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Encyclopedia > United States presidential primary

The series of Presidential primary elections and caucuses is one of the first steps in the long, complex process of electing the President of the United States of America. The primary elections are run by state and local governments in the states which do not have caucuses instead. A state primary election usually determines which candidates for president will be supported by that state at the national convention of each political party. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Primary. ... A caucus is most generally defined as being a meeting of supporters or members of a political party or movement. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      This list of political parties in the United States contains past and present...

Contents

Process

The political parties each officially nominate their candidate for President at their national convention, usually the summer before the election. Depending on state law, when voters cast ballots for a candidate in a presidential caucus or primary, they may be actually voting to award delegates "bound" to that candidate in the national convention. [1] The rules for the awarding of delegates vary from party to party, state to state, and election to election. Not all delegates are selected by primaries and caucuses—both of the two largest parties (Democratic and Republican) have provisions for "superdelegates" chosen outside the primary system. Speeches by important party figures are key features of the convention; here, former President Jimmy Carter addresses the 2004 Democratic National Convention. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... Superdelegates are delegates to a party convention in the United States who are not bound by the decisions of party primaries or caucuses. ...


If no candidate wins a majority of delegates for a particular party during the primary season, that party's nominee is chosen by their convention. This method of nominee selection has not occurred since 1976, when incumbent president Gerald Ford narrowly defeated Ronald Reagan. Of course, conventions take place otherwise, but they are considered formalities. The United States presidential election of 1976 followed the resignation of President Richard M. Nixon in the wake of the Watergate scandal. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ...


Calendar

Campaigning for president often begins a year or more before the New Hampshire primary, almost two years before the presidential election. Image File history File links Ballot_box_current. ... This article is about the political process. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the political process. ...


For 2008, both the Republicans and the Democrats have moved their Nevada caucus to an earlier date than traditional, January 19th. In response to the Democratic Nevada Caucus being scheduled before the New Hampshire Primary, other states have also changed their primary election dates for 2008, creating a cascade of changes. The current dates up to and including Super Tuesday are now: [2] In the United States, Super Tuesday commonly refers to a Tuesday in early March of a presidential election year. ...

The Republican National Committee, with the concurrence of chairman Mike Duncan on November 8, voted 121-9 to strip one-half of delegates from five States that violated the rules of having no primary before February 5th. The States and their losses were: Florida (57), Michigan (30), South Carolina (23), Wyoming (14), and New Hampshire (12). The Democratic party has also voted to remove all of Florida's delegates. [4] is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Since 1976, the Iowa caucus has been the first indication of which candidate for President of the United States would win the nomination of his or her political party at that partys national convention. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New Hampshire primary is the first of a number of statewide political party primary elections held in the United States every four years, as part of the process of the Democratic and Republican parties choosing their candidate for the presidential elections on the subsequent November. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Republican National Committee (RNC) provides national leadership for the Republican Party of the United States. ... Mike Duncan is the current chairman of the Republican National Committee. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Area  Ranked 46th  - Total 9,350 sq mi (24,217 km²)  - Width 68 miles (110 km)  - Length 190 miles (305 km)  - % water 4. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ...


The first binding event, in which a candidate can secure convention delegates, is traditionally the Iowa caucus, held in January of the presidential election year. It is followed by the New Hampshire primary two weeks later, by tradition and state law always the first primary. Since 1976, the Iowa caucus has been the first indication of which candidate for President of the United States would win the nomination of his or her political party at that partys national convention. ... The New Hampshire primary is the first of a number of statewide political party primary elections held in the United States every four years, as part of the process of the Democratic and Republican parties choosing their candidate for the presidential elections on the subsequent November. ...


Because these states are small, campaigning takes place on a much more personal scale. As a result, even a little-known, underfunded candidate can use "retail politics" to meet intimately with interested voters and perform better than expected. The Iowa caucuses and New Hampshire primary have produced a number of headline-making upsets in history.[5]:

  • Harry S. Truman ended his re-election bid in 1952 after losing the New Hampshire primary. [2]
  • Lyndon Baines Johnson dropped his 1968 reelection bid after performing far below expectations in the New Hampshire primary.
  • Television commentator Pat Buchanan's strong showing in the 1992 and 1996 New Hampshire primaries highlighted the weak electability of the future nominees, incumbent George H. W. Bush and Senator Bob Dole respectively, both of whom subsequently lost the general election.
  • John McCain, a senator from Arizona, defeated George W. Bush in the New Hampshire primary in 2000, making it a close contest. (McCain lost the next primaries.)
  • John Kerry won both the Iowa caucus and New Hampshire primary over heavily favored Howard Dean to win the 2004 Democratic nomination.

Iowa and New Hampshire set the tone for the campaign—and allow an outsider to topple the favorite. In recent elections, the Iowa caucuses and New Hampshire primary have garnered over half the national and international media attention paid to the entire selection process. For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Lyndon Baines Johnson ( August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... Patrick Joseph Buchanan (born November 2, 1938) is an American politician, author, syndicated columnist, and broadcaster. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... § Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) was a United States Senator from Kansas from 1969-1996, serving part of that time as United States Senate Majority Leader. ... For McCains grandfather and father, see John S. McCain, Sr. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... In the United States presidential election of 2000 Republican George W. Bush gained the US Presidency over Democrat Al Gore after the United States Supreme Court in Bush v. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ... Howard Brush Dean III (born November 17, 1948) is an American politician and physician from the U.S. state of Vermont, and currently the chairman of the Democratic National Committee, the central organ of the Democratic Party at the national level. ...


After Iowa and New Hampshire, primaries and caucuses are held in the other states, Puerto Rico, insular areas, and the District of Columbia; the front runners attempt to solidify their status, while the others fight to become #2.[6] Each party sets its own calendar and rules and in some cases actually administers the election; however, in order to reduce expenses and encourage turnout, the major parties' primaries are held the same day and may be consolidated with other state elections. The primary election itself is administered by local governments according to state law. In some cases, state law determines how delegates will be awarded and who may participate in the primary; where it does not, party rules prevail. [7] ...


In recent years states have been holding early primaries to maximize their leverage (see below). California moved its primary back to June in 2004, having moved it to March in 1996. The series of Presidential primary elections and caucuses is one of the first steps in the long, complex process of electing the President of the United States of America. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Types of primary

Franchise in a primary is governed by rules established by the state party, although the states may impose other regulations.


Nearly all states have a binding primary, in which the results of the election legally bind some or all of the delegates to vote for a particular candidate at the national convention, for a certain number of ballots or until the candidate releases the delegates. A handful of states practice a non-binding primary, which may select candidates to a state convention which then selects delegates. Also, presidential preference contests exist, which are merely "beauty contests" or straw polls that do not result in the selection of any delegates, which are instead chosen at caucuses. Both parties have rules which designate superdelegates. A straw poll is an informal type of voting where the results of the poll have little or no direct results, other than to gauge opinion. ... Superdelegates are delegates to a party convention in the United States who are not bound by the decisions of party primaries or caucuses. ...


In most states, only voters registered with a party may vote in that party's primary, known as a closed primary. In some states, a semi-closed primary is practiced, in which voters unaffiliated with a party (independents) may choose a party primary in which to vote. In an open primary, any voter may vote in any party's primary. In all of these systems, a voter may participate in only one primary; that is, a voter who casts a vote for a candidate standing for the Republican nomination for president cannot cast a vote for a candidate standing for the Democratic nomination, or vice versa. A few states once staged a blanket primary, in which voters could vote for one candidate in multiple primaries, but the practice was struck down by the U.S. Supreme Court in the 2000 case of California Democratic Party v. Jones as violating the freedom of assembly guaranteed by the First Amendment.[8] A closed primary is a type of direct primary limited to registered party members, who must declare their party affiliation in order to vote. ... An Open Primary is a type of direct primary open to voters regardless of their party affiliation. ... In United States politics, the blanket primary was a system used for selecting party candidates in a primary election. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... Holding --- Court membership Case opinions Laws applied --- California Democratic Party v. ... Group of women holding placards with political activist slogans: know your courts - study your politicians, Liberty in law, Law makers must not be law breakers, and character in candidates photo 1920 Freedom of assembly is the freedom to associate with, or organize any groups, gatherings, clubs, or organizations that one... “First Amendment” redirects here. ...


Under the 2008 Democratic Party selection rules, adopted in 2006, delegates are selected under proportional representation, with a candidate requiring a minimum threshold of 15% in a state in order to receive delegates. In addition, the Democratic Party has the right to reject any candidate under their bylaws. Each state publishes a Delegate Selection Plan that notes the mechanics of calculating the number of delegates per congressional district, and how votes are transferred from local conventions to the state and national convention. [9] The Republican Party adopted its rules at the time of the 2004 convention. There are no provisions requiring proportional representation [10], and as such, many states used the winner take all method in 2004. [11] 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... A congressional district is an electoral constituency that elects a single member of a congress. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


History

There is no provision for the role of political parties in the United States Constitution, as political parties did not develop until the early 19th century. Before 1820 Democratic-Republican members of Congress would nominate a single candidate from their party. That system collapsed in 1824 and by 1832 the preferred mechanism for nomination was a national convention.[12] Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Democratic-Republican party was a United States political party, which evolved early in the history of the United States. ... Speeches by important party figures are key features of the convention; here, former President Jimmy Carter addresses the 2004 Democratic National Convention. ...


Delegates to the national convention were usually selected at state conventions whose own delegates were chosen by district conventions. Sometimes they were dominated by intrigue between political bosses who controlled delegates; the national convention was far from democratic or transparent. Progressive Era reformers looked to the primary election as a way to measure popular opinion of candidates, as opposed to the opinion of the bosses. In 1910, Oregon became the first state to establish a presidential preference primary in which the delegates to the National Convention were required to support the winner of the primary at the convention. By 1912, twelve states either selected delegates in primaries, used a preferential primary, or both. By 1920 there were 20 states with primaries, but some went back and from 1936 to 1968, 13 or 14 states used them. (Ware p 248) 1869 tobacco label featuring Boss Tweed A boss, in political science, is a person who wields de facto power over a particular political region or constituency. ... In the United States, the Progressive Era was a period of reform which lasted from the 1890s through the 1920s. ... For other uses, see Primary. ...


The primary received its first major test in the 1912 election pitting incumbent President William Howard Taft against challengers Theodore Roosevelt and Robert La Follette. Roosevelt proved the most popular candidate, but as most primaries were non-binding "preference" shows, the Republican nomination went to Taft, who controlled the convention. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... For other persons named William Howard Taft, see William Howard Taft (disambiguation). ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... Robert Marion La Follette, Sr. ...


Seeking to boost voter turnout, New Hampshire simplified its ballot access laws in 1949. In the ensuing "beauty contest" of 1952, Republican Dwight Eisenhower demonstrated his broad voter appeal by out polling the favored Robert A. Taft, "Mr. Republican." Also, Democrat Estes Kefauver defeated incumbent President Harry S. Truman, leading the latter to abandon his campaign for another term.[13] The first-in-the-nation New Hampshire primary has since become a widely-observed test of candidates' viability. Voters lining up outside a Baghdad polling station during the 2005 Iraqi election. ... Official language(s) English Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Area  Ranked 46th  - Total 9,350 sq mi (24,217 km²)  - Width 68 miles (110 km)  - Length 190 miles (305 km)  - % water 4. ... Ballot access rules regulate the conditions under which a candidate or political party is entitled to appear on voters ballots. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... Robert Alphonso Taft I (September 8, 1889 - July 31, 1953), of the Taft family political dynasty of Ohio, was a United States Senator and Presidential candidate in the United States Republican Party. ... The issue of Time Magazine in which Kefauvers victory in the New Hampshire primary was reported. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... The New Hampshire primary is the first of a number of statewide political party primary elections held in the United States every four years, as part of the process of the Democratic and Republican parties choosing their candidate for the presidential elections on the subsequent November. ...


The impetus for national adoption of the binding primary election was the chaotic 1968 Democratic National Convention. Vice President Hubert Humphrey II secured the nomination despite primary victories and other shows of support for Senator Eugene McCarthy, running against Humphrey on a strong anti-Vietnam War platform. After this, a Democratic National Committee-commissioned panel led by Senator George McGovern recommended that states adopt new rules to assure wider participation. A large number of states, faced with the need to conform to more detailed rules for the selection of national delegates, chose a presidential primary as an easier way to come into compliance with the new national Democratic Party rules. The result was that many more future delegates would be selected by a state presidential primary. The Republicans also adopted many more state presidential primaries. The 1968 National Convention of the U.S. Democratic Party was held at International Amphitheatre in Chicago, Illinois, from August 26 to August 29, 1968, for the purposes of choosing the Democratic nominee for the 1968 U.S. presidential election. ... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with the anti-Communist senator Joseph Raymond McCarthy. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Former Vermont Governor Dr. Howard Dean is the current Chairman of the DNC. The Democratic National Committee (DNC) is the principal campaign and fund-raising organization affiliated with the United States Democratic Party. ... George McGovern on May 8, 1972 cover of Time Magazine George Stanley McGovern, Ph. ...


With the broadened use of the primary system, states have tried to increase their influence in the nomination process. One tactic has been to create geographic blocs to encourage candidates to spend time in a region. Vermont and Massachusetts attempted to stage a joint New England primary on the first Tuesday of March, but New Hampshire refused to participate so it could retain its traditional place as the first primary. The first successful regional primary was Super Tuesday of March 8, 1988, in which nine Southern states united in the hope that the Democrats would select a candidate in line with Southern interests.[14] This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... In the United States, Super Tuesday commonly refers to a Tuesday in early March of a presidential election year. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Historic Southern United States. ...


Another trend is to stage earlier and earlier primaries, given impetus by Super Tuesday and the mid-1990s move (since repealed) of the California primary and its bloc of votes—the largest in the nation—from June to March. In order to retain its tradition as the first primary in the country (and adhere to a state law which requires it to be), New Hampshire's primary has moved back steadily, from early March to mid-January. Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


Criticisms

Representativeness

Great attention is paid to the results of the Iowa caucuses and the New Hampshire primary; however, critics, such as Mississippi secretary of state Eric Clark (see quote below), and Tennessee Senator William Brock, point out that these states are not representative of the United States as a whole: they are overwhelmingly white, more rural, and wealthier than the national average, and neither is in the fast-growing West or South. For example, New Jersey and Montana, which are the last states to have their primaries, usually end up having no say in who the presidential candidate will be; in 2004, they had their primaries in June, 13 weeks after Senator John Kerry became unopposed[15]. Although the addition of Nevada to the early primaries in 2008 was done to equalize representativeness in the country, this change does little to represent the entire country. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Historic Southern United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Helena Largest city Billings Area  Ranked 4th  - Total 147,165 sq mi (381,156 km²)  - Width 255 miles (410 km)  - Length 630 miles (1,015 km)  - % water 1  - Latitude 44° 21′ N to 49° N  - Longitude 104° 2′ W to 116° 3′ W Population  Ranked... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 2005, the primary commission of the Democratic National Committee began considering removing New Hampshire and Iowa from the top of the calendar. A revised system may take effect beginning in 2008; as of 2006, however, it has not received final approval. New Hampshire is fighting back by obliging candidates who want to campaign in the state to pledge to uphold that primary as the first one.


In Mississippi, secretary of state Eric Clark said[16]: This article is about the U.S. state. ...

It's obvious to me that too many Americans, including Mississippians, are effectively left out of the process. The problem now is that too many states are having their primary elections very early in the year, and the nomination is locked up in a matter of weeks. The nominees had effectively been decided by March 7 [2000]. Mississippians had no meaningful voice in the process. In fact, Americans in 33 states had no meaningful voice in the process. Instead of getting people involved, today's primary system rewards big money and mass media campaigns. Every candidate should have a fair chance to be heard, regardless of how much money he or she has.

Front-loading and compression

States vie for earlier primaries in order to claim greater influence in the nomination process, as the early primaries can act as a signal to the nation, showing which candidates are popular and giving those who perform well early on the advantage of the bandwagon effect. Also, candidates can ignore primaries which fall after the nomination has already been secured, and would owe less to those states politically. As a result, rather than stretching from March to July, most primaries take place in a compressed time frame in February and March. National party leaders also have an interest in compressing the primary calendar, as it enables the party to reduce the chance of a bruising internecine battle and to preserve resources for the general campaign. The bandwagon effect is the observation that people often do (or believe) things because many other people do (or believe) the same. ...


In such a primary season, however, many primaries will fall on the same day, forcing candidates to choose where to spend their time and resources. Indeed, Super Tuesday was created deliberately to increase the influence of the South. And this year, with the advent of 'super duper Tuesday', it looks likely that the process will be over by the fifth of February. When states cannot agree to coordinate primaries, however, attention flows to larger states with large numbers of delegates at the expense of smaller ones. Because the candidate's time is limited, paid advertising may play a greater role. Moreover, a compressed calendar limits the ability of lesser-known candidates to corral resources and raise their visibility among voters, especially when a better-known candidate enjoys the financial and institutional backing of the party establishment.[17] Ironically, then, the parties' influence over the nomination -- which the primaries were intended to limit -- has grown again. In the United States, Super Tuesday commonly refers to a Tuesday in early March of a presidential election year. ...


In an article from Detroit News, Tennessee Senator William (Bill) Brock said the following about front-running[17]: Peters Grandpa III (born November 23, 1930) was a Republican United States U.S. senator from Tennessee from 1971 to 1977. ...

Today, too many people in too many states have no voice in the election of our major party nominees. For them, the nominations are over before they have begun.

Reform proposals

There are several proposals for reforming the primary system. Some have called for a single nationwide primary to be held on one day. Others point out that requiring candidates to campaign in every state simultaneously would exacerbate the purported problem of campaigns being dominated by the candidates who raise the most money. The following proposals attempt to return the primary system to a more relaxed schedule, and allow less-funded candidates entry by lowering the cost of entry.


Graduated Random Presidential Primary System (American Plan)

One reform concept is the graduated random presidential primary system, variations of which have been referred to as the American Plan or the California Plan. This plan starts with small primaries, and gradually moves up to larger ones, in 10 steps, with states chosen at random. The idea is that fewer initial primaries, typically in smaller states, would allow grassroots campaigns to score early successes and pick up steam. However, since states are chosen at random, travel costs may still be significant. Also, there are concerns that the methodology may lead to a bias toward liberal states. Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of...


Delaware Plan

A commission empaneled by the Republican National Committee recommended the Delaware Plan in 2000. This plan had states grouped by size into four groups, with the smallest primaries first, then the next-smallest, and so on. Populous states objected to the plan, however, because it would have always scheduled their primaries at the end of the season. Other criticisms included the wide geographic range of the states, necessitating high travel costs. The Delaware Plan was put to vote at Republican National Convention of 2000 and rejected. The Delaware Plan is a proposed system to reorganize the state presidential primary elections amongst the 50 states and the several territories of the United States. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Rotating Regional Primary System

The National Association of Secretaries of State has endorsed a Rotating Regional Primary System, with the country split into four regions: the west, the midwest, the south, and the northeast.[3] Unlike the Delaware Plan and the American Plan, the Rotating Regional Primary System would lower campaigning costs by restricting groups of primaries to single, contiguous regions. Criticisms of the regional plan include the higher entry costs than the other plans (since 1/4 of the country would vote in the first regional), and the political bias of certain regions (the south or the northeast) unduly influencing the selection of a nominee. The National Association of Secretaries of State (NASS) is a group comprised of the Secretaries of State of the states and territories of the United States. ... The Rotating Regional Primary System for the U.S. Presidential primaries is a system where the country is divided into four regions. ...


Interregional Primary Plan

In the Interregional Primary Plan the country is divided into geographical regions. On each primary date from March to June, one state from each of six regions votes. Each election date would contain a wide variety of perspectives. The order of the states in each region is set by a lottery. In a 24-year cycle, every state would have a chance to be among the first primary states. The primary criticism of this plan is that travel costs would be quite high: in each round, candidates would essentially have to cover the entire country in order to effectively campaign. Contrary to most reform plans, this would reduce the ability of lesser-funded candidates to build up from small contests to large ones.[4]


National Primary

Many have proposed a "National Primary," a single day on which all state primaries and caucuses would be held.


Lists of primaries

The 1992 Democratic presidential primary chose the Democratic nominee for the general election. ... This article discusses the primary elections to nominate candidates for the 2000 U.S. presidential election. ... John Kerry arrives at the 2004 Democratic National Convention, where he was officially designated as the Democratic Party nominee. ... The U.S. Republican Party presidential nomination, 2004 was the series of primaries and caucuses that determined who was to be chosen at the 2004 Republican National Convention in New York City as the Republican Partys candidate in the U.S. presidential election, 2004. ... The 2008 Democratic primaries will be the selection process by which the Democrats choose their candidates in the 2008 election for President and Vice President of the United States through a series of primaries and caucuses culminating in the 2008 Democratic National Convention, to be held from Monday, August 25... The 2008 Republican primaries will be the selection process by which the Republicans elect delegates who will then elect the GOP candidate in the 2008 election for President and Vice President of the United States. ...

In fiction

  • The first season of the popular television series 24 takes place "on the day of the California Presidential Primary."

The West Wing title screen The U.S. presidential election of 2006 is a fictional event portrayed during the sixth and seventh seasons on the American television show The West Wing. ... “The West Wing” redirects here. ... For other uses, see 24 (disambiguation). ...

See also

Early Votes Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      United States presidential elections determine who serves as president and vice president of the United... John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon debate in 1960 During presidential elections in the United States, it has become customary for the main candidates (almost always the candidates of the two main parties, the Democratic Party and the Republican Party) to engage in a debate. ... Senator John F. Kennedy debates Vice President Richard M. Nixon in the first televised debates, 1960. ... Speeches by important party figures are key features of the convention; here, former President Jimmy Carter addresses the 2004 Democratic National Convention. ... Electoral votes by state/federal district, for the elections of 2004 and 2008 The United States Electoral College is a term used to describe the 538 President Electors who meet every 4 years to cast the electoral votes for President and Vice President of the United States; their votes represent...

  • Ames (Iowa) Straw Poll on a Saturday in August prior to the election year, since 1979
  • Iowa caucus first official election year event since 1972
  • New Hampshire primary first national primary stop since 1952

Reform Plans The Ames Straw Poll is a straw poll that takes place in Ames, Iowa on a Saturday in August of years in which the Republican presidential nomination is undecided (that is, in years without an incumbent Republican President). ... Since 1976, the Iowa caucus has been the first indication of which candidate for President of the United States would win the nomination of his or her political party at that partys national convention. ... The New Hampshire primary is the first of a number of statewide political party primary elections held in the United States every four years, as part of the process of the Democratic and Republican parties choosing their candidate for the presidential elections on the subsequent November. ...

  • Graduated Random Presidential Primary System
  • Delaware Plan
  • Rotating Regional Primary System
  • Interregional Primary Plan
  • National Primary

The Delaware Plan is a proposed system to reorganize the state presidential primary elections amongst the 50 states and the several territories of the United States. ... The Rotating Regional Primary System for the U.S. Presidential primaries is a system where the country is divided into four regions. ... // The first bill for a national primary was introduced in Congress by Representative Richard Hobson of Alabama in 1911. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.republicansource.com/primaries.htm
  2. ^ Presidential primary and caucus dates (PDF). Stateline.org 1. Pew Research Center (2007-08-30). Retrieved on 2007-08-31.
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ http://www.examiner.com/a-1037367~GOP_Punishes_Five_Early_Voting_States.html
  5. ^ Sacala (2003)
  6. ^ Scala (2003)
  7. ^ http://www.gop.com/Images/AllStateSummaries.pdf
  8. ^ Bruce E. Cain and Elisabeth R. Gerber, Voting at the political fault line: California's Experiment with the Blanket Primary(2002)
  9. ^ http://a9.g.akamai.net/7/9/8082/v001/democratic1.download.akamai.com/8082/pdfs/2008delegateselectionrules.pdf
  10. ^ http://www.gop.com/About/AboutRead.aspx?AboutType=4&Section=16
  11. ^ http://www.fairvote.org/e_news/gop_sched.htm
  12. ^ James S. Chase; Emergence of the Presidential Nominating Convention, 1789-1832 (1973)
  13. ^ Paul T. David. Presidential Nominating Politics in 1952. (1954) Volume: 1: pp 37-40.
  14. ^ Laurence W. Moreland, et al. The 1988 Presidential Election in the South: Continuity Amidst Change in Southern Party Politics (1991) pp 3-20
  15. ^ "http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/24/nyregion/24vote.html?ex=1277265600&en=306c89c8091cff64&ei=5090&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss". 
  16. ^ "http://www.sos.state.ms.us/pubs/PressReleases/Articles/ClarkPushesPresidentialPrimaryReform.asp". 
  17. ^ a b "http://www.centerforpolitics.org/reform/report_nominating.htm". 
  • Brereton Charles. First in the Nation: New Hampshire and the Premier Presidential Primary. Portsmouth, NH: Peter E. Randall Publishers, 1987.
  • Kendall, Kathleen E. Communication in the Presidential Primaries: Candidates and the Media, 1912-2000 (2000)
  • Hugh, Gregg. "First-In-The-Nation Presidential Primary", State of New Hampshire Manual for the General Court, (Department of State) No.55, 1997.
  • McGaughey, Bill. "On the Ballot in Louisiana". Minneapolis: Thistlerose Publications. ISBN 0-9605630-6-7.] A minor candidate's experiences campaigning in Louisiana's 2004 Democratic presidential primary.
  • Palmer, Niall A. The New Hampshire Primary and the American Electoral Process (1997)
  • "Reid, labor aided Nevada with Demos", Arizona Daily Star, July 24, 2006.
  • Sabato, Larry, Politics: America's Missing Constitutional Link, Virginia Quarterly Review, Summer 2006, 149-61.
  • Scala, Dante J. Stormy Weather: The New Hampshire Primary and Presidential Politics (2003)
  • Ware, Alan. The American Direct Primary: Party Institutionalization and Transformation in the North (2002), a British perspective

 
 

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