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Encyclopedia > United States presidential election, 2004
‹ 2000  Flag of the United States 2008
United States presidential election, 2004
2 November 2004
Nominee George W. Bush John Kerry
Party Republican Democratic
Home state Texas Massachusetts
Running mate Richard B. Cheney John Edwards
Electoral vote 286 251
States carried 31 19+DC
Popular vote 62,040,610 59,028,444
Percentage 50.7% 48.3%

Presidential election results map. Red denotes states won by Bush/Cheney (31), Blue denotes those won by Kerry/Edwards (19+DC). Light blue denotes the faithless elector's vote counted for John Edwards. Each number represents the electoral votes a state gave to one candidate.pis The United States presidential election of 2000 was a contest between the Democratic candidate Al Gore versus the Republican candidate of George W. Bush. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The United States presidential election of 2008, scheduled to be held on November 4, 2008, will be the 55th consecutive quadrennial president and vice president of the United States. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2267x3000, 1890 KB) Description Official photograph portrait of U.S. President George W. Bush. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2065x3000, 312 KB) http://kerry. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ... GOP redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... This article is about the American attorney and politician. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... A faithless elector is a member of the United States Electoral College who casts an electoral vote for someone other than the person whom they have pledged to elect. ...

Incumbent President
George W. Bush
Republican
President-Elect
George W. Bush
Republican

The United States presidential election of 2004 was held on Tuesday, November 2, 2004 to elect the president. It was the 55th consecutive quadrennial election for the president and vice president of the United States. Republican candidate George Walker Bush, the President of the United States, defeated Democratic candidate John Kerry, the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts. This marked the first time in United States election history where the sitting president was re-elected after losing the popular vote (but winning the presidency) in the previous election. Foreign policy was the dominant theme throughout the election campaign, particularly Bush's conduct of the War on Terrorism and the 2003 invasion of Iraq. George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... GOP redirects here. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... GOP redirects here. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS,[2] Veep, or VP) is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... GOP redirects here. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The United States presidential election of 2000 was a contest between the Democratic candidate Al Gore versus the Republican candidate of George W. Bush. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... The War on Terrorism (also known as the War on Terror) is campaign begun by the Bush administration which includes various military, political, and legal actions taken to ostensibly curb the spread of terrorism following the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ...


As in the presidential election of 2000, voting controversies and concerns of irregularities emerged during and after the vote. The winner was not determined until the following day, when Kerry decided not to dispute Bush's win in the state of Ohio. The state held enough electoral votes to determine the winner of the presidency. Both Kerry and Democratic National Committee Chairman Howard Dean have stated their opinion that voting in Ohio did not proceed fairly, and that had it done so, the Democratic ticket might have won that state and therefore the election.[1] The United States presidential election of 2000 was a contest between the Democratic candidate Al Gore versus the Republican candidate of George W. Bush. ... After the November 2, 2004 election in the United States, concerns were raised about various aspects of the voting process, including whether voting had been made accessible to all those entitled to vote (and no one else), and whether the votes cast had been correctly counted. ... Concerns were raised, following the 2004 election, on various aspects of the voting process: whether voting had been made accessible to everyone entitled to vote, whether the votes cast had been correctly counted, and whether these irregularities decisively affected the reported outcome of the election. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The United States Electoral College is the electoral college which chooses the President and Vice President of the United States at the conclusion of each Presidential election. ... Howard Brush Dean III (born November 17, 1948) is an American politician and physician from the U.S. state of Vermont, and currently the chairman of the Democratic National Committee, the central organ of the Democratic Party at the national level. ...


In the Electoral College, George W. Bush received 286 votes, John Kerry 251 and John Edwards 1 (see “Faithless elector” in Minnesota section). Electoral votes by state/federal district, for the elections of 2004 and 2008 The United States Electoral College is a term used to describe the 538 President Electors who meet every 4 years to cast the electoral votes for President and Vice President of the United States; their votes represent... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ... This article is about the American attorney and politician. ... The United States presidential election of 2004 was held on Tuesday, November 2, 2004 to elect the president. ...

Contents

Background

George W. Bush won the presidency in 2000 after the Supreme Court settled issues over ballot re-counts and standards in a contest where Al Gore, the Democratic candidate, alleged voting irregularities in Florida. The votes were recounted in certain Democratic counties, first by machine and then manually, with George W. Bush leading narrowly after each recount. Ultimately, the Supreme Court of the United States overturned the Florida Supreme Court's 4-3 reversal of a lower court ruling in favor of the Republican candidate's arguments, ordering the state to stop further selective recounts. George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ...


Just eight months into his presidency, the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 suddenly transformed Bush into a "wartime president." Bush's approval ratings surged to near 90%. Within a month, the forces of a coalition led by the United States invaded Afghanistan, which had been sheltering Osama bin Laden, suspected mastermind of the September 11 attacks. By December, the Taliban had been removed as rulers of Kabul, although a long and ongoing occupation would follow. A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan. ... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Taliban (Pashto: - , also anglicised as Taleban) are a Sunni Islamist and Pashtun nationalist movement[2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance and NATO countries. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ...


The Bush administration then turned its attention to Iraq. The administration argued that the need to remove Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq had become urgent. The stated premise was that Saddam's regime had tried to acquire nuclear material and had not properly accounted for biological and chemical material it was known to possess, potential weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in violation of U.N. sanctions. This interpretation has been hotly debated since its proposal, and its basis in U.S. military intelligence has since been compromised with the failure of the U.S. to find the aforementioned WMDs in Iraq. This situation escalated to the point that the United States assembled a group of about forty nations, including the United Kingdom, Spain, Italy, and Poland, which President Bush called the “coalition of the willing”, to invade Iraq. Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Nuclear material consists of materials used in nuclear systems, such as nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. ... Biological Weapons: Friend or Foe? By Dom Harris There is great debate about whether biological weapons are good or bad, and whether the world should be concerned about their development. ... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ... For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... United Nations sanctions against Iraq were imposed by the United Nations in 1990 following Iraqs invasion of Kuwait in 1990, and continued until the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with multinational force in Iraq. ...


The coalition invaded Iraq on March 20, 2003. The invasion succeeded swiftly, with the collapse of the Iraq government and the military of Iraq in about three weeks. The oil infrastructure of Iraq was rapidly secured with limited damage in that time. On May 1, George W. Bush landed on the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln, in a Lockheed S-3 Viking, where he gave a speech announcing the end of major combat operations in the Iraq war. Bush's approval rating in the month of May rode at 66%, according to a CNN-USA Today-Gallup poll.[2] is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Iraqi soldiers from the 2nd Iraqi Army Brigade, train on cordon and search procedures at Diyala Regional Training Facility in August 2005. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72), nicknamed Abe, is the fifth Nimitz-class supercarrier in the United States Navy. ... The Lockheed SR-71 was remarkably advanced for its time and remains unsurpassed in many areas of performance. ... An S-3B Viking launches from the catapult aboard USS Abraham Lincoln The Lockheed S-3 Viking is a United States Navy jet aircraft used to hunt and destroy enemy submarines and provide surveillance of surface shipping. ... President George W. Bush addresses sailors during the Mission Accomplished speech, May 1, 2003. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...


However, Bush's high approval ratings did not last. First, while the war itself was popular, the post-war occupation lost support as months passed and casualty figures increased, with no decrease in violence nor progress toward stability in Iraq. Second, as investigators combed through the country, they failed to find the predicted WMD stockpiles, which led to debate over the rationale for the war. Third, with the war over and 9-11 attacks two years past, domestic concerns began to rise to the forefront, an issue that usually favored the Democrats, as fading national security matters were considered to benefit the Republicans. [1] [2]


Nominations

Republican nomination

Bush's popularity as a wartime president helped consolidate his base, and ward off any serious challenge to the nomination. On March 10, 2004, Bush officially clinched the number of delegates needed to be nominated at the 2004 Republican National Convention in New York City. Bush accepted the nomination on September 2, 2004, and selected Vice President Dick Cheney as his running mate. (In New York, the ticket was also on the ballot as candidates of the Conservative Party of New York State.) During the convention and throughout the campaign, Bush focused on two themes: defending America against terrorism and building an "ownership society." The "ownership society" included allowing people to invest some of their Social Security in the stock market, increasing home and stock ownership, and encouraging more people to buy their own health insurance. poop This article is about the presidential campaign of George W. Bush, the incumbent President of the United States and winner of the 2004 Presidential Election. ... The U.S. Republican Party presidential nomination, 2004 was the series of primaries and caucuses that determined who was to be chosen at the 2004 Republican National Convention in New York City as the Republican Partys candidate in the U.S. presidential election, 2004. ... 2004 Republican National Convention Logo President George W. Bush and Vice President Dick Cheney accepted their partys nomination to run for second terms. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 Republican National Convention Logo President George W. Bush and Vice President Dick Cheney accepted their partys nomination to run for second terms. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS,[2] Veep, or VP) is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... A running mate is a person running for a subordinate position on a joint ticket during an election. ... This article is about the state. ... The Conservative Party of New York is a minor political party active only in New York State. ... Ownership society is a slogan for a model of society promoted by United States President George W. Bush. ... Social security primarily refers to social welfare service concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment and others. ...


Democratic nomination

Democratic candidates This article is about the presidential campaign of John Kerry, U.S. Senator from Massachusetts and the nominee of the Democratic Party to challenge Republican incumbent President George W. Bush in the U.S. presidential election on November 2, 2004. ... Ten candidates vied for the nomination, including retired four-star general Wesley Clark, former Vermont Governor Howard Dean, John Edwards, and John Kerry. ... 2004 Democratic National Convention logo The 2004 Democratic National Convention culminated in the arrival of John Kerry on July 29 to address the delegates. ...

Carol Elizabeth Moseley Braun (born August 16, 1947) is an American politician and lawyer who represented Illinois in the United States Senate from 1993 to 1999. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Wesley Kanne Clark (born December 23, 1944) is a retired four-star general of the United States Army. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Howard Brush Dean III (born November 17, 1948) is an American politician and physician from the U.S. state of Vermont, and currently the chairman of the Democratic National Committee, the central organ of the Democratic Party at the national level. ... This article is about the American attorney and politician. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... The Majority Leader of the United States House of Representatives acts as the leader of the party that has a majority control of the seats in the house (currently at least 218 of the 435 seats). ... The Minority Leader of the United States House of Representatives serves as floor leader of the opposition party, and is the minority counterpart to the Majority Leader of the United States House of Representatives. ... Richard Andrew Dick Gephardt (born January 31, 1941) is senior counsel at the global law firm DLA Piper and a former prominent American politician of the Democratic Party. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Daniel Robert Graham (born November 9, 1936) is an American politician. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Dennis John Kucinich (IPA: ) (born October 8, 1946) is an American politician of the Democratic party and a candidate for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States in both 2004 and 2008. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Joseph Isadore Joe Lieberman (born February 24, 1942) is a United States Senator from Connecticut. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... Alfred Charles Al Sharpton Jr. ... This article is about the state. ...

Candidates gallery

Before the primaries

By summer of 2003, Dean had become the apparent front runner for the Democratic nomination, performing strongly in most polls and leading the pack with the largest campaign war chest. Dean's strength as a fund raiser was attributed mainly to his embrace of the Internet for campaigning. The majority of his donations came from individual DEANO supporters, who came to be known as Deanites, or, more commonly, Deaniacs. Generally regarded as a pragmatic centrist during his time as governor, Dean emerged during his presidential campaign as a left-wing populist, denouncing the policies of the Bush administration (especially the 2003 invasion of Iraq) as well as fellow Democrats, who, in his view, failed to strongly oppose them. Senator Lieberman, a liberal on domestic issues but a hawk on the War on Terror, failed to gain traction with liberal Democratic primary voters. Intense supporters of 2004 Democratic candidate, Howard Dean. ... In politics, centrism usually refers to the political ideal of promoting moderate policies which land in the middle ground between different political extremes. ... Populism is a political ideology or rhetorical style that holds that the common person is oppressed by the elite in society, which exists only to serve its own interests, and therefore, the instruments of the State need to be grasped from this self-serving elite and instead used for the... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ...


In September 2003, retired four-star general Wesley Clark announced his intention to run in the presidential primary election for the Democratic Party nomination. His campaign focused on themes of leadership and patriotism; early campaign ads relied heavily on biography. His late start left him with relatively few detailed policy proposals. This weakness was apparent in his first few debates, although he soon presented a range of position papers, including a major tax-relief plan. Nevertheless, many Democrats did not flock to his campaign. Wesley Kanne Clark (born December 23, 1944) is a retired four-star general of the United States Army. ... The 2004 U.S. Democratic Party presidential nomination process was a series of primaries and caucuses culminating in the Democratic National Convention that decided which pair of candidates would represent the Democrats in the 2004 election for President and Vice President of the United States. ...


In sheer numbers, Kerry had fewer endorsements than Howard Dean, who was far ahead in the superdelegate race going into the Iowa caucuses in February 2004, although Kerry led the endorsement race in Iowa, New Hampshire, Arizona, South Carolina, New Mexico and Nevada. Kerry's main perceived weakness was in his neighboring state of New Hampshire and nearly all national polls. Most other states did not have updated polling numbers to give an accurate placing for the Kerry campaign before Iowa. Heading into the primaries, Kerry's campaign was largely seen as in trouble, particularly after he fired campaign manager Jim Jordan. The key factors enabling it to survive was when fellow Massachusetts Senator Ted Kennedy assigned Mary Beth Cahill to be the campaign manager, as well as Kerry's mortgaging his own home to lend the money to his campaign (while his wife was a billionaire, campaign finance rules prohibited using one's personal fortune). He also brought on the "magical" Michael Whouley who would be credited with helping bring home the Iowa victory the same as he did in New Hampshire for Al Gore in 2000 against Bill Bradley. Howard Brush Dean III (born November 17, 1948) is an American politician and physician from the U.S. state of Vermont, and currently the chairman of the Democratic National Committee, the central organ of the Democratic Party at the national level. ... Superdelegate is an informal term commonly used for some of the delegates to the Democratic National Convention, the presidential nominating convention of the United States Democratic Party. ... James Jordan is an American political figure. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other persons named Ted Kennedy, see Ted Kennedy (disambiguation). ... Mary Beth Cahill is an American political figure, who served as the campaign manager of Senator John Kerrys campaign for President. ... This article is about the legal mechanism used to secure property in favor of a creditor. ... Michael Whouley is a Democratic political consultant who specializes in get out the vote operations. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... For other uses, see Bill Bradley (disambiguation) and William Bradley. ...


Iowa caucus

By the January 2004 Iowa caucuses, the field had dwindled down to nine candidates, as Bob Graham dropped out of the race and Howard Dean was a strong front-runner. However, the Iowa caucuses yielded unexpectedly strong results for Democratic candidates John Kerry, who earned 38% of the state's delegates and John Edwards, who took 32%. Former front-runner Howard Dean slipped to 18% and third place, and Richard Gephardt finished fourth (11%). In the days leading up to the Iowa vote, there was much negative campaigning between the Dean and Gephardt camps. Since 1976, the Iowa caucus has been the first indication of which candidate for President of the United States would win the nomination of his or her political party at that partys national convention. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ... This article is about the American attorney and politician. ... Howard Brush Dean III (born November 17, 1948) is an American politician and physician from the U.S. state of Vermont, and currently the chairman of the Democratic National Committee, the central organ of the Democratic Party at the national level. ... Richard Andrew Gephardt (born January 31, 1941) served as a U.S. Representative from Missouri from 1977 until January 3, 2005. ...


The dismal results caused Gephardt to drop out and later endorse Kerry. What further hurt Dean was a speech he gave at a post-caucus rally; at the end of the speech—which has become known as the "I have a scream" speech or the "Dean scream"—Dean frantically yelled out the names of states and culminated with a yelp. Kerry, on the other hand, had revived his campaign and began using the slogan "Comeback Kerry." Howard Dean during the Dean Scream Speech The Dean Scream refers to a speech on Monday, January 19, 2004, following Howard Deans third place loss in the Iowa caucuses despite a advantages in fundraising , volunteer recruitment, and public opinion polls. ...


Further primaries

On January 27 Kerry triumphed again, winning the New Hampshire primary. Dean finished second, Clark was third and Edwards placed fourth. is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New Hampshire primary is the first of a number of statewide political party primary elections held in the United States every four years, as part of the process of the Democratic and Republican parties choosing their candidate for the presidential elections on the subsequent November. ...

Senator Kerry at a primary rally in St. Louis, MO at the St. Louis Community College - Forest Park
Senator Kerry at a primary rally in St. Louis, MO at the St. Louis Community College - Forest Park

The following week, John Edwards won the South Carolina primary and finished a strong second in Oklahoma. After Howard Dean's withdrawal from the contest, Edwards became the only major challenger to Kerry for the Democratic nomination. However, Kerry continued to dominate and his support quickly snowballed as he won caucuses and primaries, taking in a string of wins in Michigan, Washington, Maine, Tennessee, Washington, D.C., Nevada, Wisconsin, Utah, Hawaii, and Idaho. Many other candidates dropped out during this time, leaving only Sharpton, Kucinich, and Edwards in the running against Kerry. Image File history File linksMetadata Kerry02. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Kerry02. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Idaho (disambiguation). ...


In March's Super Tuesday, Kerry won decisive victories in the California, Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, Ohio, and Rhode Island primaries and the Minnesota caucuses. Dean, despite having withdrawn from the race two weeks earlier, won his home state of Vermont. Edwards finished only slightly behind Kerry in Georgia, but, failing to win a single state other than South Carolina, chose to withdraw from the presidential race. In the United States, Super Tuesday commonly refers to a Tuesday in early March of a presidential election year. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ...


Democratic National Convention

On July 6, John Kerry selected John Edwards as his running mate, shortly before the 2004 Democratic National Convention in Boston, Massachusetts, held later that month. Days before Kerry announced Edwards as his running mate, Kerry gave a short list of three candidates: Sen John Edwards, Rep Dick Gephardt, and Gov Tom Vilsack. Heading into the convention, the Kerry/Edwards ticket unveiled their new slogan--a promise to make America "stronger at home and more respected in the world." Kerry made his Vietnam War experience the prominent theme of the convention. In accepting the nomination, he began his speech with, "I'm John Kerry and I'm reporting for duty." He later delivered what may have been the speech's most memorable line when he said, "the future doesn't belong to fear, it belongs to freedom," a quote that later appeared in a Kerry/Edwards television advertisement. is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 Democratic National Convention logo The 2004 Democratic National Convention culminated in the arrival of John Kerry on July 29 to address the delegates. ... Boston redirects here. ... This article is about the American attorney and politician. ... Richard Andrew Dick Gephardt (born January 31, 1941) is senior counsel at the global law firm DLA Piper and a former prominent American politician of the Democratic Party. ... Thomas James Vilsack (born December 13, 1950) is an American politician, a member of the Democratic Party, and served as the 40th Governor of the state of Iowa. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


Other nominations

See also: List of candidates in the United States presidential election, 2004

There were five other pairs of candidates who were on the ballot in states with enough electoral votes to have a theoretical chance of winning a majority in the Electoral College. The following are lists of candidates in the 2004 U.S. presidential election. ... The United States Electoral College is the electoral college that chooses the President and Vice President of the United States at the conclusion of each Presidential election. ...

Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American attorney, author, lecturer, political activist, and candidate for President of the United States in five elections. ... Peter Miguel Camejo (born December 31, 1939) is an American financier, businessman, politican, and author. ... In politics, an independent is a a politician who is not affiliated with any political party. ... The Reform Party of the United States of America (abbreviated Reform Party USA or RPUSA) is a political party in the United States, founded by Ross Perot in 1995 under the belief that Americans were disillusioned with the state of politics--as being corrupt and unable to deal with vital... The Independent Party of Delaware is a political party in the State of Delaware, United States. ... Party logo The Populist Party of Maryland (PPMD), like other Populist Parties in various U.S. states, originated as a vehicle for ballot access for the 2004 Ralph Nader presidential campaign. ... The Independence Party is a political party in the U.S. state of New York. ... Badnarik campaigning in July 2004. ... Richard V. Campagna of Iowa City, Iowa was the vice-presidential nominee of the Libertarian Party in the 2004 U.S. presidential election. ... The Libertarian Party is a United States political party created in 1971. ... Michael Peroutka Michael Anthony Peroutka (born 1952) is a Maryland lawyer, the founder of the Institute on the Constitution, cohost of The American View, and once held a position in the United States Department of Health and Human Services. ... Charles Chuck Baldwin (born May 3, 1952 in La Porte, Indiana) is an American political figure, activist within the Constitution Party, and Baptist minister. ... The Constitution Party is a conservative third party in the United States, founded as the U.S. Taxpayers Party in 1992. ... David Cobb appealing for votes at the annual Fighting Bob Fest in Baraboo, Wisconsin, September 2004 David Keith Cobb (born December 24, 1962 in San Leon, Texas) is an American ex-lawyer and activist, and was the 2004 presidential candidate of the Green Party of the United States (GPUS). ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... This article is about the American political party, Green Party. ... Walter Frederick Brown (born July 28, 1926) was the presidential candidate of the Socialist Party USA in 2004. ... Mary Alice Mal Herbert (born February 28, 1935) ran for Vice President as the candidate for the Socialist Party USA in 2004. ... The Socialist Party USA (SP USA) is one of the heirs to the Socialist Party of America of Eugene V. Debs and Norman Thomas. ... The Natural Law Party was a United States political party affiliated with the international Natural Law Party. ...

General election: campaign

Campaign issues

President Bush focused his campaign on national security, presenting himself as a decisive leader and contrasted Kerry as a "flip-flopper." Bush's point was that Americans could trust him to be tough on terrorism while Kerry would be "uncertain in the face of danger." Bush also sought to portray Kerry as a "Massachusetts liberal" who was out of touch with mainstream Americans. One of Kerry's slogans was "Stronger at home, respected in the world." This advanced the suggestion that Kerry would pay more attention to domestic concerns; it also encapsulated Kerry's contention that Bush had alienated American allies by his foreign policy. A flip-flop (used mostly in the United States) or a U-turn (used in the United Kingdom) is a sudden real or apparent change of policy or opinion. ... Massachusetts liberal is a phrase that in American politics is generally used as a political epithet by Republicans against Democrats who are from the state of Massachusetts. ...


Exit polls revealed Americans who voted for President Bush cited the issues of terrorism and moral values[3] as the most important factors in their decision. Kerry supporters cited the war in Iraq, economic issues like jobs and health care.[citation needed]

Bush speaking at campaign rally in St. Petersburg, Florida, October 19, 2004
Bush speaking at campaign rally in St. Petersburg, Florida, October 19, 2004

Over the course of Bush's first term in office, his extremely high approval ratings immediately following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks steadily dwindled, peaking only during combat operations in Iraq in the Spring of 2003, and again following the capture of Saddam Hussein in December the same year.[4] Kerry supporters attempted to capitalize on the dwindling popularity to rally anti-war sentiment. Download high resolution version (1051x1153, 301 KB) For full details, please see the same photo on commons. ... Download high resolution version (1051x1153, 301 KB) For full details, please see the same photo on commons. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ...


During August and September of 2004, there was an intense focus on events that occurred in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Bush was accused of failing to fulfill his required service in the Texas Air National Guard.[5] However, the focus quickly shifted to the conduct of CBS News after they aired a segment on 60 Minutes Wednesday introducing what became known as the Killian documents.[6] Serious doubts about the documents' authenticity quickly emerged,[7] leading CBS to appoint a review panel that eventually resulted in the firing of the news producer and other significant staffing changes.[8][9] 1st Lt. ... Shield of the United States Air National Guard In the US military, the Air National Guard (ANG), as part of the National Guard, is the organized militia of a particular US state and is a reserve of the US Air Force (USAF), too. ... CBS News logo, used from Sept. ... One of the Killian documents. ... During the Killian documents controversy in 2004, the authenticity of the documents themselves was challenged by a variety of individuals and groups. ...


Meanwhile, Kerry was accused by the Swift Vets and POWs for Truth, who averred that "phony war crimes charges, his exaggerated claims about his own service in Vietnam, and his deliberate misrepresentation of the nature and effectiveness of Swift boat operations compels us to step forward." The group challenged the legitimacy of each of the combat medals awarded to Kerry by the U.S. Navy, and the disposition of his discharge. Swift Vets and POWs for Truth, formerly known as the Swift Boat Veterans for Truth (SBVT), is a political group (527 group) of American Swift boat veterans and former prisoners of war of the Vietnam War, formed during the 2004 presidential election campaign for the purpose of opposing John Kerry... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ...


In the beginning of September, the successful Republican National Convention along with the allegations by Kerry's former mates gave President Bush his first comfortable margin since Kerry had won the nomination. A post-convention Gallup poll showed the President leading the Senator by 14 points.[10][11]


Debates

Three presidential debates and one vice presidential debate were organized by the Commission on Presidential Debates, and held in the autumn of 2004. As expected, these debates set the agenda for the final leg of the political contest. Libertarian Party candidate Michael Badnarik and Green Party candidate David Cobb were arrested while trying to access the debates. Badnarik was attempting to serve papers to the Commission on Presidential Debates. The 2004 United States Presidential Election Debates were sponsored by the Commission on Presidential Debates (CPD) an // myspace. ... The Commission on Presidential Debates (CPD) was established in 1987 to ensure that debates, as a permanent part of every general election, provide the best possible information to viewers and listeners. ...


The first debate was held on September 30 at the University of Miami, moderated by Jim Lehrer of PBS. Though originally intended to focus on domestic policy, questions were asked on the War on Terror, the War in Iraq and America's international relations.[12] During the debate John Kerry accused Bush of having failed to gain international support for the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, saying the only countries assisting the USA during the invasion were the United Kingdom and Australia. Bush replied to this by saying, "Well, actually, he forgot Poland." (In an ironic turn of events, Poland announced plans to withdraw its troops from Iraq shortly after the debate.) Later, a consensus formed among mainstream pollsters and pundits that Kerry won the debate decisively, strengthening what had come to be seen as a weak and troubled campaign.[13] In the days after, coverage focused on Bush's apparent annoyance with Kerry and numerous scowls and negative facial expressions. On October 5, the Vice Presidential debate was held between Dick Cheney and John Edwards at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, and was moderated by Gwen Ifill of PBS. It again focused on Iraq and the War on Terror. Cheney showed his so called "Bulldog" debating mentality and appeared to be much tougher than Edwards on most of the issues.[citation needed] An initial poll by ABC indicated a victory for Cheney, while polls by CNN and MSNBC gave it to Edwards.[14][15][16][17] is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the university in Coral Gables, Florida. ... James Charles Lehrer (pronounced ) (born May 19, 1934) is an American journalist. ... PBS redirects here. ... There have been three conflicts in the late 20th century and early 21st century called Gulf War, all of which refer to conflicts in the Persian Gulf region: Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988) (aka First Gulf War). ... Foreign affairs redirects here. ... You forgot Poland is a catch phrase based on a statement by United States President George W. Bush concerning Polands involvement in the Iraq War during the first presidential election debate on September 30, 2004, during the 2004 U.S. presidential race. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... This article is about the American attorney and politician. ... Case Western Reserve University is a private research university located in Cleveland, Ohio, United States, with some residence halls on the south end of campus located in Cleveland Heights. ... Cleveland redirects here. ... Gwen Ifill Gwen Ifill (born September 29, 1955) is a journalist for PBS. She graduated from Simmons College in Boston, Massachusetts. ... PBS redirects here. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American television network. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... For the news website, see msnbc. ...


The second presidential debate was held at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri on October 8, moderated by Charles Gibson of ABC. Conducted in a "town meeting" format, less formal than the first Presidential debate, this debate saw President Bush and Senator Kerry taking questions on a variety of subjects from a local audience.[18] Bush attempted to deflect criticism of what was described as his scowling demeanor during the first debate, joking at one point about one of Kerry's remarks, "That answer made me want to scowl."[19] Washington University in St. ... St. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles Charlie Dewolf Gibson (born March 9, 1943) is an American media personality best known as co-anchor of Good Morning America on ABC from January 1987 to May 1998 and from January 1999 to June 28, 2006, a span of 19 years. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American television network. ...


Bush and Kerry met for the third and final debate at Arizona State University on October 13.[20] 51 million viewers watched the debate which was moderated by Bob Schieffer of CBS News. However, at the time of the ASU debate, there were 15.2 million viewers tuned in to watch the Major League Baseball championship games broadcast simultaneously. Arizona State University (ASU) is a public research institution of higher education and research with campuses located in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bob Schieffer Bob Lloyd Schieffer (born February 25, 1937 in Austin, Texas) is an American journalist who has been with CBS News since 1969, serving 23 years as anchor on the Saturday edition of CBS Evening News from 1973-1996; chief Washington correspondent since 1982, moderator of the Sunday public... This article is about the broadcast network. ... Major Leagues redirects here. ...


Election results

The certified results in each state are as follows:

State Bush Kerry Nader Badnarik Peroutka Cobb Others
Alabama 1,176,394 693,933 6,701 3,495 1,994 - write-in 898
Alaska 190,889 111,025 5,069 1,675 2,092 1,058 write-in 790
Arkansas 573,182 470,230 6,172 2,352 2,083 1,491
Arizona 1,104,294 893,524 2,773 11,856 - 138
California 5,509,826 6,745,485 20,714 50,165 26,645 40,771 Leonard Peltier 27,607, miscellaneous 140
Colorado 1,101,255 1,001,732 12,718 7,664 2,562 1,591 Stanford Andress 804, Gene Amondson 378, Bill Van Auken 329, James Harris 241, Walt Brown 216, Earl Dodge 140
Connecticut 693,826 857,488 12,969 3,367 1,543 9,564 Roger Calero 12
Delaware 171,660 200,152 2,153 586 289 250 Walt Brown 100
D.C. 21,256 202,970 1,485 502 - 737 write-in 506, James Harris 130
Florida 3,964,522 3,583,544 32,971 11,996 6,626 3,917 Walt Brown 3,502, James Harris 2,732
Georgia 1,914,254 1,366,149 2,231 18,387 580 228
Hawaii 194,191 231,708 - 1,377 - 1,737
Idaho 409,235 181,098 1,115 3,844 3,084 58 -
Illinois 2,346,608 2,891,989 3,571 32,452 440 241 Peter Camejo 115, Lawson Bone 4, Ernest Virag 4, John Joseph Kennedy 3, David Cook 2, Margaret Trowe 1, Joann Breivogel 1, John Kennedy 1, Robert Christensen 1
Indiana 1,479,438 969,011 1,328 18,058 - 102 John Joseph Kennedy 37, Walt Brown 22, Lawson Mitchell Bone 6
Iowa 751,957 741,898 5,973 2,992 1,304 1,141 James Harris 373, Bill Van Auken 176
Kansas 736,456 434,993 9,348 4,013 2,899 33 John Joseph Kennedy 5, Bill Van Auken 5, Walt Brown 4
Kentucky 1,069,439 712,733 8,856 2,619 2,213 -
Louisiana 1,102,169 820,299 7,032 2,781 5,203 1,276 Walt Brown 1,795, James Harris 985
Maine 330,201 396,842 8,069 1,965 735 2,936 write-in 4
Maryland 1,024,703 1,334,493 11,854 6,094 3,421 3,632 Joe Schriner 27, John Joseph Kennedy 7, Ted Brown (Libertarian) senior 4, Lawson Mitchell Bone 2, Robert Abraham Boyle II 1
Massachusetts 1,071,109 1,803,800 4,806 15,022 - 10,623 write-in 7,028
Michigan 2,313,746 2,479,183 24,035 10,552 4,980 5,325 Walt Brown 1,431
Minnesota 1,346,695 1,445,014 18,683 4,639 3,074 4,408 write-in 2,521, Thomas Harens 2,387, Bill Van Auken 539, Roger Calero 416, John Joseph Kennedy 4, Debra Joyce Renderos 2, Martin Wishnatsky 2, Walt Brown 2, Joy Graham-Prendergast 1
Mississippi 672,660 457,766 3,175 1,793 1,758 1,073 James Harris 1,599, write-in 215
Missouri 1,455,713 1,259,171 1,294 9,831 5,355 -
Montana 266,063 173,710 6,168 1,733 1,764 996
Nebraska 512,814 254,328 5,698 2,041 1,314 978 write-in 931, Roger Calero 82
Nevada 418,690 397,190 4,838 3,176 1,152 853 'None of these candidates' 3,688
New Hampshire 331,237 340,511 4,479 372 161 - write-in 1,435
New Jersey 1,670,003 1,911,430 19,418 4,514 2,750 1,807 Walt Brown 664, Bill Van Auken 575, Roger Calero 530
New Mexico 376,930 370,942 4,053 2,382 771 1,226
New York 2,962,567 4,314,280 99,873 11,607 207 87 Roger Calero 2,405, Michael Halpin 4, John Joseph Kennedy 4, Bill Van Auken 2
North Carolina 1,961,166 1,525,849 1,805 11,731 - 108 Walt Brown 348
North Dakota 196,651 111,052 3,756 851 514 - Martin Wishnatsky 9
Ohio 2,858,727 2,739,952 - 14,695 11,907 186 Joe Schriner 114, James Harris 22, Richard Duncan 16, Thomas Zych 10, John Thompson Parker 2
Oklahoma 959,792 503,966 - - - -
Oregon 866,831 943,163 - 7,260 5,257 5,315 miscellaneous 8,956
Pennsylvania 2,793,847 2,938,095 2,656 21,185 6,318 6,319
Rhode Island 169,046 259,760 4,651 907 339 1,333 write-in 845, John Parker 253
South Carolina 937,974 661,699 5,520 3,608 5,317 1,488 Walt Brown 2,124
South Dakota 232,584 149,244 4,320 964 1,103 -
Tennessee 1,384,375 1,036,477 8,992 4,866 2,570 33 Walt Brown 6
Texas 4,526,917 2,832,704 9,159 38,787 1,626 1,014 Andrew Falk 219, John Joseph Kennedy 126, Walt Brown 111, Deborah Allen 92
Utah 663,742 241,199 11,305 3,375 6,841 39 Charles Jay 946, James Harris 393, Larry Topham 2, John Joseph Kennedy 1, Joe Schriner 1.
Vermont 121,180 184,067 4,494 1,102 - - write-in 957, John Thompson Parker 265, Roger Calero 244
Virginia 1,716,959 1,454,742 2,393 11,032 10,161 104 write-in 5,473
Washington 1,304,894 1,510,201 23,283 11,955 3,922 2,974 John Thompson Parker 1,077, James Harris 547, Bill Van Auken 231
West Virginia 423,778 326,541 4,063 1,405 82 5 John Joseph Kennedy 13
Wisconsin 1,478,120 1,489,504 16,390 6,464 - 2,661 write-in 2,986, Walt Brown 471, James Harris 411
Wyoming 167,629 70,776 2,741 1,171 631 - write-in 480

George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ... Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American attorney, author, lecturer, political activist, and candidate for President of the United States in five elections. ... Badnarik campaigning in July 2004. ... Michael Peroutka Michael Anthony Peroutka (born 1952) is a Maryland lawyer, the founder of the Institute on the Constitution, cohost of The American View, and once held a position in the United States Department of Health and Human Services. ... David Cobb appealing for votes at the annual Fighting Bob Fest in Baraboo, Wisconsin, September 2004 David Keith Cobb (born December 24, 1962 in San Leon, Texas) is an American ex-lawyer and activist, and was the 2004 presidential candidate of the Green Party of the United States (GPUS). ... Alabama trended sharply toward George W. Bush in 2004. ... Alaska once again voted for the Republican presidential nominee in 2004, as it has in every presidential election since statehood except for 1964. ... In Bill Clintons home state, voters confirmed their ties with the Republican Party. ... Arizona confirmed once again that the state is a Republican stronghold, by voting for President George W. Bush again in 2004. ... In 2004, California confirmed its reputation as a blue state by voting for the Democratic challenger, John Kerry. ... Leonard Peltier (born September 12, 1944) is a Native American activist and member of the American Indian Movement. ... In the 2004 Presidential election, Colorado was a swing state, and voted for the incumbent President George W. Bush. ... Stanford E. Andy Andress is the author of The Civil War: The Sound of Thunder (1996) ISBN 0-9656257-1-0 which he co-authored with his wife Irene M. Deasy. ... Gene Amondson (b. ... Bill Van Auken (born 1950) was the presidential candidate of the Socialist Equality Party in the U.S. election of 2004. ... James Harris - African-American communist politician. ... Walter Frederick Brown (born July 28, 1926) was the presidential candidate of the Socialist Party USA in 2004. ... Earl Farwell Dodge (b. ... In 2004, New Englands state of Connecticut was easily won by the challenger John Kerry by a margin of 10. ... Róger Calero (born 1969) is one of the leaders of the Socialist Workers Party. ... Statewide winner in bold. ... Walter Frederick Brown (born July 28, 1926) was the presidential candidate of the Socialist Party USA in 2004. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... The most famous of the so-called swing states, Bush won Florida by only a few hundred votes in 2000. ... Walter Frederick Brown (born July 28, 1926) was the presidential candidate of the Socialist Party USA in 2004. ... Georgia voted unsurprisingly for the incubent president, Republican George W. Bush, confirming the control of the South by Republicans. ... Hawaii used to be a Democratic stronghold in U.S. Presidential elections (Al Gore won it by 18. ... Statewide winner in bold. ... Illinois voted for Senator Kerry in the 2004 election. ... Peter Miguel Camejo (born December 31, 1939) is an American financier, businessman, politican, and author. ... Margaret Trowe (1948-) is a militant labor union and womens rights activist. ... A mainly rural and conservative Midwestern state, Indiana has not voted Democratic in a Presidential election since 1964. ... Walter Frederick Brown (born July 28, 1926) was the presidential candidate of the Socialist Party USA in 2004. ... Iowa narrowly voted for Al Gore in 2000 by a slim margin, but in 2004, the incubent George W. Bush won with a 0. ... Bill Van Auken (born 1950) was the presidential candidate of the Socialist Equality Party in the U.S. election of 2004. ... Categories: | ... Bill Van Auken (born 1950) was the presidential candidate of the Socialist Equality Party in the U.S. election of 2004. ... Walter Frederick Brown (born July 28, 1926) was the presidential candidate of the Socialist Party USA in 2004. ... A conservative and Republican leaning state, Kentucky was easily won by incumbent President George W. Bush over his Democratic challenger, John F. Kerry, a United States senator from Massachusetts, by a margin of almost 20%. Bush widened his margin of victory since his victory here in 2000 against Al Gore... Categories: | ... Walter Frederick Brown (born July 28, 1926) was the presidential candidate of the Socialist Party USA in 2004. ... Though Maine was historically a Republican stronghold, in recent years it has trended Democratic in Presidential elections; it has not voted Republican in a Presidential election since 1988. ... Being home to Washington D.C northern suburbs and Baltimore, Maryland is now a reliably democratic state. ... Massachusetts is one of the most Democratic states. ... This article describes the United States presidential election, 2004, in Michigan. ... Walter Frederick Brown (born July 28, 1926) was the presidential candidate of the Socialist Party USA in 2004. ... This article describes the United States presidential election, 2004, in Minnesota. ... Thomas J. Harens (b. ... Bill Van Auken (born 1950) was the presidential candidate of the Socialist Equality Party in the U.S. election of 2004. ... Róger Calero (born 1969) is one of the leaders of the Socialist Workers Party. ... Walter Frederick Brown (born July 28, 1926) was the presidential candidate of the Socialist Party USA in 2004. ... Source: http://www. ... This article describes the United States presidential election, 2004, in Missouri. ... Sources: http://www. ... Nebraska, a rural Great Plains state, is a Republican and conservative stronghold. ... Róger Calero (born 1969) is one of the leaders of the Socialist Workers Party. ... In 2004, Nevada was considered a swing state. ... Traditionally a Republican stronghold in a Democratic New England, New Hampshire went for Senator John F. Kerry with a slim 9,274 lead. ... Due to the impact of 9/11 and the resignation in scandal of Governor James McGreevey, New Jersey was considered an interesting race. ... Walter Frederick Brown (born July 28, 1926) was the presidential candidate of the Socialist Party USA in 2004. ... Bill Van Auken (born 1950) was the presidential candidate of the Socialist Equality Party in the U.S. election of 2004. ... Róger Calero (born 1969) is one of the leaders of the Socialist Workers Party. ... New Mexico is one of the only three states who swung between 2000 and 2004. ... In 2004, New York continued its trend of voting for the Democratic presidential candidate. ... Róger Calero (born 1969) is one of the leaders of the Socialist Workers Party. ... Bill Van Auken (born 1950) was the presidential candidate of the Socialist Equality Party in the U.S. election of 2004. ... North Carolina was the homestate of John Edwards, Democratic nominee for vice-president, who was then representing the state in the United States Senate. ... Walter Frederick Brown (born July 28, 1926) was the presidential candidate of the Socialist Party USA in 2004. ... Categories: | | | ... Although the states economic situation gave hope to Democrats that Ohio might vote for Senator Kerry, President George W. Bush was victorious, with a slim lead of 2. ... John Parker, was the candidate of the Workers World Party, a U.S. communist political party, for President of the United States in 2004. ... Category: ... Democratic Presidential candidate John Kerry won Oregons popular vote by 51% in 2004, narrowly defeating Republican incumbent George W. Bush. ... By voting for Senator Kerry, Pennsylvania was the only one of the three major swing states (the other two being Ohio and Florida) to choose the Democratic challenger. ... Like all other New England states, Rhode Island was carried by Democratic candidate John F. Kerry, a United States senator from neighboring Massachusetts. ... John Parker, was the candidate of the Workers World Party, a U.S. communist political party, for President of the United States in 2004. ... Categories: | | | ... Walter Frederick Brown (born July 28, 1926) was the presidential candidate of the Socialist Party USA in 2004. ... This article describes the United States presidential election, 2004, in South Dakota. ... This article describes the United States presidential election, 2004, in Tennessee. ... Walter Frederick Brown (born July 28, 1926) was the presidential candidate of the Socialist Party USA in 2004. ... As a Republican stronghold and the home state of incubent George W. Bush, Texas voted overwhemingly to support the Republican against his Democratic challenger John Kerry. ... Walter Frederick Brown (born July 28, 1926) was the presidential candidate of the Socialist Party USA in 2004. ... Utah is a strongly Republican state that in 2004 had a state legislature with a super-majority of Republicans in its make-up (meaning the minority parties are unable to block a veto by its members), both U.S. Senators being Republican as well as two of the three members... Vermont is the home state of U.S. presidential candidate and US-Iraq war oppositionist Howard Dean, its former governor. ... John Parker, was the candidate of the Workers World Party, a U.S. communist political party, for President of the United States in 2004. ... Róger Calero (born 1969) is one of the leaders of the Socialist Workers Party. ... This article describes the United States presidential election, 2004, in Virginia. ... This article describes the United States presidential election, 2004, in Washington. ... John Parker, was the candidate of the Workers World Party, a U.S. communist political party, for President of the United States in 2004. ... Bill Van Auken (born 1950) was the presidential candidate of the Socialist Equality Party in the U.S. election of 2004. ... ... As a swing state, Wisconsin voted very narrowly in favor of John Kerry over President George W. Bush in 2004. ... Walter Frederick Brown (born July 28, 1926) was the presidential candidate of the Socialist Party USA in 2004. ... ...

Grand total

Candidate Votes % States led National ECV
Republican George W. Bush 62,040,610 50.73 31 286
Democrat John Kerry 59,028,444 48.27 19+DC 251
Independent Ralph Nader 465,650 0.38 - -
Libertarian Michael Badnarik 397,265 0.32 - -
Constitution Michael Peroutka 143,630 0.12 - -
Green David Cobb 119,859 0.096 - -
Peace and Freedom Leonard Peltier 27,607 0.023 - -
Socialist Walt Brown 10,837 0.009 - -
James Harris 7,102 0.006 - -
Roger Calero 3,698 0.003 - -
None of these candidates (Nevada) 3,688 0.003 - -
Thomas Harens 2,387 0.002 - -
Gene Amondson 1,944 0.002 - -
Bill Van Auken 1,857 0.002 - -
John Thompson Parker 1,646 0.001 - -
Charles Jay 946 0.001 - -
Stanford Andress 804 0.001 - -
Earl Dodge 140 0.000 - -
Democrat John Edwards - - - 1
Total 122,267,553 100.000 50 + DC 538

George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ... Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American attorney, author, lecturer, political activist, and candidate for President of the United States in five elections. ... Badnarik campaigning in July 2004. ... Michael Peroutka Michael Anthony Peroutka (born 1952) is a Maryland lawyer, the founder of the Institute on the Constitution, cohost of The American View, and once held a position in the United States Department of Health and Human Services. ... David Cobb appealing for votes at the annual Fighting Bob Fest in Baraboo, Wisconsin, September 2004 David Keith Cobb (born December 24, 1962 in San Leon, Texas) is an American ex-lawyer and activist, and was the 2004 presidential candidate of the Green Party of the United States (GPUS). ... Leonard Peltier (born September 12, 1944) is a Native American activist and member of the American Indian Movement. ... Walter Frederick Brown (born July 28, 1926) was the presidential candidate of the Socialist Party USA in 2004. ... James Harris - African-American communist politician. ... Róger Calero (born 1969) is one of the leaders of the Socialist Workers Party. ... Thomas J. Harens (b. ... Gene Amondson (b. ... Bill Van Auken (born 1950) was the presidential candidate of the Socialist Equality Party in the U.S. election of 2004. ... John Parker, was the candidate of the Workers World Party, a U.S. communist political party, for President of the United States in 2004. ... Charles Jay (born 1960) was the Presidential nominee of the U.S. Personal Choice Party in the 2004 elections. ... Stanford E. Andy Andress is the author of The Civil War: The Sound of Thunder (1996) ISBN 0-9656257-1-0 which he co-authored with his wife Irene M. Deasy. ... Earl Farwell Dodge (b. ... This article is about the American attorney and politician. ...

Notes on results

Because of a request by Ralph Nader, New Hampshire held a recount. In New York, Bush obtained 2,806,993 votes on the Republican ticket and 155,574 on the Conservative ticket. Kerry obtained 4,180,755 votes on the Democratic ticket and 133,525 votes on the Working Families ticket. Nader obtained 84,247 votes on the Independence ticket, and 15,626 votes on the Peace and Justice ticket.


Note also: Official Federal Election Commission Report, with the latest, most final, and complete vote totals available.


Finance

  • George W. Bush (R) $367,227,801 / 62,040,610 = $5.92 per vote
  • John Kerry (D) $326,236,288 / 59,028,111 = $5.52
  • Ralph Nader (i) $4,566,037 / 463,653 = $9.85
  • Michael Badnarik (L) $1,093,013 / 397,265 = $2.75
  • Michael Peroutka (C) $729,087 / 144,498 = $5.05
  • David Cobb (G) $493,723 / 119,859 = $4.12
  • Walt Brown (SPUSA) $2,060 / 10,837 = $0.19

Source: FEC [3]


Close states

These maps show the amount of attention given by the campaigns to the close states. At left, each waving hand represents a visit from a presidential or vice-presidential candidate during the final five weeks. At right, each dollar sign represents one million dollars spent on TV advertising by the campaigns during the same time period.
These maps show the amount of attention given by the campaigns to the close states. At left, each waving hand represents a visit from a presidential or vice-presidential candidate during the final five weeks. At right, each dollar sign represents one million dollars spent on TV advertising by the campaigns during the same time period.

States where margin of victory < 5% Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 249 pixelsFull resolution (1352 × 420 pixel, file size: 120 KB, MIME type: image/png) These maps show the amount of attention given to each state by the Bush and Kerry campaigns during the final five weeks of the 2004 election... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 249 pixelsFull resolution (1352 × 420 pixel, file size: 120 KB, MIME type: image/png) These maps show the amount of attention given to each state by the Bush and Kerry campaigns during the final five weeks of the 2004 election...

  1. Wisconsin, Kerry, 0.38%
  2. Iowa, Bush, 0.67%
  3. New Mexico, Bush, 0.79%
  4. New Hampshire, Kerry, 1.37%
  5. Ohio, Bush, 2.11%
  6. Pennsylvania, Kerry, 2.50%
  7. Nevada, Bush, 2.59%
  8. Michigan, Kerry, 3.42%
  9. Minnesota, Kerry, 3.48%
  10. Oregon, Kerry, 4.16%
  11. Colorado, Bush, 4.67%

States where margin of victory < 10%

  1. Florida, Bush, 5.01%
  2. New Jersey, Kerry, 6.68%
  3. Washington, Kerry, 7.18%
  4. Missouri, Bush, 7.20%
  5. Delaware, Kerry, 7.60%
  6. Virginia, Bush, 8.20%
  7. Hawaii, Kerry, 8.75%
  8. Maine, Kerry, 8.99%
  9. Arkansas, Bush, 9.76%
  10. California, Kerry, 9.95%

Members of the 2004 United States Electoral College

This is a list of 2004 U.S. presidential electors, by state. ...

Ballot access

Presidential Ticket Party Ballot Access
Bush / Cheney Republican 50+DC
Kerry / Edwards Democrat 50+DC
Badnarik / Campagna Libertarian 48+DC
Peroutka / Baldwin Constitution 36
Nader / Camejo Independent, Reform 34+DC
Cobb / LaMarche Green 27+DC

Ballot access rules regulate the conditions under which a candidate or political party is entitled to appear on voters ballots. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United...

“Faithless elector” in Minnesota

One elector in Minnesota cast a ballot for president with the name of “John Ewards” [sic] written on it. The Electoral College officials certified this ballot as a vote for John Edwards for president. The remaining nine electors cast ballots for John Kerry. All ten electors in the state cast ballots for John Edwards for Vice President. (John Edwards' name was spelled correctly on all ballots for Vice President.) This was the first time in U.S. history that an elector had cast both of his or her votes for the same person.


Electoral balloting in Minnesota was performed by secret ballot, and none of the electors admitted to casting the Edwards vote for President, so it may never be known who the “faithless elector” was. It is not even known whether the vote for Edwards was deliberate or unintentional, although the Republican Secretary of State and several of the Democratic electors have expressed the opinion that this was an accident. A faithless elector is a member of the United States Electoral College who casts an electoral vote for someone other than the person whom they have pledged to elect. ...


Electoral vote error in New York

New York's initial electoral vote certificate indicated that all of its 31 electoral votes for president were cast for “John L. Kerry of Massachusetts” instead of John F. Kerry, who won the popular vote in the state.[21] This was apparently the result of a typographical error, and an amended electoral vote certificate with the correct middle initial was transmitted to the President of the Senate prior to the official electoral vote count.[22] The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS,[2] Veep, or VP) is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ...


Presidential results by congressional district

In his successful bid for reelection in 2004, Republican George W. Bush won the popular vote in 255 of the nation's 435 congressional districts, a 75-seat edge over Democrat John Kerry’s 180. At 255, the President won 27 more districts than the 228 he carried in the 2000 election. There were 59 “turnover” or “split” districts, i.e., those represented in the U.S. House by a member of a party other than the winner of the presidential vote in the district. Following the 2004 election, 41 districts of the 109th Congress were carried by Bush yet represented by a Democrat; 18 districts were carried by John Kerry yet represented by a Republican. This represents a continued decrease over recent presidential elections. In 2000 there were 86 turnover districts. In 1996, there were 110 turnover districts. The 2004 presidential election was the first following the 2001–2002 redistricting phase of congressional apportionment.


Caveats: only a handful of states report the results by district. These numbers are estimates based upon results collected from the 400 counties that contain a portion of more than one district. They may include an allocation of absentee/early votes which were not tabulated by district.[23]


Voter Demographics

The following data is based on exit polls.

SOCIAL GROUPS AND THE PRESIDENTIAL VOTE, 2004
Size Bush Kerry Nader
Party
Democratic 37% 11% 89% 0%
Independent 26% 48% 49% 1%
Republican 37% 93% 6% 0%
Ideology
Liberal 21% 13% 85% 1%
Moderate 45% 45% 54% 0%
Conservative 34% 84% 15% 0%
Race
Black 11% 11% 88% 0%
Hispanic 8% 44% 53% 2%
White 77% 58% 41% 0%
Asian 2% 44% 56% *
Other 2% 40% 54% 2%
Sex
Female 54% 48% 51% 0%
Male 46% 55% 44% 0%
Religion
Protestant 54% 59% 40% 0%
Catholic 27% 52% 47% 0%
Jewish 3% 25% 74% 0%
Other 7% 23% 74% 1%
Family Income
Less than $15,000 8% 36% 63% 0%
$15,000–$29,999 15% 42% 57% 0%
$30,000-$49,999 22% 49% 50% 0%
$50,000-$74,999 23% 56% 43% 0%
$75,000-$99,999 14% 55% 45% 0%
$100,000-$149,999 11% 57% 42% 1%
$150,000-$199,999 4% 58% 42% *
Greater than $200,000 3% 63% 35% 1%
Education
No High School 4% 49% 50% 0%
H.S. Graduate 22% 52% 47% 0%
Some College 32% 54% 46% 0%
College Graduate 26% 52% 46% 1%
Postgraduate Study 16% 44% 55% 1%
Union Membership
Union Member 14% 38% 61% 1%
Non-Union Member 86% 54% 45% 0%
Age
18–29 years old 17% 45% 54% 0%
30-44 years old 29% 53% 46% 1%
45–59 years old 30% 51% 48% 0%
60 years or older 24% 54% 46% 0%
Region
Northeast 22% 46% 53% 1%
South 32% 58% 42% 0%
Midwest 26% 51% 48% 0%
West 20% 49% 50% 1%
Sexual Orientation
Heterosexual 96% 53% 46% 0%
Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual 4% 23% 77% 0%
Gun Ownership
Gun Owner in Household 41% 63% 36% 1%
No Gun Owner in Household 59% 43% 57% 0%
Views on Iraq War
Approve 51% 85% 14% 0%
Disapprove 45% 12% 87% 0%

An asterisk (*) indicates a statistically insignificant amount of responses.


Source: 2004 CNN Election Exit Poll [4]


Analysis

Cartogram comparing voter turnout to result
Cartogram comparing voter turnout to result

The results produced many interesting features. A partial list is given below, but it is by no means complete. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

  • This is the first time since George H.W. Bush in 1988 that the winning Presidential candidate of either party has won over an absolute majority, or 50% of the popular vote.
  • This is also the first time since the 1988 US Presidential Election that a Republican won the popular vote (Bush failed to win the popular vote in 2000).
  • Kerry received a higher percentage of the popular vote in 2004 than George W. Bush did in 2000.
  • Although Bush won the popular vote with 50.73% to Kerry's 48.27%, it was, in percentages, the closest popular margin ever for a victorious sitting President. Bush received 2.5% more than Kerry; the closest previous margin won by a sitting President was 3.2% for Woodrow Wilson in 1916. Bush's victory margin (approximately 3 million votes) was the smallest of any sitting President since Harry S. Truman in 1948.
  • At least 12 million more votes were cast than in the 2000 election; 60.7% of the electorate voted—the highest percentage since 1968. The record turnout was attributed partly to the intensity of the division between the candidates and partly to intensive voter registration and to get-out-the-vote efforts by both major parties and their allies. [5]
  • Owing to the nation's growing population and large turnout, both Pres. Bush and Sen. Kerry received more votes than any previous presidential candidate in American history. The previous record was held by Republican Ronald Reagan, who in 1984 received more votes than any other presidential candidate in American history (54.4 million).
  • The counties where Bush led in the popular vote amount to 83% of the geographic area of the U.S. (excluding Alaska, which did not report results by borough/census area, but had all electoral districts but one of the two in Juneau vote for Bush).
  • Between the 2000 and 2004 elections, the House of Representatives (and therefore the Electoral College) had been reapportioned per the results of the 2000 Census. If Bush won exactly the same states as he won in 2000, he would win by a margin of 278-260, a net gain of 7 electoral votes over his performance in 2000.
  • Only four states saw every county vote for one candidate; Bush won every county in Utah and Oklahoma, and Kerry won every county in Massachusetts and Rhode Island.
  • Only three states picked a winner from a different party than they had in 2000. Bush took Iowa and New Mexico (combined 12 electoral votes), both won by Democrat Al Gore in 2000, while Kerry took New Hampshire (4 electoral votes), which Bush had previously won. Bush received a net gain of 8 electoral votes from these switches. All three were very close states in both 2000 and 2004, and none gained or lost electoral votes due to reapportionment.
  • As in 2000, electoral votes split along sharp geographical lines: The west coast, northeast, and most of the Great Lakes region for Kerry, and the South, Great Plains, and Mountain states for Bush. The widespread support for Bush in the southern states continued the transformation of the formerly Democratic Solid South to the Republican South.
  • Minor-party candidates received many fewer votes, dropping from a total of 3.5% in 2000 to approximately one percent. As in 2000, Ralph Nader finished in third place, but his total declined from 2.9 million to 400,000, leaving him with fewer votes than Reform Party candidate Pat Buchanan had received in finishing fourth in 2000. The combined minor-party total was the lowest since 1988.
  • The election marked the first time an incumbent president was returned to office while his political party increased its numbers in both houses of Congress since Lyndon Johnson in the 1964 election. It was the first time for a Republican since William McKinley in the 1900 election.
  • Presidential candidates Michael Badnarik of the Libertarian Party and David Cobb of the Green Party were arrested in St. Louis, Missouri on October 8, 2004 for an act of civil disobedience. Badnarik and Cobb were protesting their exclusion from the presidential debates between George W. Bush and John Kerry.
  • One issue from the 2000 election had been Bush's electoral victory despite losing the popular vote. If Kerry had won Ohio, he would have won the election but still could have lost the popular vote.

Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born June... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Map of Alaska boroughs and census areas The U.S. State of Alaska is not completely divided into counties as other states in the country are. ... The United States Census of year 2000, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... The U.S. Northeast is a region of the United States of America defined by the US Census Bureau. ... The Great Lakes states of the U.S. are colored red in this map. ... The U.S. Southern states or the South, also known colloquially as Dixie, constitute a distinctive region covering a large portion of the United States, with its own unique heritage, historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... The phrase Solid South describes the electoral support of the Southern United States for Democratic Party candidates for almost a century after the Reconstruction era, 1876-1964. ... Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American attorney, author, lecturer, political activist, and candidate for President of the United States in five elections. ... The Reform Party of the United States of America (abbreviated Reform Party USA or RPUSA, generally known simply as the Reform Party) is a political party in the United States, founded by Ross Perot in 1995 who said Americans were disillusioned with the state of politics—as being corrupt and... Patrick Joseph Pat Buchanan (born November 2, 1938) is an American politician, author, syndicated columnist and broadcaster. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... Summary The election was held on November 6, 1900. ... Badnarik campaigning in July 2004. ... The Libertarian Party is a United States political party founded on December 11, 1971. ... David Cobb appealing for votes at the annual Fighting Bob Fest in Baraboo, Wisconsin, September 2004 David Keith Cobb (born December 24, 1962 in San Leon, Texas) is an American ex-lawyer and activist, and was the 2004 presidential candidate of the Green Party of the United States (GPUS). ... This article is about the American political party, Green Party. ... St. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 2004 United States Presidential Election Debates were sponsored by the Commission on Presidential Debates (CPD) an // myspace. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ...

Electoral College changes from 2000

The U.S. population is continuously shifting, and some states grow in population faster than others. With the completion of the 2000 census, Congressional reapportionment took place, moving some representative districts from the slowest growing states to the fastest growing. As a result, several states had a different number of electors in the U.S. Electoral College in 2004 than in 2000, since the number of electors allotted to each state is equal to the sum of the number of Senators and Representatives from that state. Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... US Congressional apportionment for states in 2000 The membership of the United States House of Representatives changes each decade following the decennial United States Census. ... The United States Electoral College is the electoral college that chooses the President and Vice President of the United States at the conclusion of each Presidential election. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party...


The following table shows the change in electors from the 2000 election. Red states represent those won by Bush; and Blue states, those won by both Gore and Kerry. All states except Nebraska and Maine use a winner-take-all allocation of electors. Each of these states was won by the same party in 2004 that had won it in 2000; thus, George W. Bush received a net gain of seven electoral votes due to reapportionment. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ... The first-past-the-post electoral system is a voting system for single-member districts, variously called first-past-the-post (FPTP or FPP), winner-take-all, plurality voting, or relative majority. ...

Gained votes Lost votes
  • Arizona (8→10 +2)
  • Florida (25→27 +2)
  • Georgia (13→15 +2)
  • Texas (32→34 +2)
  • California (54→55 +1)
  • Colorado (8→9 +1)
  • North Carolina (14→15 +1)
  • Nevada (4→5 +1)
  • New York (33→31 -2)
  • Pennsylvania (23→21 -2)
  • Connecticut (8→7 -1)
  • Mississippi (7→6 -1)
  • Ohio (21→20 -1)
  • Oklahoma (8→7 -1)
  • Wisconsin (11→10 -1)
  • Illinois (22→21 -1)
  • Indiana (12→11 -1)
  • Michigan (18→17 -1)

(This table uses the currently common Red→Republican, Blue→Democratic color association, as do the maps on this page. Some older party-affiliation maps use the opposite color coding for historical reasons.)


Vote splitting concerns

Some supporters of Democratic presidential candidate John Kerry were concerned that the independent candidacy of Ralph Nader would split the vote against the incumbent, thus allowing the Republican presidential candidate George W. Bush to win the 2004 election. Many Democrats blame Ralph Nader for splitting the vote in the 2000 presidential election when he ran as the candidate of the Green Party. The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ... Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American attorney, author, lecturer, political activist, and candidate for President of the United States in five elections. ... This article or section should be merged with Spoiler effect A split vote, or vote splitting, occurs in an election when the existence of two or more candidates that represent relatively similar viewpoints among voters reduces the votes received by each of them, reducing the chances of any one of... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The United States presidential election of 2000 was a contest between the Democratic candidate Al Gore versus the Republican candidate of George W. Bush. ... In American politics, the Green Party is a third party which has been active in some areas since the 1980s, but first gained widespread public attention for Ralph Naders presidential runs in 1996 and 2000. ...


Such splits are of particular concern because most states assign the presidential electors they send to the Electoral College, to the candidate with the most votes (a plurality), even if those votes are less than 50% of the total votes cast—in such a situation, a relatively small number of votes can make a large difference. For instance, a candidate who won narrow pluralities in a significant number of states could win a majority in the Electoral College even though they did not win a majority or even a plurality of the national popular vote. While Ralph Nader and the Green Party ultimately support replacing the Electoral College with direct popular elections, both have also suggested that states instead use instant-runoff voting to select their presidential electors, which would partially address the issue of vote splitting. The United States Electoral College is the electoral college that chooses the President and Vice President of the United States at the conclusion of each Presidential election. ... For the use of the term in political theory, see Pluralism (political theory). ... This article is about the political process. ... Example Instant-runoff voting ballot Instant-runoff voting (IRV) is a voting system most commonly used for single member elections in which voters have one vote, but can rank candidates in order of preference. ...


Opponents of Ralph Nader's candidacy often referred to vote splitting as the spoiler effect. Some voters who preferred Ralph Nader's positions over John Kerry's voted for John Kerry to avoid splitting the vote against the incumbent, claiming to be choosing the “lesser of two evils”. These voters used slogans such as, “Anybody but Bush,” and, “A vote for Nader is a vote for Bush.” A group of people who supported Nader in 2000 released a statement entitled "Vote to Stop Bush", urging support for Kerry/Edwards in swing states. Whether due to this campaign or other factors, the impact of Nader on the election's outcome ultimately proved inconsequential, as he received less than 1% of the national vote. In fact, all of the independent candidates together polled fewer votes than Nader had in 2000. The spoiler effect is a term to describe the effect a candidate can have on a close election, in which their candidacy results in the election being won by a candidate dissimilar to them, rather than a candidate similar to them. ...


Battleground states

During the campaign and as the results came in on the night of the election there was much focus on Ohio (ordinarily GOP-leaning, but suffering at the time from manufacturing job losses), Pennsylvania, and Florida. These three swing states were seen as evenly divided, and with each casting 20 electoral votes or more, they had the power to decide the election. As the final results came in, Kerry took Pennsylvania and then Bush took Florida, focusing all attention on Ohio. Washington & Jefferson College (W&J) is a private, coeducational, liberal arts college located in the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, in the city of Washington, Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... For the film of the same name, see Swing State (film). ...


The morning after the election, the major candidates were neck and neck. It was clear that the result in Ohio, along with two other states who had still not declared (New Mexico and Iowa), would decide the winner. Bush had established a lead of around 130,000 votes but the Democrats pointed to provisional ballots that had yet to be counted, initially reported to number as high as 200,000. Bush had preliminary leads of less than 5% of the vote in only four states, but if Iowa, Nevada and New Mexico had all eventually gone to Kerry, a win for Bush in Ohio would have created a 269–269 tie in the Electoral College. The result of an electoral tie would cause the election to be decided in the House of Representatives with each state casting one vote, regardless of population. Such a scenario would almost certainly have resulted in a victory for Bush, as Republicans controlled more House delegations. Therefore, the outcome of the election hinged solely on the result in Ohio, regardless of the final totals elsewhere. In the afternoon Ohio's Secretary of State, Kenneth Blackwell, announced that it was statistically impossible for the Democrats to make up enough valid votes in the provisional ballots to win. At the time provisional ballots were reported as numbering 140,000 (and later estimated to be only 135,000). Faced with this announcement, John Kerry conceded defeat. Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... In U.S. elections, when someone shows up at a polling place to cast a vote, but is not on the list of people who may vote there (is not registered in that precinct, or his registation is otherwise invalid or inaccurate), he may be allowed to cast a provisional... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... The United States Electoral College is the electoral college that chooses the President and Vice President of the United States at the conclusion of each Presidential election. ... John Kenneth Blackwell (born February 28, 1942) is an American politician of the Republican party, who currently (as of 2005) serves as the secretary of state for the U.S. state of Ohio. ...


The upper Midwest bloc of Minnesota, Iowa, and Wisconsin is also notable, casting a sum of 27 electoral votes. However, all the swing states are important. The following is list of the states considered swing states in the 2004 election by most news organizations and which candidate they eventually went for. The two major parties chose to focus their advertising on these states: Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

Bush:

Kerry: Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym West Virginian Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st in the US  - Total 24,230 sq mi (62,755 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ...

Election controversy

Map of election day problems
Map of election day problems

After the election, some sources reported indications of possible data irregularities and systematic flaws during the voting process, which are covered in detail by the election controversy articles. After the November 2, 2004 election in the United States, concerns were raised, by some democrats, about various aspects of the voting process, including whether voting had been made accessible to all those entitled to vote (and no one else), and whether the votes cast had been correctly counted. ... Concerns were raised, following the 2004 election, on various aspects of the voting process: whether voting had been made accessible to everyone entitled to vote, whether the votes cast had been correctly counted, and whether these irregularities decisively affected the reported outcome of the election. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (954x500, 93 KB)I modified the image image:Map_of_USA_with_state_names. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (954x500, 93 KB)I modified the image image:Map_of_USA_with_state_names. ...


Although the overall result of the election was not challenged by the Kerry campaign, Green Party presidential candidate David Cobb and Libertarian Party presidential candidate Michael Badnarik obtained a recount in Ohio. This recount was completed December 28, 2004, although on January 24, 2007, a jury convicted two Ohio elections officials of selecting precincts to recount where they already knew the hand total would match the machine total, thereby avoiding having to perform a full recount.[25] David Cobb appealing for votes at the annual Fighting Bob Fest in Baraboo, Wisconsin, September 2004 David Keith Cobb (born December 24, 1962 in San Leon, Texas) is an American ex-lawyer and activist, and was the 2004 presidential candidate of the Green Party of the United States (GPUS). ... Badnarik campaigning in July 2004. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


At the official counting of the electoral votes on January 6, a motion was made contesting Ohio's electoral votes. Because the motion was supported by at least one member of both the House of Representatives and the Senate, election law mandated that each house retire to debate and vote on the motion. In the House of Representatives, the motion was supported by 31 Democrats. It was opposed by 178 Republicans, 88 Democrats and one independent. Not voting were 52 Republicans and 80 Democrats. [6] Four people elected to the House had not yet taken office, and one seat was vacant. In the Senate, it was supported only by its maker, Senator Boxer, with 74 Senators opposed and 25 not voting. During the debate, no Senator argued that the outcome of the election should be changed by either court challenge or revote. Senator Boxer claimed that she had made the motion not to challenge the outcome, but to “shed the light of truth on these irregularities.” is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Barbara Levy Boxer (born November 11, 1940) is an American politician and the current junior U.S. Senator from the State of California. ...


Points of controversy

  • There is no individual federal agency with direct regulatory authority of the U.S. voting machine industry.[26] However the Election Assistance Commission has full regulatory authority over federal testing and certification processes, as well as an influential advisory role in certain voting industry matters.[27] Further oversight authority belongs to the Government Accountability Office, regularly investigating voting system related issues.[28]
  • The former president of Diebold Election Systems (Bob Urosevich) and the vice president of customer support at ES&S (Todd Urosevich)[29] are brothers.[30]
  • Walden O'Dell the former CEO of Diebold (the parent company of voting machine manufacturer Diebold Election Systems) was an active fundraiser for George W. Bush's re-election campaign and wrote in a fund-raising letter dated August 13, 2003, that he was committed "to helping Ohio deliver its electoral votes to the President."[31]
  • Republican Senator Chuck Hagel, who was on a short list of George W. Bush's vice-presidential candidates,[32][33] served as the chairman of ES&S in the early 1990s when it operated under the name American Information Systems Inc. (AIS).[34] ES&S voting machines tabulated 85 percent of the votes cast in Hagel’s 2002 and 1996 election races. In 2003 Hagel disclosed a financial stake in McCarthy Group Inc., the holding company of ES&S.[34]
  • Global Election Systems, which purchased by Diebold Election Systems and developed the core technology behind the companies voting machines and voter registration system, employed five convicted felons as consultants and developers.[35]
  • Jeff Dean, a former Senior Vice-President of Global Election Systems when it was bought by Diebold, had previously been convicted of 23 counts of felony theft in the first degree. Bev Harris reports Dean was retained as a consultant by Diebold Election Systems,[36] though Diebold has disputed the consulting relationship.[35] Dean was convicted of theft via "alteration of records in the computerized accounting system" using a "high degree of sophistication" to evade detection over a period of 2 years.[36]
  • International election observers were barred from the polls in Ohio[37][38] by then Republican Ohio Secretary of State Ken Blackwell. Blackwell's office argues this was the correct interpretation of Ohio law.[38]
  • California Secretary of State Kevin Shelley decertified all Diebold Election Systems touch-screen voting machines due to computer-science reports released detailing design and security concerns.[39][40]
  • 30% of all U.S. votes cast in the 2004 election were cast on direct-recording electronic (DRE) voting machine, which do not print individual paper records of each vote.[41]
  • Numerous statistical analysis showed "discrepancy in the number of votes Bush received in counties that used the touch-screen machines and counties that used other types of voting equipment" as well as discrepancies with exit polls, favoring President George W. Bush.[42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49]

The U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC) was created by the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (HAVA). ... General Accounting Office headquarters, Washington, D.C. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is the non-partisan audit, evaluation, and investigative arm of Congress, and an agency in the Legislative Branch of the United States Government. ... Walden Wally ODell is chief executive officer and chairman of the board of Diebold, (the company making the majority of electronic voting machines for the US. The voting systems of Diebold are closed source and lack a papertrail. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The United States Electoral College is the electoral college which chooses the President and Vice President of the United States at the conclusion of each Presidential election. ... Charles Timothy Chuck Hagel (born October 4, 1946) is the senior United States Senator from Nebraska. ... Election People This box:      Bev Harris is a writer and an American activist and founder of Black Box Voting Inc. ... John Kenneth Blackwell (born February 28, 1948), is a former secretary of state for the U.S. state of Ohio who made an unsuccessful bid as the Republican nominee for Governor of Ohio in the 2006 election. ... Kevin Francis Shelley (born November 16, 1955 in San Francisco, California) is a California politician, who was the 28th California Secretary of State from January 6, 2003, until his resignation on March 4, 2005. ...

New during this campaign

International observers

At the invitation of the United States government, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) sent a team of observers to monitor the presidential elections in 2004. It was the first time the OSCE had sent observers to a U.S. presidential election, although they had been invited in the past.[50] In September 2004 the OSCE issued a report (PDF 168K) on U.S. electoral processes and the election final report (PDF 256K). The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ...


Earlier, some 13 U.S. Representatives from the Democratic Party had sent a letter to United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan asking for the UN to monitor the elections. The UN responded that such a request could only come from the official national executive. The move was met by considerable opposition from Republican lawmakers.[51] The OSCE is not affiliated with the United Nations. Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... The Democratic Party is one of the two major United States political parties. ... UN redirects here. ... Kofi Atta Annan GCMG (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ...


Electronic voting

Further information: Analysis of electronic voting

For 2004, some states expedited the implementation of electronic voting systems for the election, raising several issues: Electronic voting machine by Premier Election Solutions (formerly Diebold Election Systems) used in all Brazilian elections and plebiscites. ... Electronic voting machine by Premier Election Solutions (formerly Diebold Election Systems) used in all Brazilian elections and plebiscites. ...

  • Software. Without proper testing and certification, critics believe electronic voting machines could produce an incorrect report due to malfunction or deliberate manipulation.[52]
  • Recounts. A recount of an electronic voting machine is not a recount in the traditional sense. The machine will can be audited for irregularities and voting totals stored on multiple backup devices can be compared, but vote counts will not change.
  • Partisan ties. Democrats noted the Republican or conservative ties of several leading executives in the companies providing the machines.[53]

Electronic voting machine by Premier Election Solutions (formerly Diebold Election Systems) used in all Brazilian elections and plebiscites. ...

Campaign law changes

The 2004 election was the first to be affected by the campaign finance reforms mandated by the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (also known as the McCain-Feingold Bill for its sponsors in the United States Senate). Because of the Act's restrictions on candidates' and parties' fundraising, a large number of so-called 527 groups emerged. Named for a section of the Internal Revenue Code, these groups were able to raise large amounts of money for various political causes as long as they do not coordinate their activities with political campaigns. Examples of 527s include Swift Boat Veterans for Truth, MoveOn.org, the Media Fund, and America Coming Together. Many such groups were active throughout the campaign season. (There was some similar activity, although on a much lesser scale, during the 2000 campaign.) Political campaign Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Campaign finance reform is the common term for the political effort in the United States to change the involvement of money in politics, primarily in political campaigns. ... The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (BCRA) is U.S. Congressional legislation which regulates the financing of political campaigns. ... McCain redirects here. ... Russell Dana Russ Feingold (born March 2, 1953) is an American politician from the U.S. state of Wisconsin. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... A 527 group is a type of tax-exempt organization named after a section of the United States tax code, created primarily to influence the nomination, election, appointment or defeat of candidates for public office. ... The Internal Revenue Code (or IRC) (more formally, the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended) is the main body of domestic statutory tax law of the United States organized topically, including laws covering the income tax (see Income tax in the United States), payroll taxes, gift taxes, estate taxes... Swift Vets and POWs for Truth, formerly known as the Swift Boat Veterans for Truth (SBVT), is an organization of American Swift boat veterans and former prisoners of war of the Vietnam War, formed during the 2004 presidential election campaign. ... MoveOn is a non-profit public policy advocacy group[2] that has raised millions of dollars for Democratic Party candidates in the United States. ... The Media Fund is a 527 Group, active in U.S. politics, which was supporting John Kerrys campaign for President. ... America Coming Together (ACT) is a left-wing, political action, 527 group dedicated to get-out-the-vote activities. ...


To distinguish official campaigning from independent campaigning, political advertisements on television were required to include a verbal disclaimer identifying the organization responsible for the advertisement. Advertisements produced by political campaigns usually included the statement, “I'm [candidate's name], and I approve this message.” Advertisements produced by independent organizations usually included the statement, “[Organization name] is responsible for the content of this advertisement,” and from September 3 (60 days before the general election), such organizations' ads were prohibited from mentioning any candidate by name. Previously, television advertisements only required a written “paid for by” disclaimer on the screen. is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


This law was not well known or widely publicized at the beginning of the Democratic primary season, which led to some early misperception of Howard Dean, who was the first candidate to buy television advertising in this election cycle. Not realizing that the law required the phrasing, some people viewing the ads reportedly questioned why Dean might say such a thing—such questions were easier to ask because of the maverick nature of Dean's campaign in general.


Colorado's Amendment 36

Main article: Colorado Amendment 36

A ballot initiative in Colorado, known as Amendment 36, would have changed the way in which the state apportions its electoral votes. Rather than assigning all 9 of the state's electors to the candidate with a plurality of popular votes, under the amendment Colorado would have assigned presidential electors proportionally to the statewide vote count, which would be a unique system (Nebraska and Maine assign electoral votes based on vote totals within each congressional district). Detractors claimed that this splitting would diminish Colorado's influence in the Electoral College, and the amendment ultimately failed, receiving only 34% of the vote. In the November 2004 United States election, one of the issues up for a vote in the state of Colorado was known as Amendment 36. ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... In the November 2004 United States election, one of the issues up for a vote in the state of Colorado was known as Amendment 36. ... For the use of the term in political theory, see Pluralism (political theory). ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ...


Legal challenges

Election watchers and political analysts forecast a number of contested election results in a manner similar to the Florida voting recount of 2000. Various states grappled with their own legal issues that could have affected the outcome of the vote, while both of the major political parties and a number of independent groups like the ACLU marshaled numbers of lawyers. The United States presidential election of 2000 was a contest between the Democratic candidate Al Gore versus the Republican candidate of George W. Bush. ... The American Civil Liberties Union, or ACLU, is a non_governmental organization devoted to defending civil rights and civil liberties in the United States. ...


In several states including Ohio, Colorado, Florida, and Nevada, there were lawsuits or other disputes about such issues as “voter challenging”, voter registration, and absentee ballots. These were considered unlikely to change the Electoral College result. In Florida, for example, multiple lawsuits were filed even before the election, but few observers expected any of them to change the official result that Bush had outpolled Kerry by roughly 400,000 votes. As of the morning of November 3rd, the deciding state in the electoral vote count was Ohio, where Bush held a 136,000 vote lead. Democrats' hopes rested on the approximately 135,000 provisional ballots that had yet to be counted. Nevertheless, after concluding that a recount would not change the election results, Kerry conceded defeat at about 11:00 EST that morning, and George W. Bush declared victory the afternoon of the same day. This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... The Eastern Standard Time Zone is a geographic region that keeps time by subtracting five hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). ...


The Green Party and Libertarian Party presidential candidates, David Cobb and Michael Badnarik, filed for a recount of the Ohio vote. After announcing their intention and soliciting donations, they quickly raised $150,000 to cover the state's required fee and other costs. A statewide recount of the presidential vote was completed under the watch of thousands of elections observers organized by the Cobb campaign. Based on reports filed by these observers, some voting rights advocates claim that the recount was conducted improperly, and illegally, and have filed a new lawsuit, which is currently pending. The Congressional Democrats who objected to the counting of Ohio's electoral votes relied on part on information about voting irregularities provided by observers working for the Cobb campaign. This article is about the American political party, Green Party. ... The Libertarian Party is a United States political party founded on December 11, 1971. ... David Cobb appealing for votes at the annual Fighting Bob Fest in Baraboo, Wisconsin, September 2004 David Keith Cobb (born December 24, 1962 in San Leon, Texas) is an American ex-lawyer and activist, and was the 2004 presidential candidate of the Green Party of the United States (GPUS). ... Badnarik campaigning in July 2004. ...


See also

Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Concerns were raised, following the 2004 election, on various aspects of the voting process: whether voting had been made accessible to everyone entitled to vote, whether the votes cast had been correctly counted, and whether these irregularities decisively affected the reported outcome of the election. ... Ralph Nader Ralph Nader ran for the office of President of the United States four times (1992 as a write-in candidate in the New Hampshire primary, 1996 and 2000 for the Green Party, and 2004 as an independent. ... The Jesusland map. ... While the entire world paid close attention to the 2004 U.S. presidential election, few countries were doing so more than Canada. ... The online edition of Editor & Publisher, a journal covering the North American newspaper industry, tabulates newspaper endorsements for the two major candidates, Republican incumbent George W. Bush and Democratic challenger John Kerry, in the 2004 United States presidential election. ... This article covers the history of the United States from 1988 through present. ... Composite of two different images one of Kerry taken on June 13, 1971 One of Jane Fonda taken in August, 1972 During the 2004 presidential election campaign an image was released that appeared to show John Kerry and Jane Fonda speaking together at an anti-Vietnam war protest. ... During the Killian documents controversy in 2004, the authenticity of the documents themselves was challenged by a variety of individuals and groups. ...

Other elections

Election Results Map, Republican win in Red and Democratic win in Blue The U.S. gubernatorial elections of 2004 were held on November 2, 2004. ... Summary of party change of U.S. house seats in the 2004 House election. ...  Republican holds  Republican pickups  Democratic holds  Democratic pickups The United States Senate election, 2004 was an election for one-third of the seats in the United States Senate which coincided with the re-election of George W. Bush as president and the United States House election, as well as many...

References

  1. ^ Was the 2004 Election Stolen? : Rolling Stone
  2. ^ Bush Jumpstarts '04 Fundraising, Says Collecting Campaign Cash Now Will Keep War On Terror Focused - CBS News
  3. ^ Exit poll - Decision 2004 - MSNBC.com
  4. ^ Historical Bush Approval Ratings
  5. ^ "Bush fell short on duty at Guard", Boston Globe, September 8, 2004. Retrieved on 2007-06-16. 
  6. ^ "CBS 60 Minutes Wednesday transcript", Thornburgh-Boccardi Report, Exhibit 1B, September 8, 2004. Retrieved on 2007-06-16. 
  7. ^ Michael Dobbs and Mike Allen. "Some Question Authenticity of Papers on Bush", Washington Post, September 09, 2004. Retrieved on 2007-06-16. 
  8. ^ Thornburgh-Boccardi report. CBS News. Retrieved on 2007-06-16.
  9. ^ "Final Figure in '60 Minutes' Scandal Resigns", The Associated Press, March 25, 2005. Retrieved on 2007-06-16. 
  10. ^ RealClear Politics - Polls
  11. ^ RealClear Politics - Polls
  12. ^ BBC NEWS | World | Americas | Kerry, Bush clash over Iraq war
  13. ^ Poll: Kerry Wins Debate, Pulls Even - Newsweek Campaign 2004 - MSNBC.com
  14. ^ http://www.s5000.com/what_the_huck/589/cheney_edwards.php
  15. ^ BBC NEWS | World | Americas | US running mates clash over Iraq
  16. ^ San Francisco Chronicle October 5, 2004
  17. ^ ABCNEWS.com : Poll: More Viewers Say Cheney Won Debate
  18. ^ BBC NEWS | World | Americas | US debate: What the commentators said
  19. ^ http://www.suntimes.com/output/news/cst-nws-deb09.html
  20. ^ FOXNews.com - Transcript & Video: Third Debate - You Decide 2004
  21. ^ NARA | Federal Register | U. S. Electoral College 2004 Certificate
  22. ^ NARA | Federal Register | U. S. Electoral College 2004 Certificate
  23. ^ Polidata, 2005
  24. ^ Travels of Vice President Dick Cheney-October 2004
  25. ^ "Election Staff Convicted in Recount Rig", Washington Post, January 24, 2007. 
  26. ^ U.S. GAO. (2001, March 13). Elections: The Scope of Congressional Authority in Election Administration (GAO-01-470). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved February 10, 2008.
  27. ^ U.S. Election Assistance Commission. (2007, January 11). EAC Statement Regarding Partisan Political Activities by Voting Machine Manufacturers and Testing Labs and their Employees. U.S. ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION: U.S. ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION. Retrieved February 10, 2008.
  28. ^ Government Accountability Office election related reports
  29. ^ Todd Urosevich: Vice President, Customer Support
  30. ^ Private Company Still ‘Controls’ Election Outcome. americanfreepress.net. Retrieved on 2007-12-20.
  31. ^ Paul R. La Monica (August 30, 2004). The trouble with e-voting. CNN/Money. Retrieved on 2006-10-23.
  32. ^ The Maverick on Bush's Short List - Business loves Hagel--even if the GOP doesn't always. BusinessWeek. Retrieved on 2007-12-20.
  33. ^ Vice president Chuck Hagel?. theindependent.com. Retrieved on 2007-12-20.
  34. ^ a b Bolton, Alexander (January 29, 2003), "Hagel’s ethics filings pose disclosure issue", The Hill, <http://web.archive.org/web/20030401221124/http://www.hillnews.com/news/012903/hagel.aspx> 
  35. ^ a b Con Job at Diebold Subsidiary. Wired.com. Retrieved on 2007-12-20.
  36. ^ a b Bev Harris: Embezzler Programmed Voting System. Scoop Independent News. Retrieved on 2007-12-20.
  37. ^ Election Officials in Ohio and Florida Fail to Give Poll Access to International Election Observers. globalexchange.org. Retrieved on 2007-12-20.
  38. ^ a b Foreign observers banned by Blackwell. The Enquirer. Retrieved on 2007-12-20.
  39. ^ California Bans E-Vote Machines. Wired. Retrieved on 2007-12-20.
  40. ^ California official seeks criminal probe of e-voting. MSNBC. Retrieved on 2007-12-20.
  41. ^ E-Voting: Is The Fix In?. CBS News. Retrieved on 2007-12-20.
  42. ^ Researchers: Florida Vote Fishy. Wired. Retrieved on 2007-12-20.
  43. ^ Votergate 2004? - Research Studies Uncover Potential Massive Election Fraud. Yurica Report: News Intelligence Analysis. Retrieved on 2007-12-20.
  44. ^ Complete US Exit Poll Data Confirms Net Suspicions. Scoop Independent News. Retrieved on 2007-12-20.
  45. ^ University researchers challenge Bush win in Florida: 'Something went awry with electronic voting in Florida,' says the lead researcher. ComputerWorld. Retrieved on 2007-12-20.
  46. ^ Tens of Thousands of Votes Lost, Stolen, Miscounted. American Free Press. Retrieved on 2007-12-20.
  47. ^ Evidence Mounts That The Vote May Have Been Hacked. CommonDreams.org. Retrieved on 2007-12-20.
  48. ^ Bush's 'Incredible' Vote Tallies. consortiumnews.com. Retrieved on 2007-12-20.
  49. ^ National Election Data Archive. ElectionArchive.org. Retrieved on 2007-12-20.
  50. ^ Interactive White House Home Page
  51. ^ Washington Times August 6, 2004
  52. ^ Bruce Schneier: The Problem with Electronic Voting Machines, November 2004
  53. ^ Warner, Melanie. "Machine Politics in the Digital Age." New York Times. November 9, 2003.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... General Accounting Office headquarters, Washington, D.C. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is the non-partisan audit, evaluation, and investigative arm of Congress, and an agency in the Legislative Branch of the United States Government. ... The U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC) was created by the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (HAVA). ... General Accounting Office headquarters, Washington, D.C. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is the non-partisan audit, evaluation, and investigative arm of Congress, and an agency in the Legislative Branch of the United States Government. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hill is a non-partisan, non-ideological newspaper published in Washington, D.C.. It is written for and about the U.S. Congress. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Sources

Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Books

  • Fooled Again: How the Right Stole the 2004 Election (2005) - Mark Crispin Miller, Basic Books

Mark Crispin Miller is professor of media studies at New York University and the author of the book: Fooled Again, How the Right Stole the 2004 Elections. ...

External links

Official candidate websites (alphabetical, by last name)

A website originally existed for George W. Bush's campaign, but after the election it was removed and the URL now redirects to the Republican Party website. The Internet Archive has a copy of it as of just before the election. The other five candidates continued to run their campaign websites as personal sites. Internet Archive headquarters is in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco. ...


Election maps & analysis

Cosma Rohilla Shalizi (born 1974) is a a visiting assistant professor in the Department of Statistics at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh // [edit] Background Born in Boston, Shalizi lived there for the first two years of his life before moving to Bethesda, Maryland where he grew up. ...

State-by-state forecasts of electoral vote outcome

Controversies

  • About.com, Democracy & Voting Rights - Ohio 2004 Election as Lesson in What Can Go Wrong
  • Analysis of misleading advertising from both Bush and Kerry
  • "Was the 2004 Election Stolen?" Robert F. Kennedy Jr. Rolling Stone.
  • Researcher Alleges Potential Plagiarism in 11 Passages of Kerry's Writings
  • VIDEO presentation: Professor Steve Freeman on stolen 2004 election October 5, 2007
  • VIDEO interview: Professor Steve Freeman on stolen 2004 election October 5, 2007

Election campaign funding

  • 2004 Center for Responsive Politics compiles data about who gives and who receives
  • Money Maps

Election 2004 global debate and voting

  • Talk to US
  • The world speaks
  • The world votes
  • Globalvote 2004

Minnesota electoral voting snafu

  • Duluth News Tribune
  • Minnesota Public Radio

  Results from FactBites:
 
Election Resources on the Internet / Recursos Electorales en la Internet (2133 words)
The results of legislative elections held in Sweden from 1973 to 2006, as well as an overview of the proportional representation system used to choose members of the Swedish legislature are available in Elections to the Swedish Riksdag.
The results of legislative elections held in Norway from 1985 to 2005, as well as a description of the proportional representation system used to choose members of the Norwegian legislature are available in Elections to the Norwegian Storting.
Elections to the New Zealand House of Representatives and Elections to the German Bundestag describe the Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) representation system used in both countries, with results of parliamentary elections held in New Zealand from 1996 to 2005 and in Germany from 1972 to 2005.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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