction under 500 kilometres (300 mi) at its widest. Lands End shown within Cornwall Lands End, the most westerly point in England The wreck of the RMS Mülheim at Lands End, 2003 This article is about the location at the western tip of Cornwall. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Penzance Harbour and surrounding area as seen from the air Penzance (Cornish: Pensans) is a civil parish and port town in the Penwith district of Cornwall, England, UK. Granted various Royal Charters from 1512 onwards and incorporated in 1614,[2] it has a population of 21,168[1] people and... Location within the British Isles. ... Caithness (Gallaibh in Gaelic)[1] is a committee area of Highland Council, Scotland; a lieutenancy area; and a registration county, Caithness was formerly a district within the Highland region from 1975 to 1996 and a local government county with its own county council from 1890 to 1975. ... This article refers to the town in Scotland. ...


Climate

All parts of the United Kingdom have a temperate climate, with plentiful rainfall all year round. The temperature varies with the seasons but seldom drops below −10 °C or rises above 35 °C. The prevailing wind is from the south-west, bearing frequent spells of mild and wet weather from the Atlantic Ocean. Eastern parts are most sheltered from this wind and are therefore the driest. Atlantic currents, warmed by the Gulf Stream, bring mild winters, especially in the west, where winters are also wet, especially over high ground. Summers are warmest in the south east of England, being closest to the European mainland, and coolest in the north. Snowfall can occur in winter and early spring, though it rarely settles to any great depth away from high ground. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ...


Absolute temperature ranges:

is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...

Cities and urban areas

The four capitals of the United Kingdom's constituent countries are London (England), Edinburgh (Scotland), Cardiff (Wales) and Belfast (Northern Ireland). London is also the capital of the UK. Historically, city status in England and Wales was associated with the presence of a cathedral, such as York Minster. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ...


Largest cities/towns

Main article: List of largest United Kingdom settlements by population
The rise of skyscrapers across the modern UK pays testament to its economic growth.

The term "second city" has been disputed in several ways. This is a list of the largest cities and towns of the United Kingdom ordered by population. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Birmingham (pron. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Leeds (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sheffield (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... This article is about the English city. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... Leicester city centre, looking towards the Clock Tower Leicester (pronounced ) is the largest city and unitary authority in the English East Midlands. ... For other uses, see Coventry (disambiguation). ... Hull or Kingston upon Hull is a British city situated on the north bank of the Humber estuary. ... For other uses, see Bradford (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ... This page is about Stoke-on-Trent in England. ... // Wolverhampton is a City in the historical county of Staffordshire and metropolian county of the West Midlands. ... For other uses, see Nottingham (disambiguation). ... , Plymouth (Cornish: ) is a city of 243,795 inhabitants (2001 census) in the south-west of England, or alternatively the West Country, and is situated within the traditional and ceremonial county of Devon at the mouths of the rivers Plym and Tamar and at the head of one of the... For other uses, see Southampton (disambiguation). ... , Reading is a town, unitary authority (the Borough of Reading) and urban area in the English county of Berkshire. ... Derby (pronounced dar-bee ) is a city in the East Midlands of England. ... Birminghams Brindleyplace Manchesters skyline Identifying the second city of the United Kingdom is a subject of some disagreement. ...


Urban areas

A conurbation is formed when towns expand sufficiently that their urban areas join up with each other. ... The Greater London Urban Area is the conurbation based around London in the South East of England. ... The West Midlands conurbation is the name given to the large conurbation that includes the cities of Birmingham and Wolverhampton, in the English West Midlands. ... A NASA satellite image of Greater Manchester. ... The West Yorkshire Urban Area is a term used by the Office for National Statistics to refer to a conurbation in West Yorkshire, England, based mainly on Leeds, Bradford, Huddersfield, Wakefield, but excluding Halifax which though part of the county of West Yorkshire is considered independently. ... Greater Glasgow is the conurbation that includes and surrounds the city of Glasgow in the west of Scotland. ...

Demography

The populations and percentage of total population in the four nations of the United Kingdom.
The populations and percentage of total population in the four nations of the United Kingdom.

See also: Demography of England; Demography and politics of Northern Ireland; Demography of Scotland; Demography of Wales According to the 2001 census, the United Kingdoms population was 58,789,194 - the third-largest in the European Union (behind Germany and metropolitan France) and the 21st-largest in the world. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Population

At the April 2001 UK Census, the United Kingdom's population was 58,789,194, the third largest in the European Union (behind Germany and France) and the twenty-first largest in the world. This had been estimated up to 59,834,300 by the Office for National Statistics in 2004.[31] Two years later in August 2006 it was confirmed that the UK's population had reached 60 million, then rapidly increased to 60.2 million, largely from net immigration, but also because of a rising birth rate and increasing life expectancy.[32] Census 2001 is the name by which the national census conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001 is known. ... Office for National Statistics logo The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the United Kingdom government executive agency charged with the collection and publication of statistics related to the economy, population and society of the United Kingdom at national and local levels. ...


The UK's overall population density is one of the highest in the world. About a quarter of the population lives in England's prosperous south-east and is predominantly urban and suburban,[33] with an estimated 7,517,700 in the capital of London.[34] The population of the United Kingdom has now reached 60,587,000 (mid 2006 estimate).[35]


In 2006 the UK's total fertility rate (TFR) was 1.86 children per woman, below the replacement rate of 2.1. In 2001, the TFR was at a record low of 1.63, but it has increased each year since, and will continue to do so as the share of births from immigrant mothers continues to prod the fertility rate. The TFR was considerably higher during the 1960s 'baby boom', peaking at 2.95 children per woman in 1964.[19]


Migration and ethnicity

Located as they are on a group of islands close to Continental Europe, the lands now constituting the United Kingdom have historically been subject to many invasions and migrations, especially from Scandinavia and the continent - including Roman occupation for several centuries. Present day Britons are descended mainly from the varied ethnic stocks that settled there before the eleventh century. The pre-Celtic, Celtic, Roman, Anglo-Saxon, and Norse influences were blended in Great Britain under the Normans, Scandinavian Vikings who had lived in northern France (Normandy). Since 1945, international ties forged by the British Empire have contributed to substantial immigration, especially from Africa and South Asia, and, most recently, the accession of new EU members in 2004 has fuelled more immigration from continental Europe. As of 2001, 13.1% (5.2% white, 7.9% non-white[36] ) of the UK population identified themselves as an ethnic minority. There are people from various ethnic groups who reside in the United Kingdom. ... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ... Invasion is a military action consisting of troops entering a foreign land (a nation or territory, or part of that), often resulting in the invading power occupying the area, whether briefly or for a long period. ... Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green). ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... For the asteroid, see 3753 Cruithne. ... Celts, normally pronounced // (see article on pronunciation), refers primarily to the members of any of a number of peoples in Europe using the Celtic languages or descended from those who did. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... Norman conquests in red. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Census 2001 Ethnic Codes be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the concept of a minority. ...

Trafalgar Square in London is one of the most famous public places in the United Kingdom.
Ethnic group Population  % of total*
White British &&&&&&&050366497.&&&&&050,366,497 85.7%
White Irish &&&&&&&&&0691232.&&&&&0691,232 1.2%
White (other) &&&&&&&&03096169.&&&&&03,096,169 5.3%
Mixed race &&&&&&&&&0677117.&&&&&0677,117 1.2%
Indian &&&&&&&&01053411.&&&&&01,053,411 1.8%
Pakistani &&&&&&&&&0747285.&&&&&0747,285 1.3%
Bengali &&&&&&&&&0283063.&&&&&0283,063 0.5%
Other Asian (non-Chinese) &&&&&&&&&0247644.&&&&&0247,644 0.4%
Black Caribbean &&&&&&&&&0565876.&&&&&0565,876 1.0%
Black African &&&&&&&&&0485277.&&&&&0485,277 0.8%
Black (others) &&&&&&&&&&097585.&&&&&097,585 0.2%
Chinese &&&&&&&&&0247403.&&&&&0247,403 0.4%
Other &&&&&&&&&0230615.&&&&&0230,615 0.4%
* Percentage of total UK population

Cities with high proportions of people from ethnic minorities include London with 40.1% of its population coming from minority groups, Birmingham with 34.4%, and Leicester with 39.5%, according to the 2001 census. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x861, 56 KB)Nelsons Column from the National Gallery steps, looking towards Westminster - London - England - 240404 Taken by Tagishsimon on the 24th April 2004. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x861, 56 KB)Nelsons Column from the National Gallery steps, looking towards Westminster - London - England - 240404 Taken by Tagishsimon on the 24th April 2004. ... Trafalgar Square viewed from the northeast corner. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... White British is an ethnic classification used in the United Kingdom Census 2001, 92. ... White Other is a term used in the UK census to describe persons of non-British or Irish decent. ... The terms multiracial, biracial and mixed-race describe people whose ancestors are not of a single race. ... The Bengali people are the ethnic community from Bengal (divided between India and Bangladesh) on the Indian subcontinent with a history dating back four millennia. ... The term British Asian is used to denote a person of Southern Asian ancestry or origin, or sometimes Western Asian origin, who was born in or was an immigrant to the United Kingdom. ... “West Indian” redirects here. ... This article is about the color black; for other uses, see Black (disambiguation). ... Though most indigenous Africans possess relatively dark skin, they exhibit much variation in physical appearance. ... “Minority” redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Birmingham (pron. ... Leicester city centre, looking towards the Clock Tower Leicester (pronounced ) is the largest city and unitary authority in the English East Midlands. ...


In contrast with some other European countries, high foreign-born immigration is contributing to a rising population,[37] accounting for about half of the population increase between 1991 and 2001. The latest official figures (2005) show net immigration to the UK of 185,000 (565,000 immigrants and 380,000 emigrants) down from a record high of 223,000 in 2004.[38][39] Immigration from the Indian subcontinent, mainly fuelled by family reunion, accounted for two-thirds of net immigration.[40] By contrast, at least 5.5 million British-born people are living abroad.[41][42][43][44] The most popular emigrant destinations were Australia, Spain and France.[45][46] In 2005 the BBC published an analysis of data from the 2001 UK Census, revealing the number of people included in the census who were born outside the British Isles, where they live, and comparing this information against the 1991 Census. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ...


A study by a city forecaster, however, contends that the above immigration figures are unreliable and that net immigration for 2005 was circa 400,000.[47] Nonetheless, the proportion of foreign-born people in the UK population remains slightly below that of some other European countries.[48] Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ...


In 2004 the number of people who became British citizens rose to a record 140,795 - a rise of 12% on the previous year. This number had risen dramatically since 2000. The overwhelming majority of new citizens come from Africa (32%) and Asia (40%), the largest three groups being people from Pakistan, India and Somalia.[49] In 2006, there were 149,035 applications for British citizenship, 32% fewer than in 2005. The number of people granted citizenship during 2006 was 154,095, 5% fewer than in 2005. The largest groups of people granted British citizenship were from India, Pakistan, Somalia and the Philippines.[50] 21.9% of babies born in the UK in 2005 were born to foreign-born mothers, according to official statistics released in 2007 that also show the highest birth rates in Britain for 26 years.[51] A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


Figures published in August 2007 indicate that 682,940 people applied to the Worker Registration Scheme (for nationals of the central and eastern European states that joined the EU in May 2004) between 1 May 2004 and 31 June 2007, of whom 656,395 were accepted.[52] Self-employed workers and people who are not working (including students) are not required to register under the scheme so this figure represents a lower limit on immigration inflow. These figures do not indicate the number of immigrants who have since returned home, but 56 per cent of applicants in the 12 months ending 30 June 2007 reported planning to stay for a maximum of three months. Of the 2.5million foreign workers who moved to the UK to work, the majority were from EU countries,[53] but net migration in 2005 from the new EU states stood at 64,000.[38] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June is the sixth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with a length of 30 days The month is named after the Roman goddess Juno (mythology), wife of Jupiter and equivalent to the Greek goddess Hera. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ...


Language

Countries where English has de facto official or official language status.

Though the UK does not have a de jure official language, the predominant spoken language is English, a West Germanic language descended from Old English, featuring a large number of borrowings from Old Norse and Norman. The other indigenous languages are Scots (which is closely related to English) and the Insular Celtic languages. The latter fall into two groups: the P-Celtic languages (Welsh and Cornish); and the Q-Celtic languages (Irish and Scottish Gaelic and Manx). Celtic dialectal influences from Cumbric persisted in Northern England for many centuries, most famously in a unique set of numbers used for counting sheep (see Yan Tan Tethera). The United Kingdom has no official language. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 36 KB) Summary Colored by me from public domain Wikimedia Commons source Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 36 KB) Summary Colored by me from public domain Wikimedia Commons source Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Spoken language is a language that people utter words of the language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... West Germanic is the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages, including such languages as English, Dutch, and German. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... The Insular Celtic hypothesis concerns the origin of the Celtic languages. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Evolution and Extinction Cumbric was the Brythonic Celtic language spoken in much of Cumbria, Northern Northumbria, and parts of lowland Scotland until about the 11th century. ... Yan Tan Tethera was a traditional numeric jargon used by shepherds to count sheep in northern England and southern Scotland. ...


The English language has spread to all corners of the world (largely due to the British Empire) and has thus become the business language of the world. Worldwide, it is taught as a second language more than any other.[54] The United Kingdom's Celtic languages are also spoken by small groups around the globe, mainly Gaelic in Nova Scotia, Canada, and Welsh in Patagonia, Argentina. International English is the concept of the English language as a global means of communication in numerous dialects, and the movement towards an international standard for the language. ... See also: Language education and Second language acquisition ESL (English as a second language), ESOL (English for speakers of other languages) and EFL (English as a foreign language) all refer to the use or study of English by speakers of other languages. ... Canadian Gaelic (Scots Gaelic: Gàidhlig Canadanach, French: Gaélique Canadien, Mikmaq: Geileq mala Ganata) is the dialect of Scottish Gaelic formerly spoken across much of Canada, and still spoken in Nova Scotia, particularly on Cape Breton Island. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English, Canadian Gaelic Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... Patagonia, as most commonly defined (in orange). ...


Recently it has acquired many speakers of Eastern European languages, notably Polish.


Religion

Although the UK's largest country, England, has a minor theocratic aspect because the monarch is "Supreme Governor" of the Christian Church of England and "defender of the faith", the UK has a predominantly secular society with only 38%[55] of the population believing in a God. People identify themselves with religion in the UK for both cultural and religious reasons and this is reflected by the disparity between the figures for those believing in a god and those identifying themselves with a particular religion. Christianity has the largest number of adherents followed by Islam, Hinduism and Sikhism. St Pauls Cathedral The United Kingdom is traditionally a Christian state, though of the four constituent countries, only England still has a state faith in the form of an established church. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


Christianity

Westminster Abbey is used for the coronation of all British Monarchs, who are also made the head of the Church of England.
Westminster Abbey is used for the coronation of all British Monarchs, who are also made the head of the Church of England.

The UK is traditionally a Christian state. Of the four constituent countries that make up the United Kingdom, only England still has a state faith in the form of an established church. Christianity is the majority religion, and a wide variety of Christian churches, denominations, and sects exists. West view of Westminster Abbey, London. ... West view of Westminster Abbey, London. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... A asses is a ceremony marking the investment of a monarch with regal power through, amongst other symbolic acts, the placement of a crown upon his or her head. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... In English history, the Established Church is the Church of England, the church which is established by the Government, supported by it, and of which the monarch is the titular head; until 1920 it also held the same position in Wales. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This article is about the Christian buildings of worship. ... Note that this kind of denomination is not that of a coin or banknote. ... A sect is a small religious group that has branched off of a larger established religion. ...


Christianity in the UK, however, is on the decline. The Tearfund Survey[56] in 2007 revealed 53% identifing themselves as Christian compared to 71.6% in the 2001 UK Census[57]. Only 7% of people in the UK are actually practising Christians. Christianity was first introduced to Britain by the Romans. Each of the four countries of the United Kingdom has distinctive churches. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Tearfund is a UK evangelical Christian relief and development organisation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ...


Scotland and northern England were evangelised first, by Celtic missionaries from Ireland, such as Ninian, Columba and Aidan. Augustine was subsequently sent to southern England by Pope Gregory I in 597. This article is about the country. ... The north, the midlands and the south Northern England, The North or North of England is a rather ill-defined term, with no universally accepted definition. ... Look up evangelist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Irish and Scottish missionaries (Iro-Scottish, Hiberno-Scottish) were instrumental in the spread of Christianity in Anglo-Saxon England and the Frankish Empire during the 6th and 7th centuries. ... Saint Ninian (c. ... See Columba (disambiguation) and St Columb for other uses. ... Augustine was the Apostle of Kent, but Aidan was the Apostle of the English. ... Augustine of Canterbury (birth unknown, died May 26, 604) was the first Archbishop of Canterbury, sent to Ethelbert of Kent, Bretwalda (ruler) of England by Pope Gregory the Great in 597. ... “Saint Gregory” redirects here. ...


The English Church split from Rome in 1534, during the reign of Henry VIII of England (see English Reformation). Today, the Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion. The British monarch is required to be a member of the Church of England under the Act of Settlement 1701 and is the Supreme Governor. The senior bishop of Church of England is the Archbishop of Canterbury. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... “Henry VIII” redirects here. ... King Henry VIII of England. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen-in-Parliament) legislative power. ... Act of Settlement The Electress Sophia of Hanover The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ... Henry VIII was the founder of the Church of England yet did not hold the title of Supreme Governor. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ...


The Church of Scotland (known informally as the Kirk) broke with the Roman Catholic Church in 1560 (see Calvinism and Scottish Reformation). Today it is a Presbyterian church, recognised as the national church of Scotland, and not subject to state control. The British monarch is an ordinary member, and is required to swear an oath to "defend the security" of the Church at the coronation. The Scottish Episcopal Church, which is part of the Anglican Communion, dates from the final establishment of Presbyterianism in Scotland in 1690. Further splits in the Church of Scotland, especially in the nineteenth century, led to the creation of various other Presbyterian churches in Scotland, including the Free Church of Scotland. The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ... Kirk can mean church in general or the Church of Scotland in particular. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism is a theological... John Knox regarded as the leader of the Scottish Reformation The Scottish Reformation was Scotlands formal break with the papacy in 1560, and the events surrounding this. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... The term national church is usually a reference to a church organization in Christianity that claims pastoral jurisdiction over a nation. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The Free Church of Scotland (1843-1900) was a Scottish denomination formed by the withdrawal of a large section of the established Church of Scotland in a schism known as the Disruption of 1843. ...


In the 1920s, the Church in Wales was separated from the Church of England and became disestablished (lost its status as the state religion). However the Church in Wales remains in the Anglican Communion. Methodism and other independent churches are traditionally strong in Wales. Flag of the Church in Wales The Church in Wales (Welsh: Yr Eglwys Yng Nghymru) is a member Church of the Anglican Communion, consisting of six dioceses in Wales. ... See also civil religion. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For school of ancient Greek medicine...


The Anglican Church of Ireland was disestablished in the nineteenth century. It covers the entire island of Ireland (both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland). In Northern Ireland the Catholic Church in Ireland is the largest single denomination, although Protestants are in the majority overall. The Presbyterian Church in Ireland is the largest Protestant denomination and is in terms of theology and history closely linked to the Church of Scotland The Church of Ireland (Irish: ) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The Catholic Church in Ireland is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Modern logo of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland The Presbyterian Church in Ireland (or PCI) has a membership of 300,000 people in 650 congregations across both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, though the bulk of the membership is in Northern Ireland. ...


The Roman Catholic Church is the second largest denomination of Christianity in the UK. After the Protestant Reformation, strict laws were passed against Catholics; these were removed by the Catholic Emancipation laws in 1829. There are separate Catholic hierarchies for England and Wales, Scotland and Ireland. Many denominations in Great Britian (including most Protestants) consider themselves to be part of the worldwide Catholic Church. ... “Reformation” redirects here. ... Catholic Emancipation was a process in Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century which involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics which had been introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the Penal Laws. ... The Roman Catholic Church in Scotland describes the organisation of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church in the geographic area of Scotland, distinct from the Catholic Church in England & Wales and the Catholic Church in Ireland. ...


Other large Christian groups include the Methodists (founded by John Wesley in London) and the Baptists. There are also growing Evangelical or Pentecostal churches, many of which have flourished with immigration from around the Commonwealth and beyond. The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... For other persons named John Wesley, see John Wesley (disambiguation). ... Baptist churches are part of a Christian movement often regarded as an Evangelical, Protestant denomination. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The word evangelicalism often refers to... The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total...


Islam

Muslims in the United Kingdom are believed to number 1.8 million .[58] Mosques are present in most regions: The biggest groups are of Pakistani and Bangladeshi origin. More recently, refugees from Somalia, Northern Cyprus, the Balkans and Arab countries have increased Britain's Muslim population. The 2006 controversy over the burqa, brought up in comments by politician Jack Straw, reflects a split between some Britons questioning the extent to which traditionalist forms of Islam are compatible with British society, and others who believe that wearing the veil is compatible with Muslim integration in Britain.[59] This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Anthem Ä°stiklâl Marşı(Turkish) Independence March Capital Nicosia Official languages Turkish Government Representative democratic republic1  -  President Mehmet Ali Talat  -  Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer Sovereignty from Cyprus   -  Proclaimed November 15, 1983   -  Recognition By Turkey   -  Independence from Cyprus   -  Declared November 15, 1983  Area  -  Total 3,355 km² (not ranked) 1... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism Arab woman from Ramallah wearing traditional dress in 1915. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... John Whitaker Straw (born August 3, 1946) is a British Labour Party politician. ... Criticism of Islam has existed since Islams formative stages on philosophical, scientific, ethical, political and theological grounds. ...


Other religions

Religions of Indian origin, such as Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism are followed in Britain. As of the 2001 census, there are about 560,000 Hindus and 340,000 Sikhs. Buddhism is practised by about 150,000[60] It is likely that these figures have increased since 2001. One non-governmental organisation estimates that there are 800,000 Hindus in the UK.[61] Leicester houses one of the world's few Jain temples that are outside of India. There are approximately 270,000 Jews in England and Wales, according to the 2001 census. 390,127 individuals proclaimed themselves as "Jedi Knight" in the 2001 census, though this is likely to have coincided with the Star Wars film on release at the time. Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in fifteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization which is not a part of a government. ... Leicester city centre, looking towards the Clock Tower Leicester (pronounced ) is the largest city and unitary authority in the English East Midlands. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... This article is about the series. ...

Economy

The City of London is a major business and commercial centre and leading centre of global finance.[62]

London is a major centre for international business and commerce and is the leader of the three "command centres" for the global economy (along with New York City and Tokyo).[63] For over twenty-five years, the British economy has corresponded with what has been described by some since the 1980s as the Anglo-Saxon model, focusing on the principles of liberalisation, the free market, and low taxation and regulation. Based on market exchange rates, the United Kingdom is the fifth largest economy in the world,[64] and the second largest in Europe after Germany. The United Kingdom has the fifth largest gross domestic product in the world in terms of market exchange rates and the sixth largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). ... ImageMetadata File history File links London_Night. ... ImageMetadata File history File links London_Night. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state United Kingdom Constituent country England Region Greater London Status sui generis, City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor John Stuttard  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - City  1. ... Finance studies and addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses, and organizations raise, allocate, and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article or section may contain external links added only to promote a website, product, or service – otherwise known as spam. ... The rise of technology has allowed our environment to be characterized as a global one. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Anglo-Saxon economy or Anglo-Saxon capitalism (so called because it is largely practiced in English speaking countries such as Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States) is a capitalist macroeconomic model in which levels of regulation and taxes are low, and the quality of state services and social... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Look up Market in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The British started the Industrial Revolution, and, like most industrialising countries at the time, initially concentrated on heavy industries such as shipbuilding, coal mining, steel production, and textiles. The empire created an overseas market for British products, allowing the United Kingdom to dominate international trade in the 19th century. However, as other nations industrialised and surplus labour from agriculture began to dry up, coupled with economic decline after two world wars, the United Kingdom began to lose its economic advantage. As a result, heavy industry declined, by degrees, throughout the 20th century. The British service sector, however, has grown substantially, and now makes up about 73% of GDP.[65] A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Men from Francisco de Orellanas expedition building a small brigantine, the San Pedro, to be used in the search for food Shipbuilding is the construction of ships. ... Surface coal mining in Wyoming. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... This article is about the type of fabric. ...

The Bank of England; the central bank of the United Kingdom.
The Bank of England; the central bank of the United Kingdom.

The service sector of the United Kingdom is dominated by financial services, especially in banking and insurance. London is the world's largest financial centre with the London Stock Exchange, the London International Financial Futures and Options Exchange, and the Lloyd's of London insurance market all based in The City. It also has the largest concentration of foreign bank branches in the world. In the past decade, a rival financial centre in London has grown in the Docklands area, with HSBC and Barclays Bank relocating their head offices there. Many multinational companies that are not primarily UK-based have chosen to site their European or rest-of-world headquarters in London: an example is the US financial services firm Citigroup. The Scottish capital, Edinburgh, also has one of the large financial centres of Europe.[66] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 781 KB) The Bank of England in Threadneedle Street, London, England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 781 KB) The Bank of England in Threadneedle Street, London, England. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Governor Mervyn King Central Bank of United Kingdom Currency Pound sterling ISO 4217 Code GBP Base borrowing rate 5. ... Financial services is a term used to refer to the services provided by the finance industry. ... The Source by Greyworld, in the new LSE building Paternoster Square. ... This entry is about LIFFE until the takeover by Euronext The London International Financial Futures and Options Exchange (LIFFE, pronounced life as in human life, and never liff-eee, except by yokels) was the name of a futures exchange based in London, prior to its takeover by Euronext in January... It has been suggested that Council of Lloyds be merged into this article or section. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state United Kingdom Constituent country England Region Greater London Status sui generis, City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor John Stuttard  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - City  1. ... The Millennium Dome and Canary Wharf from the Royal Victoria Dock. ... For other uses, see HSBC (disambiguation). ... The Barclays Group is based in One Churchill Place, Canary Wharf Barclays plc (LSE: BARC, NYSE: BCS, TYO: 8642 ) is a global financial services provider and sportswear consultancy operating in Europe, the United States, the Middle East, Latin America, Australia, Asia and Africa. ... Citigroup Inc. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Tourism is very important to the British economy. With over 27 million tourists a year, the United Kingdom is ranked as the sixth major tourist destination in the world.[67] The United Kingdom is the worlds 6th biggest tourist destination, with 24. ...


The British manufacturing sector, however, has greatly diminished, relative to the economy as a whole, since World War II. It is still a significant part of the economy, but only accounted for one-sixth of national output in 2003.[68] The British motor industry is a significant part of this sector, although it has diminished with the collapse of MG Rover and most of the industry is foreign owned. Civil and defence aircraft production is led by the United Kingdom's largest aerospace firm, BAE Systems, and the continental European firm EADS, the owners of Airbus. Rolls-Royce holds a major share of the global aerospace engines market. The chemical and pharmaceutical industry is also strong in the UK, with the world's second and sixth largest pharmaceutical firms (GlaxoSmithKline and AstraZeneca, respectively)[69] being based in the UK. The British motor industry is historically centred around Coventry in the West Midlands. ... MG Rover are the largest independent manufacturer of cars in the British motor industry. ... BAE Systems plc is the worlds third largest defence contractor,[3] the largest in Europe and a commercial aerospace manufacturer. ... The European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company EADS N.V. (EADS) is a large European aerospace corporation, formed by the merger on July 10, 2000 of Aérospatiale-Matra of France, Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) of Spain, and DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG (DASA) of Germany. ... This article is about the airliner manufacturer. ... This article is about the aircraft engine company. ... GlaxoSmithKline plc (LSE: GSK NYSE: GSK) is a British based pharmaceutical, biological, and healthcare company. ... AstraZeneca PLC (LSE: AZN, NYSE: AZN), is a large Anglo-Swedish pharmaceutical company formed on 6 April 1999 by the merger of Swedish Astra AB and British Zeneca Group. ...


The creative industries accounted for 7.3% GVA in 2004 and grew at an average of 5% per annum between 1997 and 2004.[70] Creative Industries (or sometimes Creative Economy) refers to a set of interlocking industry sectors, and are often cited as being a growing part of the global economy. ...


The United Kingdom's agriculture sector accounts for only 0.9% of the country's GDP.[71]


The UK has a small coal reserve along with significant natural gas, and oil reserves, although the natural gas and oil reserves are diminishing. For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ...


Government involvement throughout the economy is exercised by the Chancellor of the Exchequer (currently Alistair Darling) who heads HM Treasury, but the Prime Minister (currently Gordon Brown), is First Lord of the Treasury; the Chancellor of the Exchequer is the Second Lord of the Treasury. However since 1997, the Bank of England, headed by the Governor of the Bank of England, has control of interest rates and other monetary policy. The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... Alistair Maclean Darling (born November 28, 1953) is a British politician and Chancellor of the Exchequer since June 28, 2007. ... The new eastern entrance to HM Treasury HM Treasury, in full Her Majestys Treasury, informally The Treasury, is the United Kingdom government department responsible for developing and executing the UK Governments financial and economic policy. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ... The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, usually but not always the Prime Minister. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Governor Mervyn King Central Bank of United Kingdom Currency Pound sterling ISO 4217 Code GBP Base borrowing rate 5. ... The Governor of the Bank of England is the most senior position in the Bank of England. ...


Currency

New Bank of England £20 note.

The currency of the UK is the pound sterling, represented by the symbol £. The Bank of England is the central bank, responsible for issuing currency. Banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland retain the right to issue their own notes, subject to retaining enough Bank of England notes in reserve to cover the issue. The UK chose not to join the Euro at the currency's launch, and British Prime Minister Gordon Brown has ruled out membership for the foreseeable future, saying that the decision not to join had been right for Britain and for Europe.[72] The government of former Prime Minister Tony Blair had pledged to hold a public referendum for deciding membership should "five economic tests" be met. In 2005, more than half (55%) of the UK were against adopting the currency, whilst 30% were in favour.[73] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Governor Mervyn King Central Bank of United Kingdom Currency Pound sterling ISO 4217 Code GBP Base borrowing rate 5. ... “GBP” redirects here. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Governor Mervyn King Central Bank of United Kingdom Currency Pound sterling ISO 4217 Code GBP Base borrowing rate 5. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... The five economic tests are the criteria defined by the United Kingdom Government that are to be used to assess the UKs readiness to join the Eurozone and adopt the euro as its currency. ...


Infrastructure

Heathrow Airport is the world's busiest airport in terms of numbers of international passengers.

The government's Department for Transport oversees the well-developed transport system in the United Kingdom. A radial road network of 29,145 miles (46,904 km) of main roads is centred on London, Edinburgh and Belfast, whilst, in Great Britain, a motorway network of 2,173 miles (3,497 km) is centred on Birmingham, Manchester and London. There are a further 213,750 kilometers (132,818 mi) of paved roads. The transport system in the United Kingdom is well developed. ... // Introduction and history Until 1982, the main civil telecommunications system in the UK was a state monopoly known as Post Office Telecommunications. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x702, 251 KB) Summary Photo copyright Tom Collins. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x702, 251 KB) Summary Photo copyright Tom Collins. ... London Heathrow Airport (IATA airport code: LHR, ICAO airport code: EGLL, and often simply Heathrow) is the United Kingdoms busiest and best-connected airport. ... Worlds busiest airports by international passenger traffic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... In the United Kingdom, the Department for Transport is the government department responsible for the transport network. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... “km” redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ... Birmingham (pron. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ...


The National Rail network of 10,072 route miles (16,116 route km) in Great Britain and 189 route miles (303 route km) in Northern Ireland carries over 18,000 passenger trains and 1,000 freight trains daily. Urban rail networks are also well developed in London and several other cities. There was once over 30,000 route miles of rail network in the UK, however most of this was reduced over a time period from 1955 to 1975, much of it after a report by a government advisor Richard Beeching in the mid 1960s (known as the Beeching Axe). National Rail uses the BR double-arrow logo A typical National Rail station sign showing the double-arrow logo National Rail is a brand name of the Association of Train Operating Companies (ATOC). ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Richard Beeching Richard Beeching, Baron Beeching (21 April 1913 - 23 March 1985), commonly known as Doctor Beeching, was chairman of British Railways and a physicist and engineer. ... Many railway lines were closed as a result of the Beeching Axe The Beeching Axe is an informal name for the British Governments attempt in the 1960s to reduce the cost of running the British railway system. ...


Heathrow Airport is the world's busiest international airport, and being an island nation the UK has a considerable network of sea ports, which received over 558 million tonnes of goods in 2003 – 04. London Heathrow Airport (IATA airport code: LHR, ICAO airport code: EGLL, and often simply Heathrow) is the United Kingdoms busiest and best-connected airport. ...


Armed forces

Main article: British Armed Forces
HMS Invincible. Two Invincible class aircraft carriers are currently in service. A third carrier is in reserve.
HMS Invincible. Two Invincible class aircraft carriers are currently in service. A third carrier is in reserve.

The Army, Navy and Air Force are collectively known as the British Armed Forces (or Her Majesty's Armed Forces) and officially the Armed Forces of the Crown. The commander-in-chief is the monarch, Queen Elizabeth II and they are managed by the Ministry of Defence. The armed forces are controlled by the Defence Council, chaired by the Chief of the Defence Staff. The armed forces of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the British Armed Forces or Her Majestys Armed Forces, and sometimes legally the Armed Forces of the Crown[1], encompasses a navy, army, and an air force. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2100x1500, 676 KB) Her Majestys Ship Invincible (R05) arrives in Jacksonville, Fla. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2100x1500, 676 KB) Her Majestys Ship Invincible (R05) arrives in Jacksonville, Fla. ... The sixth and current HMS Invincible (R05) is a light aircraft carrier, the lead ship of three in her class. ... The sixth (and current) HMS Invincible. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Naval Service is the maritime branch of the British Armed Forces. ... “RAF” redirects here. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The... The Ministry of Defence (MOD) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and the headquarters of the British Armed Forces. ... The Defence Council of the United Kingdom is the body legally entrusted with the defence of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories and with control over the British armed forces, and is part of the Ministry of Defence. ... The Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) is the professional head of the British Armed Forces. ...


The United Kingdom fields one of the most technologically advanced and best trained armed forces in the world. According to various sources, including the Ministry of Defence, the UK has the second highest military expenditure in the world,[74][75] despite only having the 28th largest military in terms of manpower. Total defence spending currently accounts for 2.2% of total national GDP, compared to 4.4% at the end of the Cold War.[76] It is also the second largest spender on military science, engineering and technology.[77] The Royal Navy is considered to be the only other blue-water navy along with those of France and the United States.[78] The British Armed Forces are equipped with many advanced weapons systems, including the Challenger 2 tank and the Eurofighter Typhoon jet fighter. The Ministry of Defence also confirmed the acquisition of two new Aircraft Carriers on 25 July 2007. The Ministry of Defence (MOD) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and the headquarters of the British Armed Forces. ... Military spending in 2005 Military spending This is a list of countries by military expenditures using the latest information available. ... Number of active troops per country This is a list of countries sorted by the total number of active troops where the military manpower of a country is measured by the total amount of active troops within the command of that country. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Ships from seven countries sailing together during the RIMPAC exercise in 2006. ... The Challenger 2 is the most recent main battle tank in service with the United Kingdom and Oman. ... This article is about a fighter aircraft. ... The Queen Elizabeth class aircraft carriers (formerly CVF)[4] are a new generation of aircraft carrier being developed for the United Kingdoms Royal Navy. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ...

A Trident II SLBM being launched from one of the Royal Navy's 4 Vanguard class submarines as a test launch.
A Trident II SLBM being launched from one of the Royal Navy's 4 Vanguard class submarines as a test launch.

The United Kingdom is one of the five recognised countries possessing nuclear weapons, utilising the Vanguard class submarine-based Trident II ballistic missile system. Image File history File links Trident_II_missile_image. ... Image File history File links Trident_II_missile_image. ... The Trident missile is an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) which is armed with nuclear warheads and is launched from submarines (SSBNs), making it an SLBM. There are 14 active US Ohio class submarines and 4 UK Vanguard class submarines equipped with the two variants of Trident: the initial Trident-I... French M45 SLBM and M51 SLBM Submarine-launched ballistic missiles or SLBMs are ballistic missiles delivering nuclear weapons that are launched from submarines. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... The Vanguard class are the Royal Navys current nuclear ballistic missile submarines (SSBN), each armed with up to 16 Trident II SLBMs. ... This is a list of countries with nuclear weapons. ... The Vanguard class are the Royal Navys current nuclear ballistic missile submarines (SSBN), each armed with up to 16 Trident II SLBMs. ... This article contains technical information about the Trident ballistic missile. ...


The British Armed Forces are charged with protecting the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, promoting the United Kingdom's global security interests, and supporting international peacekeeping efforts. They are active and regular participants in NATO, including the Allied Rapid Reaction Corps, as well as the Five Power Defence Arrangements and other worldwide coalition operations. Overseas garrisons and facilities are maintained at Ascension Island, Belize, Brunei, Canada, Diego Garcia, the Falkland Islands, Germany, Gibraltar, Kenya, and Cyprus.[79][80] Location of the British Overseas Territories The British Overseas Territories are fourteen[1] territories which the United Kingdom considers to be under its sovereignty, but not as part of the United Kingdom itself. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... The Headquarters Allied Command Europe Rapid Reaction Corps, (HQ ARRC or ARRC) was created in 1992 based on the former British I Corps. ... The Five Power Defence Arrangements (FPDA) are a defence relationship established by an agreement between the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia and Singapore signed in 1971, whereby the five nations will consult each other in the event of external aggression or threat of attack against Malaysia or Singapore. ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Capital Georgetown Largest city Georgetown Official languages English Government Dependency of St. ... Diego Garcia ( ) is an atoll located in the heart of the Indian Ocean, some 1,000 miles (1,600 km) south of Indias southern coast. ...


The British Army had a reported strength of 102,440 in 2005,[81] the Royal Air Force a strength of 49,210 and the 36,320-strong Royal Navy, which includes the Royal Marines, who provide commando units specialising in amphibious warfare. The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... “RAF” redirects here. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... The Royal Marines (RM), are the Royal Navys elite fighting forces. ... For other uses, see Commando (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Landing operation be merged into this article or section. ...


The United Kingdom Special Forces, provide troops trained for quick, mobile, military responses in counter-terrorism, land, maritime and amphibious operations, often where secrecy or covert tactics are required. The United Kingdom Special Forces (UKSF) is an umbrella directorate overseeing the Special Forces units of the British Armed Forces. ... Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ... It has been suggested that Landing operation be merged into this article or section. ...


There are also reserve forces supporting the regular military. These include the Territorial Army, the Royal Naval Reserve, Royal Marines Reserve and the Royal Auxiliary Air Force. This puts total active and reserve duty military personnel at approximately 429,500, deployed in over eighty countries. The Territorial Army (TA) is the principal reserve force of the British Army, the land armed forces of the United Kingdom, and composed mostly of part-time soldiers paid at the same rate, while engaged on military activities, as their Regular equivalents. ... “RNR” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Royal Auxiliary Air Force (RAuxAF) is the volunteer reserve part of the Royal Air Force. ...


Despite the United Kingdom's military capabilities, recent pragmatic defence policy has a stated assumption that "the most demanding operations" would be undertaken as part of a coalition.[82] Setting aside the intervention in Sierra Leone, operations in Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan and Iraq may all be taken as precedent. Indeed the last war in which the British military fought alone was the Falklands War of 1982, in which they were victorious. Operation Palliser was a British Armed forces operation in Sierra Leone in 2000 under the command of Brigadier David Richards. ... Combatants Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predominantly Bosniak) Army of Republika Srpska, Yugoslav Peoples Army, various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian) Croatian Defence Council, Croatian Army (Croatian) Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Combatants Argentina United Kingdom Commanders President Leopoldo Galtieri Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo Brigade-General Mario Menéndez Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward Major-General Jeremy Moore Casualties 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner 75 fixed...


Culture

Union Flag The culture of the United Kingdom is rich and varied, and has been influential on culture on a worldwide scale. ...

Cinema

The United Kingdom has been influential in the development of cinema, with the Ealing Studios claiming to be the oldest studios in the world. Despite a history of important and successful productions, the industry is characterised by an ongoing debate about its identity, and the influences of American and European cinema. Famous films include the Harry Potter and Ian Fleming's James Bond series which, although now made by American studios, used British source materials, locations, actors and filming crew. Michael Caine in Get Carter (1971). ... Ealing Studios, a television and film production company and facilities provider at Ealing Green in West London, claims to be the oldest film studio in the world. ... The Harry Potter film series are the fantasy films based on the Harry Potter series of novels by British author J. K. Rowling. ... Ian Lancaster Fleming (May 28, 1908 – August 12, 1964) was a British author, journalist and Second World War Navy Commander. ... “007” redirects here. ...


Education

Further information: Education in the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom's official literacy rate (99%) is normal by developed country standards. Universal state education was introduced for the primary level in 1870 and secondary level in 1900 (except in Scotland where it was introduced in 1696, see Education in Scotland).[83] Education is mandatory from ages five to sixteen (15 if born in late July or August). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Download high resolution version (1025x768, 217 KB)The west end of Kings College Chapel seen from The Backs. ... Download high resolution version (1025x768, 217 KB)The west end of Kings College Chapel seen from The Backs. ... Full name The King’s College of Our Lady and St Nicholas in Cambridge Motto Veritas et Utilitas Truth and usefulness Named after Henry VI Previous names - Established 1441 Sister College(s) New College, Oxford Provost Prof. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Educational oversight Cabinet Secretary Scottish Executive Education Department Fiona Hyslop MSP National education budget n/a (2007-08) Primary languages English and Scottish Gaelic National system Compulsory education 1872 Literacy (2005 est)  â€¢ Men  â€¢ Women 99% 99% 99% Enrollment  â€¢ Primary  â€¢ Secondary  â€¢ Post-secondary 1,452,240 390,2602 322,980 739...


The majority of children in the UK are educated in state-sector schools, only a small proportion of which select on the grounds of academic ability. Around 7% of children in the UK are educated privately, the vast majority at the anachronistically named public schools. The products of public schools make up about 50% of students at the leading universities of Cambridge and Oxford, as well as the majority of doctors, judges and business leaders. State schools which are allowed to select pupils according to intelligence and academic ability can achieve comparable results to public schools: out of the top ten performing schools in terms of GCSE results in 2006 two were state-run grammar schools. The term public school has two contrary meanings: In England, one of a small number of prestigious historic schools open to the public which normally charge fees and are financed by bodies other than the state, commonly as private charitable trusts; here the word public is used much as in... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... The University of Oxford (usually abbreviated as Oxon. ... A grammar school is a type of school found in some English-speaking countries. ...


Some of the UK's 138 university level institutions are internationally renowned, especially those of Cambridge, Oxford, and London.[84] In the 2006 THES - QS World University Rankings,[85] 30 UK institutions were ranked amongst the top 200 universities in the world. The University of London is a university based primarily in London. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with The Times Higher Education Supplement. ...


Fewer citizens of the UK are able to speak a foreign language than in any other EU country except Ireland opinion/archives/ebs/ebs 243 en.pdf. This has caused fear that the poor language skills in the UK will have a negative effect on business, and has led to calls for languages to be given priority in education. [20] [21]


Literature

Main article: British literature
The Chandos portrait, believed to depict the famed playwright William Shakespeare.
The Chandos portrait, believed to depict the famed playwright William Shakespeare.

The English playwright and poet William Shakespeare is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language.[86][87][88] British literature is literature from the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. ... Image File history File links Shakespeare. ... Image File history File links Shakespeare. ... The Chandos portrait, popularly believed to depict William Shakespeare (in a 20th century reproduction) The Chandos portrait is one of the most famous of the portraits that may depict William Shakespeare (1564–1616). ... A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes dramatic literature or drama. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Among the earliest British writers are Geoffrey of Monmouth (12th century), Geoffrey Chaucer (14th century), and Thomas Malory (15th century). In the 18th century, Samuel Richardson is often credited with inventing the modern novel. In the 19th century, there followed further innovation by Jane Austen, the Brontë sisters, the social campaigner Charles Dickens, the naturalist Thomas Hardy, the visionary poet William Blake and romantic poet William Wordsworth. Twentieth century writers include the science fiction novelist H. G. Wells, the controversial D. H. Lawrence, the modernist Virginia Woolf, the prophetic novelist George Orwell and the poet John Betjeman. Most recently, the children's fantasy Harry Potter series by J. K. Rowling has recalled the popularity of J.R.R. Tolkien. Geoffrey of Monmouth (in Welsh: Gruffudd ap Arthur or Sieffre o Fynwy) (c. ... Geoffrey Chaucer (c. ... Sir Thomas Malory (c. ... Samuel Richardson (August 19, 1689 – July 4, 1761) was a major 18th century writer best known for his three epistolary novels: Pamela: Or, Virtue Rewarded (1740), Clarissa: Or the History of a Young Lady (1748) and Sir Charles Grandison (1753). ... 1873 engraving of Jane Austen, based on a portrait drawn by her sister Cassandra. ... The Brontë sisters, painted by their brother, Branwell c. ... “Dickens” redirects here. ... Naturalism is a movement in theater, film, and literature that seeks to replicate a believable everyday reality, as opposed to such movements as Romanticism or Surrealism, in which subjects may receive highly symbolic, idealistic, or even supernatural treatment. ... “Thomas Hardy” redirects here. ... William Blake (November 28, 1757 – August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ... William Wordsworth (April 7, 1770 – April 23, 1850) was a major English romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their 1798 joint publication, Lyrical Ballads. ... Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946), better known as H. G. Wells, was an English writer best known for such science fiction novels as The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man, The First Men in the Moon and The Island of Doctor Moreau. ... David Herbert Richards Lawrence (11 September 1885 - 2 March 1930) was a very important and controversial English writer of the 20th century, whose prolific and diverse output included novels, short stories, poems, plays, essays, travel books, paintings, translations, literary criticism and personal letters. ... This article focuses on the cultural movement labeled modernism or the modern movement. See also: Modernism (Roman Catholicism) or Modernist Christianity; Modernismo for specific art movement(s) in Spain and Catalonia. ... For the American childrens writer, see Virginia Euwer Wolff Virginia Woolf (née Stephen) (January 25, 1882 – March 28, 1941) was an English novelist and essayist regarded as one of the foremost modernist literary figures of the twentieth century. ... Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 [1] [2] – 21 January 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist. ... A collection of Betjemans poetry, published by John Murray in January 2006 Sir John Betjeman CBE (28 August 1906 – 19 May 1984) was an English poet, writer and broadcaster who described himself in Whos Who as a poet and hack. He was born to a middle-class family... This article is about the Harry Potter series of novels. ... Joanne Jo Murray née Rowling OBE (born 31 July 1965[2]), who writes under the pen name J. K. Rowling,[3] is an English writer and author of the Harry Potter fantasy series. ... J. R. R. Tolkien in 1916. ...


Scotland's contribution includes the detective writer Arthur Conan Doyle, romantic literature by Sir Walter Scott, the epic adventures of Robert Louis Stevenson and the celebrated poet Robert Burns. More recently, the modernist and nationalist Hugh MacDiarmid and Neil M. Gunn contributed to the Scottish Renaissance. A more grim outlook is found in Ian Rankin's stories and the psychological horror-comedy of Iain Banks. Scotland's capital, Edinburgh, is UNESCO's first worldwide city of literature. Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle, DL (22 May 1859–7 July 1930) was a Scottish author most noted for his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered a major innovation in the field of crime fiction, and for the adventures of Professor Challenger. ... For the first Premier of Saskatchewan see Thomas Walter Scott Sir Walter Scott (August 14, 1771 - September 21, 1832) was a prolific Scottish historical novelist and poet popular throughout Europe. ... Robert Louis Stevenson Robert Louis (Balfour) Stevenson (November 13, 1850–December 3, 1894), was a Scottish novelist, poet, and travel writer, and a leading representative of Neo-romanticism in English literature. ... For the chain gang fugitive and author from Georgia, see Robert Elliott Burns. ... Hugh MacDiarmid was the pen name of Christopher Murray Grieve (August 11, 1892, Langholm - September 9, 1978), perhaps the most important Scottish poet of the 20th century. ... Neil Miller Gunn (November 8, 1891 - January 15, 1973) was a prolific novelist, critic, and dramatist who emerged as one of the leading lights of the Scottish Renaissance of the 1920s and 1930s. ... The Scottish version of modernism, the Scottish literary renaissance was begun by Hugh MacDiarmid in the 1920s when he abandoned his English language poetry and began to write in Lallans. ... Ian Rankin OBE, DL. (born April 28, 1960, in Cardenden, Fife, Scotland, UK) is one of the best-selling crime writers in the United Kingdom. ... Iain Menzies Banks (officially Iain Banks, born on 16 February 1954 in Dunfermline, Fife) is a Scottish writer. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ...


In the early medieval period, Welsh writers composed the Mabinogion. In modern times, the poets R.S. Thomas and Dylan Thomas have brought Welsh culture to an international audience. The Mabinogion is a collection of prose stories from medieval Welsh manuscripts. ... Ronald Stuart Thomas (29 March 1913 – 25 September 2000) (published as R. S. Thomas) was a Welsh poet and Anglican Clergyman, noted for his nationalism and spirituality. ... Dylan Thomas Dylan Marlais Thomas (October 27, 1914 – November 9, 1953) was a Welsh poet and writer. ...


Many authors from other nationalities, particularly from Ireland, or from Commonwealth countries, have also lived and worked in the UK. Significant examples through the centuries include Jonathan Swift, Oscar Wilde, Bram Stoker, George Bernard Shaw, Joseph Conrad, T. S. Eliot and Ezra Pound, and more recently British authors born abroad such as Kazuo Ishiguro and Sir Salman Rushdie. The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish cleric, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for Whigs then for Tories), and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and... Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and author of short stories. ... Abraham Bram Stoker (November 8, 1847 – April 20, 1912) was an Irish writer, best remembered as the author of the influential horror novel Dracula. ... George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856–2 November 1950) was an Irish dramatist, literary critic, and socialist. ... // Joseph Conrad (born Teodor Józef Konrad NaÅ‚Ä™cz-Korzeniowski, 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-born novelist who spent most of his adult life in Britain. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26, 1888 – January 4, 1965), was a poet, dramatist and literary critic. ... Ezra Pound in 1913. ... Kazuo Ishiguro (カズオ・イシグロ Kazuo Ishiguro, originally 石黒一雄 Ishiguro Kazuo, born November 8, 1954) is a British author of Japanese origin. ... Ahmed Salman Rushdie KBE (Hindi: Urdu: سلمان رشدی; born 19 June 1947) is a British-Indian novelist and essayist. ...


In theatre, Shakespeare's contemporaries Christopher Marlowe and Ben Jonson added depth. More recently Alan Ayckbourn, Harold Pinter, Michael Frayn, Tom Stoppard and David Edgar have combined elements of surrealism, realism and radicalism. This article is about the English dramatist. ... For other persons of the same name, see Ben Johnson (disambiguation). ... Sir Alan Ayckbourn CBE (born April 12, 1939) is a popular and prolific English playwright. ... Harold Pinter, CH, CBE (born 10 October 1930) is an English playwright, screenwriter, poet, actor, director, author, and political activist. ... Michael Frayn (born 8 September 1933) is an English playwright and novelist. ... Sir Tom Stoppard, OM, CBE (born as Tomáš Straussler on July 3, 1937)[1] is an Academy Award winning British playwright of more than 24 plays. ... David Edgar (b. ...

Further information: English literature, Scottish literature and Welsh literature

The term English literature refers to literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; Joseph Conrad was Polish, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, Edgar Allan Poe was American, Salman Rushdie is Indian, V.S... Scottish literature is literature written in Scotland or by Scottish writers. ... The term Welsh literature may be used to refer to any literature originating from Wales or by Welsh writers. ...

Media

The prominence of the English language gives the UK media a widespread international dimension. The United Kingdom has a diverse range of different types of media. ...


Broadcasting

The BBC is the UK's publicly funded radio, television and internet broadcasting corporation, and is the oldest and largest broadcaster in the world. It operates several television channels and radio stations both in the UK and abroad. The BBC's international television news service, BBC World, is broadcast throughout the world and the BBC World Service radio network is broadcast in thirty-three languages globally. For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... BBC Television is a service of the British Broadcasting Corporation which began in 1932. ... World News bulletins form the main part of the channels daily schedule. ... The BBC World Service is one of the most widely recognised international broadcasters of radio programming, transmitting in 33 languages to many parts of the world. ...


The domestic services of the BBC are funded by the television licence, a legal requirement for any British household with a television receiver that is in use to receive broadcasts, regardless of whether or not the householders watch BBC channels. Households which are the principal residence of any person over 75 are exempt[89] and the requirement does not extend to radio listeners. The BBC World Service Radio is funded by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and the television stations are operated by BBC Worldwide on a commercial subscription basis over cable and satellite services. It is also this commercial arm of the BBC that forms half of UKTV along with Virgin Media. A television licence (or more correctly broadcast receiver licence, as it usually also pays for public radio) is an official licence required in many countries for all owners of television (and sometimes also radio) receivers. ... The Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Whitehall, seen from St. ... BBC Worldwide Limited is the wholly-owned commercial subsidiary of the British Broadcasting Corporation, formed out of a restructuring of its predecessor BBC Enterprises in 1995. ... UKTV UKTV is a joint venture between the BBCs commercial arm, BBC Worldwide, and Virgin Media owned Virgin Media Television, formally Flextech Television. ... Virgin Media Inc. ...


There are five major nationwide television channels in the UK: BBC One, BBC Two, ITV1, Channel 4 and Five - all currently transmitted by analogue terrestrial, free-to-air signals with the latter three channels funded by commercial advertising. BBC One is the primary television channel of the BBC, and the first in the United Kingdom. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... ITV1 is the name, in England, Wales and the Scottish borders, for a terrestrial, free-to-air television channel, broadcast in the United Kingdom by the ITV network. ... This article is about the British television station. ... Five, launched in 1997, is the fifth and final national terrestrial analogue television channel to launch in the United Kingdom. ...


The UK now also has a large number of digital terrestrial channels including a further six from the BBC, five from ITV and three from Channel 4 among a variety of others.


The vast majority of digital cable services are provided by Virgin Media with satellite being provided by BSkyB and free-to-air digital terrestrial television by Freeview. The entire country will switch to digital by 2012. Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house. ... Virgin Media Inc. ... Satellite television is television delivered by way of communications satellites, as compared to conventional terrestrial television and cable television. ... British Sky Broadcasting (BSkyB - formerly two companies, Sky Television and British Satellite Broadcasting, which merged) is a company that operates the most popular subscription television service in the Ireland. ... Free-to-air is a phrase used to describe television and radio broadcasts which are available without subscription and without decryption (pay-TV). ... This article is about the United Kingdom digital terrestrial television service. ... The Digital Tick Digital switchover is the name given to the process by which analogue broadcast television in an area is converted to digital television. ...


Radio in the UK is dominated by BBC Radio, which operates ten national networks and over forty local radio stations. The most popular radio station, by number of listeners, is BBC Radio 2, closely followed by BBC Radio 1. There are also many hundreds of mainly local commercial radio stations across the country offering a variety of music or talk formats. There are over 250 radio stations in the United Kingdom. ... BBC Radio is a service of the British Broadcasting Corporation which has operated in the United Kingdom under the terms of a Royal Charter since 1927. ... BBC Radio 2 is one of the BBCs national radio stations and is the most popular station in the UK. It broadcasts throughout the UK on FM radio between 88 and 91 MHz from its studios in Western House, adjacent to Broadcasting House in central London. ... BBC Radio 1 (commonly referred to as just Radio 1) is a British national radio station operated by the BBC, specialising in popular music and speech and is aimed primarily at the 14-29[1] age group. ...


Print

Traditionally, British newspapers could be split into quality, serious-minded newspaper (usually referred to as "broadsheets" due to their large size) and the more populist, tabloid varieties. For convenience of reading, many traditional broadsheets have switched to a more compact-sized format, traditionally used by tabloids. The Sun has the highest circulation of any daily newspaper in the UK, with approximately a quarter of the market; its sister paper, The News of The World similarly leads the Sunday newspaper market,[90] and traditionally focuses on celebrity-led stories. The Daily Telegraph, a right-of-centre broadsheet paper, has overtaken The Times (tabloid size format) as the highest-selling of the "quality" newspapers .[91] The Guardian is a more liberal (left-wing) "quality" broadsheet. The Financial Times is the main business paper, printed on distinctive salmon-pink broadsheet paper. Scotland has a distinct tradition of newspaper readership (see List of newspapers in Scotland). First printed in 1737, the Belfast News Letter is the oldest known English-speaking daily newspaper still in publication today. One of its fellow Northern Irish competitors, The Irish News, has been twice ranked as the best regional newspaper in the United Kingdom, in 2006 and 2007.[92] Aside from newspapers, a number of British magazines and journals have achieved world-wide circulation including The Economist and Nature. // Traditionally newspapers could be split into quality, serious-minded newspapers (usually referred to as broadsheets due to their large size) and tabloid, less serious newspapers. ... Newspaper sizes in August 2005. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Newspaper sizes in August 2005. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about a British tabloid. ... The News of the World is a British tabloid newspaper published every Sunday. ... This article concerns the British newspaper. ... “Right wing” redirects here. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1788. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... This article gives an overview of liberalism in the United Kingdom. ... The Financial Times (FT) is a British international business newspaper. ... List of newspapers in Scotland is a list of newspapers in Scotland. ... The News Letter is one of Northern Irelands main daily newspapers, published Monday to Saturday. ... The Irish News is a Berliner-sized newspaper based in Belfast, Northern Ireland. ... The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London, UK. It has been in continuous publication since September 1843. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ...


Music

Main article: British Music

Classical music: Notable composers from the United Kingdom have included William Byrd, Henry Purcell, Sir Edward Elgar, Sir Arthur Sullivan (most famous for working with librettist Sir W. S. Gilbert), Ralph Vaughan Williams, and Benjamin Britten, pioneer of modern British opera. London remains one of the major classical music capitals of the world. Music from the United Kingdom has achieved great international popularity since the 1960s, when the British Invasion peaked. ... For other uses, see William Byrd (disambiguation). ... Henry Purcell Henry Purcell (IPA: [1]; September 10 (?) [2], 1659–November 21, 1695), a Baroque composer, is generally considered to be one of Englands greatest composers. ... Edward Elgar Sir Edward William Elgar, Bt OM GCVO (June 2, 1857 – February 23, 1934) was a British composer, born in the small Worcestershire village of Broadheath to William Elgar, a piano tuner and music dealer, and his wife Ann. ... Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan (May 13, 1842–November 22, 1900) was a British composer best known for his operatic collaborations with librettist William S. Gilbert. ... Sir William Schwenck Gilbert (November 18, 1836 - May 29, 1911) was a British dramatist and librettist best known for his operatic collaborations with the composer Arthur Sullivan. ... A statue of Ralph Vaughan Williams in Dorking. ... Edward Benjamin Britten, Baron Britten, OM CH (November 22, 1913 Lowestoft, Suffolk - December 4, 1976 Aldeburgh, Suffolk) was a British composer, conductor, and pianist. ... This article is about Opera, the art form. ... This article is about Western art music from 1000 AD to the 2000s . ...


Popular music: Prominent among the UK contibutors to the development of rock music in the 1960s were The Beatles and The Rolling Stones. Heavy metal, hard rock, punk rock and New Wave were among the variations that followed. In the early 1980s UK bands from the New Romantic scene were prominent. In the 1990s, Britpop bands and electronica music also attained international success. More recent pop acts, including The Smiths, Oasis and the Spice Girls, have ensured the continuation of the UK's massive contribution to popular music. For other uses, see Rock music (disambiguation). ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... “Rolling Stones” redirects here. ... Heavy metals, in chemistry, are chemical elements of a particular range of atomic weights. ... “Hard Rock” redirects here. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... The New Wave was a movement in American, Australian and British popular music, in the late 1970s and early 1980s, growing out of the New York City musical scene centered around the club CBGB. The term itself is a source of much confusion. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Britpop was a British alternative rock genre and movement that was at its most popular in Great Britain in the mid 1990s. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Electronic music. ... The Smiths were an English rock band active from 1982 to 1987. ... Oasis is an English rock band, formed in Manchester in 1991. ... The Spice Girls are an English all-female pop group, which was formed in London in 1994. ...


Philosophy

David Hume (1711 – 1776).
David Hume (1711 – 1776).

Eminent philosophers from the UK include William of Ockham, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, David Hume, Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, Bertrand Russell, Adam Smith and Alfred Ayer. Foreign born philosophers who settled in the UK include Isaiah Berlin, Karl Marx, Karl Popper, and Ludwig Wittgenstein Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (825x1000, 91 KB) Found at Web Gallery of Art File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): David Hume Empiricism Allan Ramsay (1713-1784) Category talk:Philosophers User:Primalchaos... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (825x1000, 91 KB) Found at Web Gallery of Art File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): David Hume Empiricism Allan Ramsay (1713-1784) Category talk:Philosophers User:Primalchaos... This article is about the philosopher. ... William of Ockham (also Occam or any of several other spellings, IPA: ) (c. ... “Hobbes” redirects here. ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... This article is about the philosopher. ... Jeremy Bentham (IPA: or ) (February 15, 1748 O.S. (February 26, 1748 N.S.) – June 6, 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist civil servant, and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... Ayer redirects here. ... Sir Isaiah Berlin, OM (June 6, 1909 – November 5, 1997), was a political philosopher and historian of ideas, regarded as one of the leading liberal thinkers of the 20th century. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Sir Karl Raimund Popper, CH, FRS, FBA, (July 28, 1902 – September 17, 1994), was an Austrian and British[1] philosopher and a professor at the London School of Economics. ... Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (IPA: ) (April 26, 1889 in Vienna, Austria – April 29, 1951 in Cambridge, England) was an Austrian philosopher who contributed several ground-breaking ideas to philosophy, primarily in the foundations of logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of language, and the philosophy of mind. ...


Science, engineering and innovation

See also: Category:British inventors and Category:British inventions

The modern scientific method was promoted by the English philosopher Francis Bacon in the early seventeenth century, and subsequent advances credited to British scientists and engineers include: For other persons named Francis Bacon, see Francis Bacon (disambiguation). ...

Notable civil engineering projects, whose pioneers included Isambard Kingdom Brunel, contributed to the world's first national railway transport system. Other advances pioneered in the UK include the marine chronometer, television, the jet engine, the modern bicycle, electric lighting, the electric motor, the screw propeller, the internal combustion engine, military radar, the electronic computer, vaccination and antibiotics. Newtons First and Second laws, in Latin, from the original 1687 edition of the Principia Mathematica. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... Sir Isaac Newton in Knellers portrait of 1689. ... James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist from Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. His most significant achievement was aggregating a set of equations in electricity, magnetism and inductance — eponymously named Maxwells equations — including an important modification (extension) of the Ampères... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... For other persons named Henry Cavendish, see Henry Cavendish (disambiguation). ... One of the last mainline steam locomotives built in the UK: British Railways Standard Class 9F 2-10-0 no. ... Richard Trevithick Richard Trevithick (April 13, 1771 – April 22, 1833) was a British inventor, engineer and builder of the first working railway steam locomotive. ... Andrew Vivian (1759-1842), Cornish mechanical engineer, inventor, and mine captain of the famous Dolcoath Silver Mine in Cornwall. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... Alexander Graham Bell (3 March 1847 - 2 August 1922) was a Scottish scientist, inventor and innovator. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... An artistic representation of a Turing Machine . ... Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, logician, and cryptographer. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Francis Harry Compton Crick OM FRS (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was an English molecular biologist, physicist, and neuroscientist, who is most noted for being one of the co-discoverers of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... Sir Tim Berners-Lee Sir Tim (Timothy John) Berners-Lee, KBE (TimBL or TBL) (b. ... The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... Isambard Kingdom Brunel, FRS (9 April 1806 – 15 September 1859) (IPA: ), was a British engineer. ... A marine chronometer is a timekeeper precise enough to be used as a portable time standard, used to determine longitude by means of celestial navigation. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ... Most of the industrialized world is lit by electric lights, which are used both at night and to provide additional light during the daytime. ... For other kinds of motors, see motor. ... A propeller can be seen as a rotating fin in water or a wing in air. ... The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... This article is about the machine. ... A vial of the vaccine against influenza. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ...


Scientific journals produced in the UK include Nature, the British Medical Journal and The Lancet. In 2006, it was reported that the UK provided 9% of the world's scientific research papers and a 12% share of citations.[93] Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... The British Medical Journal (BMJ) is a medical journal published weekly in the United Kingdom by the British Medical Association (BMA)which published its first issue in 1845. ... The Lancet is one of the oldest and most respected peer-reviewed medical journals in the world, published weekly by Elsevier, part of Reed Elsevier. ...


Sport

The Wimbledon Championships, a Grand Slam tournament, is held in Wimbledon, London every July.

A number of major sports originated in the United Kingdom, including football, rugby, cricket, tennis and golf. // Sport plays a prominent role in British life and many Britons make a great emotional investment in their favourite spectator sports. ... Download high resolution version (1296x864, 196 KB)Sebastien Grosjean, 10th seed, in his 3rd round match against Jan-Michael Gambill. ... Download high resolution version (1296x864, 196 KB)Sebastien Grosjean, 10th seed, in his 3rd round match against Jan-Michael Gambill. ... The Championships, Wimbledon, commonly referred to as Wimbledon, is the oldest major championship in tennis and is widely considered to be the most prestigious. ... In tennis, a singles player or doubles team that wins all four Grand Slam titles in the same year is said to have achieved the Grand Slam or a Calendar Year Grand Slam. ... , This article is about the district of London. ... “Soccer” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... Bowler Shaun Pollock bowls to batsman Michael Hussey. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sport. ...


The most popular sport in the UK is football. The UK does not compete as a nation in any major football tournaments. Instead, the home nations compete individually as England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Because of this four-team arrangement, the UK does not compete in football events at the Olympic Games. However, there are proposals for a united team taking part in the 2012 Summer Olympic Games, which are to be held in London. The English and Northern Irish football associations have confirmed participation in this team while the Scottish FA and the Welsh FA have declined to participate, fearing that it would undermine their independent sport status. First international  Scotland 0 - 0 England (Partick, Scotland; 30 November 1872) Biggest win  Ireland 0 - 13 England (Belfast, Ireland; 18 February 1882) Biggest defeat  Hungary 7 - 1 England (Budapest, Hungary; 23 May 1954) World Cup Appearances 12 (First in 1950) Best result Winners, 1966 European Championship Appearances 7 (First in... First international Scotland 0–0 England  (Partick, Scotland; 30 November 1872) Biggest win Scotland 11–0 Ireland  (Glasgow, Scotland; 23 February 1901) Biggest defeat  Uruguay 7–0 Scotland (Basel, Switzerland; 19 June 1954) World Cup Appearances 8 (First in 1954) Best result Round 1, all European Championship Appearances 2 (First... First international  Scotland 4 - 0 Wales (Glasgow, Scotland; 26 March 1876) Biggest win Wales 11 - 0 Ireland  (Wrexham, Wales; 3 March 1888) Biggest defeat  Scotland 9 - 0 Wales (Glasgow, Scotland; 23 March 1878) World Cup Appearances 1 (First in 1958) Best result Quarter-finals, 1958 The Wales national football team... For the Irish FAs all-Ireland international team, see Ireland national football team (IFA). ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... The 2012 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXX Olympiad, will be held in London, United Kingdom from 27 July 2012 to 12 August 2012. ... The Football Association (The FA) is the governing body of football in England and the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man. ... The Irish Football Association (IFA) is the organising body for football in Northern Ireland. ... The Scottish Football Association (SFA) was formed in 1873 making it the second oldest national football association in the world (after The English Football Association). ... The Football Association of Wales is the governing body of football in Wales, being a member of both FIFA and UEFA. Established in 1876, it is the third-oldest association in the world, and is one of the five associations (with the English Football Association, the Scottish Football Association, the...


The UK is home to many world-renowned football clubs, such as Rangers, Liverpool, Manchester United, Chelsea, Arsenal and Celtic. Clubs compete in national leagues and competitions and some go on to compete in European competitions. British teams have been successful in European Competitions including some who have become European Cup/UEFA Champions League winners: Liverpool (five times), Manchester United (twice), Nottingham Forest (twice), Aston Villa, and Celtic. More clubs from England have won the European Cup than any other country (four compared to three from Italy, Germany and the Netherlands). Moreover, England ranks second in the all time list of European club trophies won with 35, one behind Italy's 36. The European Cup competition itself was brought about due to the success of another UK club, Wolverhampton Wanderers, against top European sides[94] in the 1950s. The Premiership is also the most-watched football league in the world and is particularly popular in Asia; in the People's Republic of China, matches attract television audiences between 100 million and 360 million, more than any other foreign sport.[95][96] For other uses, see Rangers F.C. (disambiguation). ... Liverpool Football Club are an English professional football club based in Liverpool, Merseyside, who play in the Premier League; they are historically the most successful club in the history of English football, having won more trophies than any other English club. ... Manchester United Football Club are a world-famous English football club, based at the Old Trafford stadium in Trafford, Greater Manchester, and are one of the most popular sports clubs in the world, with over 50 million supporters worldwide. ... Chelsea Football Club (also known as The Blues or previously The Pensioners) are an English professional football club based in west London. ... Arsenal Football Club (also known as Arsenal, The Arsenal or The Gunners) are an English professional football club based in Holloway, north London. ... Celtic Football Club (pronounced seltik in IPA; AIM: CCP)[1] is a Scottish football club, competing in the Scottish Premier League, the highest form of competition in Scotland. ... Football (soccer) is the United Kingdoms most popular sport. ... Liverpool Football Club are an English professional football club based in Liverpool, Merseyside, who play in the Premier League; they are historically the most successful club in the history of English football, having won more trophies than any other English club. ... Manchester United Football Club are a world-famous English football club, based at the Old Trafford stadium in Trafford, Greater Manchester, and are one of the most popular sports clubs in the world, with over 50 million supporters worldwide. ... Nottingham Forest Football Club is an English professional football club based at The City Ground in Nottingham, England. ... “Aston Villa” redirects here. ... Celtic Football Club (pronounced seltik in IPA; AIM: CCP)[1] is a Scottish football club, competing in the Scottish Premier League, the highest form of competition in Scotland. ... Wolverhampton Wanderers F.C. are an English football club playing at Molineux Stadium. ... The FA Premier League (often referred to as the Barclays English Premier League for sponsorship reasons) comprises the top 20 football clubs in the league system of English football. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...

The new Wembley Stadium is the most expensive stadium ever built costing £793 million ($1.6 billion).
The new Wembley Stadium is the most expensive stadium ever built costing £793 million ($1.6 billion).

The 90,000 capacity Wembley Stadium is the principle sporting stadium of the UK. Between the demolition of the former 'twin towers' stadium and construction of the new one (completed in March 2007), Cardiff's 73,000 seater Millennium Stadium briefly served this role. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 596 pixelsFull resolution (2576 × 1920 pixel, file size: 717 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wembley Stadium Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 596 pixelsFull resolution (2576 × 1920 pixel, file size: 717 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wembley Stadium Metadata This file contains... For the old stadium, see Wembley Stadium (1923). ... For the old stadium, see Wembley Stadium (1923). ... The Millennium Stadium (Welsh: Stadiwm y Mileniwm), is the national stadium of Wales, located in the capital Cardiff, and is used primarily for rugby union and football home internationals. ...


The early reference to the separate national identities in the UK is perhaps best illustrated by the game of cricket. Cricket was invented in England. There are league championships but the English national team dominates the game in Britain. There is no UK team. Some Irish and Scottish players have played for England because neither Scotland nor Ireland have Test status and only play in One Day Internationals. Bowler Shaun Pollock bowls to batsman Michael Hussey. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Cricket has a lower profile in Scotland than it has south of the border in England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


The UK has proved successful in the international sporting arena in rowing. It is widely considered that the sport's most successful rower is Steven Redgrave who won five gold medals and one bronze medal at five consecutive Olympic Games as well as numerous wins at the World Rowing Championships and Henley Royal Regatta. A coxless pair which is a sweep-oar boat. ... Sir Stephen Geoffrey Redgrave, or less formally Steve Redgrave, (born 23 March 1962 in Marlow, England), is a British rower who won a gold medal at five consecutive Olympic Games from 1984 to 2000, as well as an additional bronze medal in 1988. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... The World Rowing Championships is an international rowing regatta organised by FISA (the International Rowing Federation). ... A race taking place at Henley Regatta 2004 Henley Royal Regatta is a rowing event held every year on the river Thames by the town of Henley-on-Thames, England. ...


Both forms of rugby are national sports. Rugby League originates from and is generally played in the North of England, whilst Rugby Union is played predominantly in Wales, Ireland, Scotland, and Southern England. Having supposedly originated from the actions of William Webb Ellis at the School at Rugby, it is considered the national sport of Wales. In rugby league the UK plays as one nation — Great Britain — though in union it is represented by four nations: England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland (which consists of players from the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland). England is the current holder of the Rugby World Cup. Every four years the British and Irish Lions tour either Australia, New Zealand or South Africa. Here, rugby football differs internationally to association football, as the England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland (including the Republic of Ireland) teams combine to form the British and Irish Lions although they compete separately in all other international competitions. Wally Lewis passing the ball in Rugby League State of Origin. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... The north, the midlands and the south Southern England is an imprecise term used to refer to the southern counties of England. ... Statue of William Webb Ellis outside Rugby School William Webb Ellis (November 24, 1806 - January 24, 1872) is often credited with the invention of Rugby football. ... Rugby is a market town in the county of Warwickshire in the West Midlands of England, on the River Avon. ... Wally Lewis passing the ball in Rugby League State of Origin. ... First international (also the worlds first)  Scotland 4–1 England  (27 March 1871) Largest win  England 134–0 Romania  (17 November 2001) Worst defeat  Australia 76–0 England  (6 June 1998) The England national rugby union team is a sporting side that represents England in rugby union. ... For the rugby league competition, see Rugby League World Cup. ... First match Otago 3 - 8 Lions (as Great Britain) (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) Jonny Wilkinson taking a penalty for the Lions The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British... First match Otago 3 - 8 Lions (as Great Britain) (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) Jonny Wilkinson taking a penalty for the Lions The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British...


The game of tennis first originated from the UK's second city of Birmingham between 1859 and 1865. The Wimbledon Championships are international tennis events held in Wimbledon in south London every summer and are regarded as the most prestigious event of the global tennis calendar. For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... Birmingham (pron. ... Wimbledon logo The Championships, Wimbledon, commonly referred to as simply Wimbledon, is the oldest and arguably most prestigious event in the sport of tennis. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... , This article is about the district of London. ...


Thoroughbred racing is also very popular throughout the UK. It originated under Charles II of England as the "Sport of Kings" and is a royal pastime to this day. World-famous horse races include the Grand National, the Epsom Derby and Royal Ascot. The town of Newmarket is considered to be the centre of English racing, largely due to the famous Newmarket Racecourse. Thoroughbred horse racing is the main form of horse-racing throughout the world. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... The Grand National is the most valuable National Hunt handicap horse race in the United Kingdom. ... Epsom Derby, Théodore Géricault, 1821. ... Ascot Racecourse is a racecourse, located in the village of Ascot in the English county of Berkshire used for thoroughbred horse racing. ... Newmarket is a market town in the English county of Suffolk,approximately 65 miles (105 kilometres) north of London, which has grown and become famous because of its connection with race horses and Thoroughbred horse racing at Newmarket Racecourse. ... Newmarket Racecourse is located in Newmarket, England. ...

The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews, generally regarded as the world's "Home of Golf".
The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews, generally regarded as the world's "Home of Golf".

Golf is one of the most popular participation sports played in the UK, with St Andrews in Scotland being the sport's home course. Cricket is also popular, although the popularity of the game is dramatically greater in England than in other parts of the UK, all four constituent nations as of 2006 compete at the One-Day International level — Scotland independently, Wales as part of the English team, and Northern Ireland as part of all-Ireland. Image File history File links Royal_&_Ancient_Clubhouse. ... Image File history File links Royal_&_Ancient_Clubhouse. ... The clubhouse of the R&A. The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews is the one of the oldest golf clubs in the world, the oldest being the Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers at Muirfield. ... For other uses, see St Andrews (disambiguation). ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Shinty (or camanachd) (a sport derived from the same root as the Irish hurling and similar to bandy) is popular in the Scottish Highlands, sometimes attracting crowds numbering thousands in the most sparsely populated region of the UK. // A shinty game in progress Shinty (Scottish Gaelic camanachd or iomain) is a team sport played with sticks and a ball. ... For the Cornish sport, see Cornish Hurling. ... Look up bandy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lowland-Highland divide Highland Sign with welcome in English and Gaelic The Scottish Highlands (A Ghàidhealtachd in Gaelic) include the rugged and mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ...


The country is closely associated with motorsport. Many teams and drivers in Formula One (F1) are based in the UK and drivers from Britain have won more world titles than any other country. The country also hosts legs of the F1 and World Rally Championship and has its own Touring Car Racing championship, the BTCC. The British Grand Prix takes place at Silverstone each July. Auto racing (also known as automobile racing or autosport) is a sport involving racing automobiles. ... “F1” redirects here. ... The World Rally Championship (WRC) is a rallying series organised by the FIA, culminating with a champion driver and manufacturer. ... Touring car racing is a general term for a number of distinct auto racing competitions in heavily-modified street cars. ... The British Touring Car Championship is a series of races for saloon cars which is held each year in the United Kingdom. ... The British Grand Prix is a race in the calendar of the FIA Formula One World Championship. ... Silverstone Circuit is a racing circuit at Silverstone, England. ...


Visual art

Flint Castle, by J. M. W. Turner (c.1775 – 1851).
Flint Castle, by J. M. W. Turner (c.1775 – 1851).

The Royal Academy is located in London. Other major schools of art include the Slade School of Art; the six-school University of the Arts, London, which includes the Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design and Chelsea College of Art and Design; the Glasgow School of Art, and Goldsmiths, University of London. This commercial venture is one of Britain's foremost visual arts organisations. Major British artists include Sir Joshua Reynolds, Thomas Gainsborough, John Constable, William Blake, J. M. W. Turner, William Morris, Francis Bacon, Lucian Freud, David Hockney, Gilbert and George, Richard Hamilton, Peter Blake, Howard Hodgkin, Antony Gormley, and Anish Kapoor. During the late 1980s and 1990s, the Saatchi Gallery in London brought to public attention a group of multigenre artists who would become known as the Young British Artists. Damian Hirst, Chris Ofili, Rachel Whiteread, Tracy Emin, Mark Wallinger, Steve McQueen, Sam Taylor-Wood, and the Chapman Brothers are among the better known members of this loosely affiliated movement. Rain, Steam and Speed — The Great Western Railway by Joseph Turner| (1844). ... Image File history File links William_Turner_-_Flint_Castle. ... Image File history File links William_Turner_-_Flint_Castle. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Joseph Mallord William Turner (23 April 1775[1] – 19 December 1851) was an English Romantic landscape painter, watercolourist and printmaker, whose style can be said to have laid the foundation for Impressionism. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... The Royal Academy of Arts is an art institution based in Burlington House on Piccadilly, London, England. ... The Slade School of Fine Art is an art school based at University College London in the UK. The school traces its roots back to 1868 when Felix Slade decided to establish three Chairs in Fine Art, to be based at Oxford, Cambridge and London—though with only London offering... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Central Saint Martins - Southampton Row, Holborn Central Saint Martins (ex-St Martins) in Charing Cross Road. ... Chelsea College of Art and Design (North Block). ... Glasgow School of Art is one of four independent art schools in Scotland, situated in the Garnethill area of Glasgow. ... The Main Building The Ben Pimlott Building The Library Warmington Tower Goldsmiths, University of London (founded in 1891 as Goldsmiths Technical and Recreative Institute, rebranded from Goldsmiths College, University of London in 2006[2]) is a constituent college of the University of London specialising in teaching of and research into... Sir Joshua Reynolds Sir Joshua Reynolds (July 16, 1723–February 23, 1792) was the most important and influential of eighteenth-century English painters, specialising in portraits and promoting the Grand Style in painting which depended on idealization of the imperfect. ... Thomas Gainsborough (14 May 1727 (baptised) – 2 August 1788) was one of the most famous portrait and landscape painters of 18th century Britain. ... A self portrait by John Constable John Constable (11 June 1776 – 31 March 1837) was an English Romantic painter. ... William Blake (November 28, 1757 – August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ... Joseph Mallord William Turner (23 April 1775[1] – 19 December 1851) was an English Romantic landscape painter, watercolourist and printmaker, whose style can be said to have laid the foundation for Impressionism. ... This page is about William Morris, the writer, designer and socialist. ... For other persons named Francis Bacon, see Francis Bacon (disambiguation). ... Lucian Michael Freud, OM, CH (born 8 December 1922) is a British painter and printmaker. ... We Two Boys Together Clinging, 1961. ... Gilbert Prousch (or Proesch) (born in San Martin (San Martino), Italy, September 11, 1943) and George Passmore (born in Devon, England January 8, 1942), better known as Gilbert & George, are artists. ... Richard Hamilton is the name of: Richard Hamilton (artist), a British painter and collage artist Richard Hamilton (basketball), a player with the Detroit Pistons of the National Basketball Association Richard Hamilton (professor), Professor of Mathematics at Columbia University Richard Hamilton (actor) [1] This is a disambiguation page: a list of... There have been several notable individuals named Peter Blake. ... Sir Gordon Howard Eliot Hodgkin (born August 6, 1932) is a British painter and printmaker. ... Angel of the North Antony Gormley (born 1950) is an English sculptor, best known as the creator of Angel of the North, a public sculpture in Gateshead. ... 1000 Names, 1985 Anish Kapoor (born 1954) is a sculptor. ... The Saatchi Gallerys new premises in Chelsea, opening early 2007. ... The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living by Damien Hirst (1991). ... Damien Hirst (born 1965 in Bristol) is a British artist and probably the most famous of the group that has been dubbed Young British Artists (or YBAs). ... Chris Ofili (born 1968) is an English born painter noted for artworks referencing aspects of his Nigerian heritage. ... Rachel Whiteread CBE (born 1963) is a British artist, best known for her sculptures, which typically take the form of casts, and first woman to win the Turner Prize. ... Tracey Emin (born 1963) is an English artist, one of the so-called Young British Artists (YBAs). ... Mark Wallinger (born 1959) is a British artist, best known for his sculpture for the empty fourth plinth in Trafalgar Square, Ecce Homo (1999). ... Steve McQueen (born 1969) is an English artist. ... Sam Taylor-Wood (born London 1967) is a contemporary artist working mostly in video and photography. ... Jake Chapman (born 1966) and Dinos Chapman (born 1962) are brothers and British artists who work almost exclusively in collaboration with each other. ...


Symbols

The Statue of Britannia in Plymouth.
The Statue of Britannia in Plymouth.
Flag Country Patron saint Flower
Flag of England England St. George Red and White Rose
Flag of Scotland Scotland St. Andrew Cotton Thistle
Flag of Wales Wales St. David Leek/Daffodil
1 Northern Ireland St. Patrick Shamrock/Flax

'^1'  There is no official flag of Northern Ireland following the Northern Ireland Constitution Act 1973. However, the Ulster Banner is often used for sporting events. See Northern Ireland flags issue. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Britannia (disambiguation). ... , Plymouth (Cornish: ) is a city of 243,795 inhabitants (2001 census) in the south-west of England, or alternatively the West Country, and is situated within the traditional and ceremonial county of Devon at the mouths of the rivers Plym and Tamar and at the head of one of the... Flag Ratio: 1:2 Flag Ratio: 3:5 The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland uses as its national flag the Royal Banner commonly known as the Union Flag or, popularly, Union Jack (although officially this title should only be given to the flag when it is flown... “Union Jack” redirects here. ... James VI and I King of England, Scotland and Ireland James VI of Scotland and I of England (Charles James) (19 June 1566–27 March 1625) was a King who ruled over England, Scotland and Ireland, and was the first Sovereign to reign in the three realms simultaneously. ... The Flag of England (5:3) The Flag of England is the St Georges Cross. ... St Georges cross The St Georges Cross is a red cross on a white background. ... The Saltire, the flag of Scotland, a white saltire with an official Pantone 300 coloured field. ... The Saltire (or St Andrews Cross) is the national flag of Scotland. ... Saint Patricks Flag: a red saltire on a field of white The Saint Patricks Flag features a red saltire, a crux decussata (X-shaped cross), on a white field; representing Saint Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Saint-George is a municipality with 695 inhabitants (as of 2003) in the district of Aubonne in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland. ... For other uses, see Rose (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... This article is about the country. ... Saint Andrew (Greek: Ανδρέας, Andreas), called in the Orthodox tradition Protocletos, or the First-called, is a Christian Apostle and the elder brother of Saint Peter. ... Cotton thistle Categories: Plant stubs | Asteraceae ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Wales_2. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see Saint David (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Leek (disambiguation). ... Species ????? Daffodils are a group of large flowered members of the genus Narcissus. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... For information about the holiday, see: Saint Patricks Day Saint Patrick (Latin: [2], Irish: Naomh Pádraig) was a Christian missionary and is the patron saint of Ireland along with Brigid of Kildare and Columba. ... The Shamrock Oxalis acetosella as The Shamrock The shamrock, an unofficial symbol of Ireland and Boston, Massachusetts, is a three-leafed old white clover, sometimes (rarely nowadays) Trifolium repens (white clover, known in Irish as seamair bhán) but more usually today Trifolium dubium (lesser clover, Irish: seamair bhuí). However... For other uses, see Flax (disambiguation). ... The Union Flag is used by the British government for official events in Northern Ireland. ... The Northern Ireland Constitution Act was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed in 1973 to replace the previous system established by the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898. ... Flag of Northern Ireland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... // The Northern Ireland flags issue is one that divides the population along sectarian lines. ...

  • The national anthem of the United Kingdom is "God Save the King", with "King" replaced with "Queen" whenever the monarch is female. The anthem's name, however, remains "God Save the King".[97]
  • Britannia is a personification of the United Kingdom, originating from the Roman occupation of southern and central Great Britain.[98] Britannia is symbolised as a young woman with brown or golden hair, wearing a Corinthian helmet and white robes. She holds Poseidon's three-pronged trident and a shield, bearing the Union Flag. Sometimes she is depicted as riding the back of a lion. At and since the height of the British Empire, Britannia has often associated with maritime dominance, as in the patriotic song Rule Britannia.
  • The lion has also been used as a symbol of the United Kingdom; one is depicted behind Britannia on the 50 pence piece and one is shown crowned on the back of the 10 pence piece. It is also used as a symbol on the non-ceremonial flag of the British Army. Lions have been used as heraldic devices many times, including in the royal arms of both the kingdoms of England, Scotland and Kingdom of Gwynedd in Wales. The lion is featured on the emblem of the England national football team, giving rise to the popular football anthem Three Lions, and the England national cricket team. The "three lions" on the English coat of arms were originally two leopards. An extra leopard was added by Richard the Lionheart and with the help of his name, they became known as three lions. They are now drawn to look more like lions. Leopards are traditionally depicted lying down whereas lions were drawn standing on all fours or up on their hind legs attacking, as in the Scottish Lion Rampant.
  • The bulldog is sometimes used as a symbol of Great Britain, and is often associated with Winston Churchill's defiance of Nazi Germany.
  • Britain (especially England) has been personified as the character John Bull, although this character is rarely used in modern times.
  • The ancient British landscape, and especially some of its distinctive flora such as the oak tree and the rose, have long been a widely used proxy for the visual representation of British identity. The red rose is the emblem of the Labour Party, the England national rugby union team, the Rugby Football Union and Lancashire.

A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... This article is on the British patriotic anthem. ... For other uses, see Britannia (disambiguation). ... Britannia arm-in-arm with Uncle Sam symbolizes the British-American alliance in World War I. Germania representing Germany, from 1848. ... Principal sites in Roman Britain Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... Bronze Corinthian Helmet The Corinthian helmet (Ancient Greek κόρυς κορινθίη, Modern κάσκα κορινθιακή) was a type of bronze helmet which in its later styles covered the entire head and neck, with slits for the eyes and mouth. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... A shield is a protective device, meant to intercept attacks. ... “Rule Britannia” is a patriotic British national song, originating from the poem Rule Britannia by James Thomson, and set to music by Thomas Arne in 1740. ... For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ... The British decimal fifty pence (50p) coin – often pronounced fifty pee – was issued on October 14, 1969 in the run-up to decimalisation to replace the ten shilling note. ... The British decimal Ten Pence (10p) coin was issued in 1968 in preparation for the forthcoming decimalisation of the coinage. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Heraldry is the science and art of describing coats-of-arms, also referred to as achievements or armorial bearings. ... The Coat of Arms of England The Coat of Arms of England is gules, three lions passant guardant in pale or armed & langued azure The Coat of Arms was introduced by King Richard I of England in the 1190s, apparently as a version of the arms of the Duchy of... The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland was the official coat of arms of the monarchs of Scotland, and were used as the official coat of arms of the Kingdom of Scotland until the Union of the Crowns in... Medieval kingdoms of Wales. ... This article is about the country. ... First international  Scotland 0 - 0 England (Partick, Scotland; 30 November 1872) Biggest win  Ireland 0 - 13 England (Belfast, Ireland; 18 February 1882) Biggest defeat  Hungary 7 - 1 England (Budapest, Hungary; 23 May 1954) World Cup Appearances 12 (First in 1950) Best result Winners, 1966 European Championship Appearances 7 (First in... Three Lions was the official song of the England football team for the 1996 European Championships, which were held in England. ... The English cricket team is a national cricket team which nominally represents England and Wales, but is a de facto United Kingdom team. ... Richard I (September 8, 1157 – April 6, 1199) was King of England from 1189 to 1199. ... Heraldry is the science and art of designing, displaying, describing and recording coats of arms. ... For other uses, see Bulldog (disambiguation). ... “Churchill” redirects here. ... World War I recruiting poster An earlier John Bull where he actually IS a bull John Bull is a national personification of the Kingdom of Great Britain created by Dr. John Arbuthnot in 1712, and popularised first by British print makers and then overseas by illustrators and writers such as... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... For other uses, see Rose (disambiguation). ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... First international (also the worlds first)  Scotland 4–1 England  (27 March 1871) Largest win  England 134–0 Romania  (17 November 2001) Worst defeat  Australia 76–0 England  (6 June 1998) The England national rugby union team is a sporting side that represents England in rugby union. ... The Rugby Football Union (RFU) is the rugby union governing body in England. ... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ...

Miscellaneous data

  • Cellular frequency: GSM 900, GSM 1800, UMTS 2100
  • Cellular technology: GSM/GPRS/EDGE/UMTS/HSDPA
  • Date format: DD/MM/YY (example: 22/12/05) or 22 December 2005 (22nd December 2005 widely used also if date is written in words)
  • Time format: Generally 12-hour format when spoken or in writing (example: 5:15 pm), 24-hour format is used in some official documentation, timetables and by the military (example: 17:15 or 1715). A full stop may also be used instead of the colon when writing the time; for instance, 5.15 pm.
  • Decimal separator is a full stop: 123.45
  • Thousands are separated by a comma - 10,000 - or with a space - 10 000.
  • In Britain, a billion used to be represented as 1,000,000,000,000 (or one million million) but this has fallen into disuse and a billion is now commonly seen as 1,000,000,000 (or a thousand million).
  • Voltage: 230V (+10% / -6%), 50 Hz; British 3-pin power plugs and sockets
  • Postal code: UK postcodes
  • Driving is on the left.

For other uses, see Frequency (disambiguation). ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... The Global System for Mobile communications (GSM: originally from Groupe Spécial Mobile) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. ... General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a Mobile Data Service available to users of Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and IS-136 mobile phones. ... Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) is a digital mobile phone technology which acts as a bolt-on enhancement to 2G and 2. ... Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is one of the third-generation (3G) cell phone technologies. ... High-Speed Downlink Packet Access or HSDPA is a mobile telephony protocol. ... A date in a calendar is a reference to a particular day represented within a calendar system. ... Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Full stop (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Decimal (disambiguation). ... International safety symbol Caution, risk of electric shock (ISO 3864), colloquially known as high voltage symbol. ... // In most countries, household power is single-phase electric power, in which a single live conductor brings alternating current into a house, and a neutral returns it to the power supply. ... Postcodes are generally clearly visible outside Australia Post offices. ... UK postal codes are known as postcodes. ...  drive on right drive on left Driving on either the left or the right side of the road prevents vehicles moving in opposite directions from colliding with each other. ...

See also

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... This is a list of topics related to the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... The Isle of Man is situated in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland, and the bailiwicks of Jersey and Guersey are situated in the English Channel to the west of the Cotentin Crown dependencies are possessions of The Crown in Right of the United Kingdom, as opposed to... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (almost exclusively Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... . For the disagreement and different views on using the term British Isles, particularly in relation to Ireland, see British Isles naming dispute. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a timeline of British history. ... England is the largest and most populous of the constituent countries of the United Kingdom (the United Kingdom is a nation which was created by the bonding of the four succsessor states). ... Stirling Castle has stood for centuries atop a volcanic crag defending the lowest ford of the River Forth. ... Caerphilly Castle. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The History of British society demonstrates innumerable changes over many centuries. ... The United Kingdom (UK) is a major player in international politics, with interests throughout the world. ... The Middlesex Guildhall will be home to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom has three distinct legal systems. ... The United Kingdom does not have a single unified judicial system: England and Wales have one system, Scotland another, and Northern Ireland another. ... British nationality law is the law of the United Kingdom concerning British citizenship and other categories of British nationality. ... United Kingdom legislation comes from a number of different sources. ... The Politics of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland takes place in the framework of a constitutional monarchy in which the Monarch is head of state and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons The Right Honourable Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, Baroness Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups (as of May 5, 2005 elections) Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats... Type Lower House Speaker of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Commons Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Harriet Harman, QC, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader of the House of Commons Theresa May, PC, (Conservative) since December 6, 2005 Members 646 Political groups... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Her Majestys Government of the United Kingdom contains a number of Ministers and Secretaries of State. ... There is no single system of local government in the United Kingdom. ... The United Kingdom has five distinct types of elections: general, local, regional, European and mayoral. ... This is a list of political parties in the United Kingdom. ... Geological map of Great Britain. ... This is a links page to the hills and mountains to be found in the United Kingdom (England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales), and includes lists of the highest mountains in each of the constituent countries. ... The list of Lakes of the United Kingdom is a link page for the lakes of the United Kingdom (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland). ... This is a list of rivers of Great Britain. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... “GBP” redirects here. ... // The table shows the main independent British banks. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Governor Mervyn King Central Bank of United Kingdom Currency Pound sterling ISO 4217 Code GBP Base borrowing rate 5. ... British military history is a long and varied topic, extending from the prehistoric and ancient historic period, through the Roman invasions of Julius Cæsar and Claudius and subsequent Roman occupation; warfare in the Mediaeval period, including the invasions of the Saxons and the Vikings in the Early Middle Ages... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... “RAF” redirects here. ... The United Kingdom has a nuclear arsenal but is generally believed not to have any chemical or biological weapons. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with English population statistics. ... Historically, city status was associated with the presence of a cathedral, such as York Minster. ... In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, a town is any settlement which has received a charter of incorporation, more commonly known as a town charter, approved by the monarch. ... Union Flag The culture of the United Kingdom is rich and varied, and has been influential on culture on a worldwide scale. ... Rain, Steam and Speed — The Great Western Railway by Joseph Turner| (1844). ... The British Isles The various terms used to describe the different (and sometimes overlapping) allegiances of people living within the the British Isles are often a source of confusion for people from other parts of the world, and even for the inhabitants of those islands themselves. ... British literature is literature from the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. ... Music from the United Kingdom has achieved great international popularity since the 1960s, when a wave of British musicians helped to popularise rock and roll. ... These are the national holidays of the United Kingdom for 2007 [1] [2]. Workers in the United Kingdom are not automatically entitled to time off on a public holiday. ...

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is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... . For the disagreement and different views on using the term British Isles, particularly in relation to Ireland, see British Isles naming dispute. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 6 is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Niall Ferguson Niall Ferguson (b. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Affiliations University Alliance Association of Commonwealth Universities European University Association Website http://www. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A mebibyte (a contraction of mega binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated MiB. 1 MiB = 220 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes = 1,024 kibibytes 1 MiB = 1024 (= 210) kibibytes (KiB), and 1024 MiB equal one gibibyte (GiB). ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... // is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saskia Sassen Saskia Sassen (born January 5th in 1949 at The Hague, in The Netherlands) is an American sociologist and economist noted for her analyses of globalization and international human migration. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A mebibyte (a contraction of mega binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated MiB. 1 MiB = 220 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes = 1,024 kibibytes 1 MiB = 1024 (= 210) kibibytes (KiB), and 1024 MiB equal one gibibyte (GiB). ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A mebibyte (a contraction of mega binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated MiB. 1 MiB = 220 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes = 1,024 kibibytes 1 MiB = 1024 (= 210) kibibytes (KiB), and 1024 MiB equal one gibibyte (GiB). ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Loughborough University is located in the market town of Loughborough, Leicestershire in the East Midlands of England. ... Ford may mean a number of things: A ford is a river crossing. ... Motorola Inc. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with The Times Higher Education Supplement. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Coordinates: 52° N 1° W Of the emerging democracies in central and eastern Europe, Czechia has one of the most developed industrialized economies. ... Tourism, petroleum transhipment, and offshore finance are the mainstays of the Netherlands Antillean economy, which is closely tied to the outside world. ... The United Kingdom has the fifth largest gross domestic product in the world in terms of market exchange rates and the sixth largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). ... A Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the Peoples Republic of China is an administrative division of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Group of Eight redirects here. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... Motto Unité, Travail, Progrès(French) Unity, Work, Progress Anthem La Congolaise Capital (and largest city) Brazzaville Official languages French Government Republic  -  President Denis Sassou Nguesso  -  Prime Minister Isidore Mvouba Independence from France   -  Date 15 August 1960  Area  -  Total 342,000 km² (64th) 132,047 sq mi   -  Water (%) 3. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
United Kingdom Travel: Tourism Directory & Vacation Guide for United Kingdom (264 words)
England is the largest Home Nation, permanently settled since the Stone Age and the setting for the United Kingdom's cultured and cosmopolitan capital of London.
Like the rest of the United Kingdom, the pubs of Northern Ireland are located in some of the country's most historic buildings, and its culture is based in music and the arts.
The Isle of Man and the Channel Islands, although not officially part of the United Kingdom, still pledge their allegiance to the Queen and are popular resort and spa destinations.
United Kingdom - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7775 words)
The United Kingdom is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean and its ancillary bodies of water, including the North Sea, the English Channel, the Celtic Sea, and the Irish Sea.
At the April 2001 UK Census, the United Kingdom's population was 58,789,194, the third-largest in the European Union (behind Germany and France) and the twenty-first largest in the world.
The 36,320-member Royal Navy operates the United Kingdom's nuclear deterrent, which consists of four Trident missile-armed submarines, while the Royal Marines are the Royal Navy's Light Infantry units for amphibious operations and for specialist reinforcement forces in and beyond the NATO area.
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