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Encyclopedia > United States presidential election, 1988
< 1984  Flag of the United States 1992 >
United States presidential election, 1988
8 November 1988
Winner Runner up
Nominee George H. W. Bush Michael Dukakis
Party Republican Democratic
Home State Texas Massachusetts
Running mate Dan Quayle* Lloyd Bentsen
Electoral Vote 426 112
States Carried 40 10+DC
Popular Vote 48,886,597 41,809,476
Percentage 53.4% 45.6%

Presidential election results map. Red denotes states won by Bush/Quayle, Blue denotes those won by Dukakis/Bentsen. Cream is the electoral vote for "Lloyd Bentsen" by a West Virginia "faithless elector". Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The United States presidential elections of 1992 featured a three-way battle between Republican George Bush, the incumbent President; Democrat Bill Clinton, the governor of Arkansas; and independent candidate Ross Perot, a Texas businessman. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2072x2392, 584 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): George H. W. Bush List of Presidents of the United States ... This work is copyrighted. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Michael Stanley Dukakis (born November 3, 1933) is an American Democratic politician, former Governor of Massachusetts, and the Democratic presidential nominee in 1988. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... James Danforth Dan Quayle (born February 4, 1947) was the 44th Vice President of the United States under George H. W. Bush (1989-1993). ... Lloyd Millard Bentsen Jr. ... Nickname: Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - D.C. Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1182x635, 110 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: United States presidential election, 1988 ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... A faithless elector is a member of the United States Electoral College who casts an electoral vote for someone other than the person whom they have pledged to elect. ...

Before Election
Ronald Reagan
Republican Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981 – 1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967 – 1975). ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ...

After Election
George H. W. Bush
Republican George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ...

The United States presidential election of 1988 featured an open primary for both major parties. Ronald Reagan, the incumbent President, was vacating the position after serving the maximum two terms allowed by the Twenty-second Amendment. Reagan's Vice President, George Bush, won the Republican nomination, while the Democrats nominated Michael Dukakis, Governor of Massachusetts. Bush capitalized on Reagan's popularity while Dukakis's campaign suffered from several miscues; the result was a third consecutive lopsided Republican presidential election victory. Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981 – 1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967 – 1975). ... For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Amendment XXII in the National Archives The Twenty-second Amendment of the United States Constitution sets a term limit for the President of the United States, providing that No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office... Seal of the office of the Vice-President of the United States The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the President. ... Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 &#8211; January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Michael Stanley Dukakis (born November 3, 1933) is an American Democratic politician, former Governor of Massachusetts, and the Democratic presidential nominee in 1988. ... The Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the executive magistrate of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ...

Contents

Nominations

Democratic Party nomination

Having been badly defeated in the 1984 presidential election, the Democrats were eager to find a new approach to win the presidency. They felt more optimistic this time due to the large gains in the 1986 mid-term election which resulted in the Democrats taking back control of the Senate after 6 years of Republican rule. Among the field of candidates were the following: Presidential electoral votes by state. ...

In early 1987, Senator Gary Hart was the clear frontrunner in the field (Democratic party efforts to recruit New York Governor Mario Cuomo aside). Hart had put in a strong showing in the 1984 presidential election, and had refined his campaign in the intervening years. Bruce Edward Babbitt (born June 27, 1938), a Democrat, served as United States Secretary of the Interior and as Governor of Arizona. ... This is a list of Governors of Arizona: See also Governors of Arizona Territory Categories: Lists of United States governors | Governors of Arizona ... Joseph Robinette Joe Biden, Jr. ... Official language(s) None Capital Dover Largest city Wilmington Area  Ranked 49th  - Total 2,491 sq mi (6,452 km²)  - Width 30 miles (48 km)  - Length 100 miles (161 km)  - % water 21. ... Michael Stanley Dukakis (born November 3, 1933) is an American Democratic politician, former Governor of Massachusetts, and the Democratic presidential nominee in 1988. ... The Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the executive magistrate of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... Richard Andrew Dick Gephardt (born January 31, 1941) is senior counsel at the global law firm DLA Piper and a former prominent American politician of the Democratic Party. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Albert Arnold Gore, Jr. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... Gary Warren Hart (born Gary Warren Hartpence, November 28, 1936) is a politician and lawyer from the state of Colorado. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Jesse Louis Jackson, Sr. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Patricia Nell Scott Schroeder, popularly known as Pat Schroeder (born July 30, 1940), American politician, was a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives from Colorado, serving from 1973 to 1997. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Paul Martin Simon (November 29, 1928 – December 9, 2003) was an American politician from Illinois. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... This is a list of the Governors of New York. ... Mario Matthew Cuomo (born June 15, 1932) served as the Governor of New York from 1983 to 1995. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


However, questions about extramarital affairs dogged the charismatic candidate. One of the great myths is that Senator Hart challenged the media to 'put a tail' on him. In actuality, the Miami Herald had received an anonymous tip from a friend of Donna Rice's that Rice was involved with Hart. It was only after Hart had been discovered that the Herald reporters found Hart's quote in a copy of New York Times magazine. On May 8, 1987, a week after the Donna Rice story broke, Hart dropped out of the race. In December of 1987, Hart returned to the race. However, the damage had been done. The Miami Herald is a daily newspaper owned by Knight Ridder. ... Press Kit photo of Donna Rice Hughes from ProtectKids. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ...


Senator Edward M. Kennedy of Massachusetts had been considered a potential candidate, but he ruled himself out of the 1988 campaign in the fall of 1985. Edward Kennedy Edward Moore Ted Kennedy, (born February 22, 1932, in Brookline, Massachusetts) is a Democratic U.S. senator from Massachusetts. ... Year 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar). ...


Joseph Biden's campaign was also surrounded with controversy, as he was found to have plagiarized a line from one of his speeches from British Labour party leader Neil Kinnock, and then was found to have also engaged in plagiarism in law school. This would lead him to drop out of the race. Dukakis later revealed that his campaign was responsible for leaking the tape, and two members of his staff resigned. The Delaware Supreme Court's Board on Professional Responsibility would later clear Biden of the law school plagiarism charges.[1] The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Neil Gordon Kinnock, Baron Kinnock, PC (born 28 March 1942) is a British politician. ... The Supreme Court of Delaware is the sole appellate court in the United States state of Delaware. ...


In the Iowa caucuses, Gephardt finished first, Simon finished second, and Dukakis finished third. In the New Hampshire primary, Dukakis finished first, Gephardt finished second, and Simon finished third. Dukakis and Gore campaigned hard against Gephardt with negative ads, and eventually the United Auto Workers retracted their endorsement of Gephardt, who was heavily dependent on labor union backing. Since 1976, the Iowa caucus has been the first indication of which candidate for President of the United States would win the nomination of his or her political party at that partys national convention. ... The New Hampshire primary is the first of a number of statewide political party primary elections held in the United States every four years, as part of the process of the Democratic and Republican parties choosing their candidate for the presidential elections on the subsequent November. ... The United Auto Workers (UAW), headquartered in Detroit, Michigan, officially the United Automobile, Aerospace & Agricultural Implement Workers of America International Union, is one of the largest labor unions in North America, with more than 500,000 members in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico organized into approximately 950 union...


In the Super Tuesday races, Dukakis won six primaries, Gore five, Jackson five and Gephardt one, with Gore and Jackson splitting the southern states. The next week, Simon won Illinois. 1988 remains the race with the most candidates winning primaries since the McGovern reforms of 1971. Dukakis eventually emerged as the winner, with Gore's effort to paint Dukakis as too liberal for the general election being unsuccessful and causing him to withdraw. Jackson focused more on getting enough delegates to make sure African-American interests were represented in the platform than on winning.[2] In the United States, Super Tuesday commonly refers to a Tuesday in early March of a presidential election year. ...


The Democratic Party Convention was held in Atlanta, Georgia. The Dukakis nominating speech delivered by Arkansas governor Bill Clinton was widely criticized as too long and tedious.[3] The 1988 National Convention of the U.S. Democratic Party was held at The Omni in Atlanta, Georgia from July 18–21, 1988 to select a candidate for the 1988 United States presidential election. ... Nickname: Location in Fulton and DeKalb counties in the state of Georgia Coordinates: , Country United States State Georgia Counties Fulton, DeKalb Government  - Mayor Shirley Franklin (D) Area  - City  132. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...


Texas State Treasurer Ann Richards (who two years later became the state governor) delivered a memorable keynote address in which she uttered the lines "Poor George [Bush], he can't help it, he was born with a silver foot in his mouth." 6 years later, Bush's son George W. Bush would deny Richards re-election as Texas Governor. Dorothy Ann Willis Richards (September 1, 1933 – September 13, 2006) was an American politician and teacher from Texas. ... In politics, Governor of Texas is the title given to the chief executive of the state of Texas. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


With most candidates having withdrawn and asking their delegates to vote for Dukakis, the tally for president was as follows:

Jesse Jackson's campaign believed, that since they had come a respectable second, they were entitled to the Vice presidential spot. Dukakis refused, and gave the spot to Lloyd Bentsen. Michael Stanley Dukakis (born November 3, 1933) is an American Democratic politician, former Governor of Massachusetts, and the Democratic presidential nominee in 1988. ... Jesse Louis Jackson, Sr. ... Senator Joe Biden Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. ... Richard Andrew Gephardt (born January 31, 1941) served as a U.S. Representative from Missouri from 1977 until January 3, 2005. ... Gary Warren Hart (born Gary Warren Hartpence, November 28, 1936) is a politician and lawyer from the state of Colorado. ... Lloyd Millard Bentsen Jr. ... Jesse Louis Jackson, Sr. ... Lloyd Millard Bentsen Jr. ...


Bentsen was selected in large part to secure the state of Texas and its large electoral vote for the Democrats. Because of Bentsen's status of something of an elder statesman who was more experienced in elected politics, many believed Dukakis' selection of Bentsen as his running mate was a mistake in that Bentsen, number two on the ticket, appeared more "presidential" than did Dukakis. During the vice-presidential debate, Republican candidate and Senator Dan Quayle ignored a head-on confrontation with Bentsen (aside from the "Jack Kennedy" comparison) and spent his time attacking Dukakis. James Danforth Dan Quayle (born February 4, 1947) was the 44th Vice President of the United States under George H. W. Bush (1989-1993). ... Senator, you are no Jack Kennedy was a famous statement made by U.S. Democratic vice-presidential candidate Senator Lloyd Bentsen to Republican vice-presidential candidate Senator J. Danforth Quayle during the 1988 vice-presidential debate. ...


Republican Party nomination

Vice President George H. W. Bush had the support of President Ronald Reagan, and pledged to continue Reagan's policies, but also pledged a "kinder and gentler nation" in an attempt to win over some more moderate voters. George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981 – 1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967 – 1975). ...


There nevertheless emerged a few challengers for the nomination. They were:

Bush unexpectedly came in third in the Iowa caucus (that he had won back in 1980), behind winner Dole and Robertson. Dole was also leading in the polls of the New Hampshire primary, and the Bush camp responded by running television commercials portraying Dole as a tax raiser, while Governor John H. Sununu stumped for Bush. These efforts enabled the Vice President to defeat Dole and gain crucial momentum. After his loss Dole was bitter about his defeat, going on TV to tell Bush to "stop lying about my record."[4] § Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) was a United States Senator from Kansas from 1969-1996, serving part of that time as United States Senate Majority Leader. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Pierre Samuel Pete du Pont, IV (born January 22, 1935) is an American lawyer and politician from Rockland, in Brandywine Hundred, New Castle County, Delaware, near Wilmington. ... List of Delaware Governors Governors of New Sweden, 1639-1655 Peter Minuit 1639-1640 Peter Hollandaer Ridder 1640-1643 Johan Björnsson Printz 1643-1653 Johan Papegoya 1653-1654 Johan Classon Rising 1654-1655 Part of New Netherland, 1655-1664 Part of New York, 1664-1682 Part of Pennsylvania, 1682... For other persons named Alexander Haig, see Alexander Haig (disambiguation). ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... Jack French Kemp Jr. ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State County Erie County Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - City 52. ... NFL logo For other uses of the abbreviation NFL, see NFL (disambiguation). ... Marion Gordon Pat Robertson (born March 22, 1930) is a televangelist from the United States. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a U.S. Republican politician and businessman, who was the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and The role of the Secretary of Defense is to be the principal defense policy advisor to the President and is responsible for the formulation of general defense... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... Since 1976, the Iowa caucus has been the first indication of which candidate for President of the United States would win the nomination of his or her political party at that partys national convention. ... The New Hampshire primary is the first of a number of statewide political party primary elections held in the United States every four years, as part of the process of the Democratic and Republican parties choosing their candidate for the presidential elections on the subsequent November. ... Governor John H. Sununu John Henry Sununu, PhD (born July 2, 1939) is a former Governor of New Hampshire (1983-89) and former White House Chief of Staff under President George H. W. Bush. ...


Once the multiple-state primaries such as Super Tuesday began, Bush's organizational strength and fundraising lead were impossible for the other candidates to match, and the nomination was his. The Republican party convention was held in New Orleans, Louisiana. Bush was nominated unanimously. Bush selected U.S. Senator Dan Quayle of Indiana as his running mate. Nickname: Location in the State of Louisiana and the United States Coordinates: , Country United States State Louisiana Parish Orleans Founded 1718 Government  - Mayor Ray Nagin (D) Area  - City  350. ... James Danforth Dan Quayle (born February 4, 1947) was the 44th Vice President of the United States under George H. W. Bush (1989-1993). ... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq mi (94,321 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 270 miles (435 km)  - % water 1. ...


In his acceptance speech, Bush made an energetic pledge, "Read my lips: No new taxes", a comment that would come to haunt him in the 1992 elections. Bush delivering the famous line at the 1988 convention Read my lips: No new taxes was a famous pledge made by Republican Presidential candidate George H.W. Bush at the 1988 Republican convention in his acceptance speech on August 18. ...


Other nominations

David Ernest Duke (born July 1, 1950) is a former member of the Louisiana House of Representatives, a candidate in presidential primaries for both the Democratic and Republican parties, and former Grand Wizard of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. ... The Populist Party (also known as the Peoples Party) was a short-lived political party in the United States in the late 19th century. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... // White nationalism (WN) advocates a racial definition (or redefinition) of national identity, as opposed to multiculturalism. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Affirmative action refers to policies intended to discriminate against white males and promote access to education or employment aimed at a historically socio-politically non-dominant group (typically, minorities or women). ... Lenora Branch Fulani (b. ... The New Alliance Party was an American political party formed by psychotherapists Fred Newman and Lenora Fulani. ... Willa Kenoyer was the Socialist Party USA candidate for President of the United States in the 1988 U.S. presidential election. ... Ron Ehrenreich (b. ... The Socialist Party USA (SP USA) is one of the heirs to the Socialist Party of America of Eugene V. Debs and Norman Thomas. ... Ronald Ernest Paul (born August 20, 1935) is a 10th-term Congressman from Lake Jackson, Texas, a member of the Republican Party, a physician, and a candidate for the Republican nomination in the 2008 presidential election. ... The Libertarian Party is a United States political party created in 1971. ... The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... William John Bennett (born July 31, 1943) is an American conservative pundit and politician. ... Andre V. Marrou (born 4 December American political figure, affiliated with the United States Libertarian Party. ...

General election

Campaign

During the election, the Bush campaign sought to portray Governor Dukakis as a "Massachusetts liberal" who was unreasonably left wing. Dukakis was attacked for such positions as opposing mandatory recitation of the Pledge of Allegiance in schools, as well as being a "card carrying member of the ACLU" (a statement made by Dukakis concerning himself early in the primary campaign). Dukakis countered by saying that he was a "proud liberal" and that the phrase should stop being a bad word in America. The Dukakis camp tried to tie Bush to some of the recent scandals of the Reagan Administration, such as Iran-Contra, and argued that Republicans were too hawkish on foreign policy. Massachusetts liberal is a phrase that in American politics is generally used as a political epithet by Republicans against Democrats who are from the state of Massachusetts. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms that refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially but not exclusively in the American sense of the word... The Pledge of Allegiance is a promise or oath of allegiance to the United States as represented by its national flag. ... The American Civil Liberties Union, or ACLU, is a non_governmental organization devoted to defending civil rights and civil liberties in the United States. ... In the Iran-Contra Affair, United States President Ronald Reagans administration secretly sold arms to Iran, which was engaged in a bloody war with its neighbor Iraq from 1980 to 1988 (see Iran-Iraq War), and diverted the proceeds to the Contra rebels fighting to overthrow the leftist and...

Michael Dukakis on tank
Michael Dukakis on tank

Governor Dukakis attempted to quell criticism that he was ignorant on military matters by staging a photo op in which he drove an M1 Abrams tank outside a General Dynamics plant in Sterling Heights, Michigan.[5] The move ended up being a massive PR blunder, with many mocking Dukakis's appearance as he stuck his smiling, helmeted head out of the tank's entrance portal to wave to the crowd. Footage of Dukakis was used by the Bush campaign as evidence he would not make a good commander-in-chief, and "Dukakis in the tank" remains shorthand for backfired public relations outings.[6] Image File history File linksMetadata Michael_Dukakis_in_tank. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Michael_Dukakis_in_tank. ... A photo op, short for photo opportunity, is a carefully planned human event that results in a memorable and effective photograph. ... The M1 Abrams main battle tank is the principal combat tank of the United States Army and the United States Marine Corps, with three main versions being deployed starting in 1980: the M1, M1A1, and M1A2. ... General Dynamics (NYSE: GD) is a defense conglomerate formed by mergers and divestitures, and as of 2005 it is the sixth largest defense contractor in the world[1]. The company has changed markedly in the post-Cold War era of defense consolidation. ... Sterling Heights is a city in Macomb County of the U.S. state of Michigan. ...

Michael Dukakis at a campaign rally at UCLA's Pauley Pavilion on the eve of the 1988 election.

Bush's running mate was Senator Dan Quayle. Quayle was chosen to appeal to a younger generation of Americans and his good looks were praised by Senator John McCain, who said "I can't believe a guy that handsome wouldn't have some impact." [7] Quayle was not a seasoned politician, however, and had a continual habit of making embarrassing statements. The Dukakis team in return blasted Quayle's credentials, saying he was dangerously inexperienced to be first-in-line to the presidency.[8] Image File history File links Dukakis1988rally. ... Image File history File links Dukakis1988rally. ... James Danforth Dan Quayle (born February 4, 1947) was the 44th Vice President of the United States under George H. W. Bush (1989-1993). ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... For McCains grandfather and father, see John S. McCain, Sr. ...


During the Vice Presidential debate, Quayle attempted to dispel such allegations by comparing his experience with that of former Senator John F. Kennedy, who had also been a young political rookie when running for the presidency. During the Vice Presidential debate, Quayle said, "I have as much experience in the Congress as Jack Kennedy did when he sought the presidency." (Kennedy had served fourteen years in Congress to Quayle's twelve.) Dukakis' running mate, Lloyd Bentsen, responded, "Senator, I served with Jack Kennedy. I knew Jack Kennedy. Jack Kennedy was a friend of mine. Senator, you're no Jack Kennedy."[9] John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), also referred to as John F. Kennedy, Kennedy, John Kennedy, Jack Kennedy, or JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of the United States. ... Lloyd Millard Bentsen Jr. ... Lloyd Bentsen Senator, youre no Jack Kennedy was a famous phrase spoken by American Democratic vice-presidential candidate Senator Lloyd Bentsen to Republican vice-presidential candidate Senator Dan Quayle during the 1988 vice-presidential debate. ...


Quayle responded, "That was really uncalled for, Senator," to which Bentsen said, "You are the one that was making the comparison, Senator, and I'm one who knew him well. And frankly I think you are so far apart in the objectives you choose for your country that I did not think the comparison was well-taken."


Quayle's reaction to Bentsen's comment was played and replayed by the Democrats in their subsequent television ads as an announcer intoned: "Quayle: just a heartbeat away." Despite much press about the Kennedy comments, this did not derail the Bush-Quayle lead. Quayle had sought to use the debate to criticize Dukakis as too liberal rather than go point for point with the more seasoned Bentsen. Bentsen's attempts to defend Dukakis received little recognition as greater attention given to his Kennedy comparison.


Dukakis' campaign suffered a setback when staff member Donna Brazile resigned after she spread rumors that Bush was having extramarital affair with Jennifer Fitzgerald, who had been his secretary throughout the 1970s (the relationship of George H.W. Bush and Jennifer Fitzgerald would be briefly rehashed during the 1992 campaign). [10][11] Donna Brazile. ... Jennifer Fitzgerald, born Jennifer Ann Isobel Patteson-Knight (in 1932), is a retired U.S. diplomat who allegedly had a long-term affair with President George H.W. Bush from the time he was United States ambassador to China which continued while he was Vice President and then President. ...


The most controversial criticism against Dukakis involved his alleged support for a prison furlough program, which had begun before he was governor, that resulted in the release of convicted murderer Willie Horton, who committed a rape and assault in Maryland after being furloughed. (Dukakis had in fact abolished the furlough program while he was governor.) Dukakis was badly hurt by the Republican "Willie Horton", "Revolving Door" and "Boston Harbor" campaign ads, which attacked the governor's failure to clean up environmental pollution in the harbor. Willie Hortons mugshot on the Weekend Passes ad William R. Horton (born August 12, 1951 in Chesterfield, South Carolina) is a convicted felon who was the subject of a Massachusetts weekend furlough program that released him while serving a life sentence for murder, without the possibility of parole, providing... Revolving Door is a famous negative television commercial made for the 1988 United States Presidential Campaign. ...


A number of false rumors were reported in the media about Dukakis, including the claim by Idaho Republican Senator Steve Symms that Dukakis's wife Kitty had burned an American flag to protest the Vietnam War, as well as the claim that Dukakis himself had been treated for a mental illness. Lee Atwater was accused of having floating these rumors.[12] Steve Symms Steven Douglas Symms was an American congressman (1973-1981) and U.S. senator (1981-1993) from the state of Idaho. ... Katharine Dickson Dukakis (born December 26, 1936), known as Kitty Dukakis, is the wife of former Massachusetts governor and presidential candidate Michael Dukakis. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Harvey Leroy Lee Atwater (February 26, 1951 – March 29, 1991) was an American Republican political consultant and strategist. ...


Although Dukakis did well in the first presidential debate, Bush seemed to score a triumph in the second debate, with a Gallup Poll giving him a 49-43 lead.[13] Before the second debate, Dukakis had been suffering from the flu and spent quite a bit of the day in bed. His performance was poor and played to his reputation as being cold. The most memorable moment came when reporter Bernard Shaw asked Dukakis whether he would support the death penalty if his wife were raped and murdered. Dukakis's answer analyzed the statistical ineffectiveness of capital punishment. Several commentators thought the question itself was unfair, in that it injected an irrelevant emotional element into the discussion of a policy issue, but many observers felt Dukakis' answer lacked the normal emotions one would expect of a person asked about a loved one's rape and death.[14] Tom Brokaw of NBC reported on his October 14 newscast: "The consensus tonight is that Vice President George Bush won last night's debate and made it all the harder for Governor Michael Dukakis to catch and pass him in the 25 days remaining. In all of the Friday morning quarterbacking, there was common agreement that Dukakis failed to seize the debate and make it his night." A Gallup poll is an opinion poll frequently used by the mass media for representing public opinion. ... Multiple people share the name Bernard Shaw: George Bernard Shaw, the celebrated Irish playwright (1856 - 1950) Bernard Shaw, a journalist and longtime CNN anchorman (1940 - ) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Thomas John Brokaw (born February 6, 1940 in Webster, South Dakota) is a popular American television journalist, Previously working on regularly scheduled news documentaries for the NBC television network, and is the former NBC News anchorman and managing editor of the program NBC Nightly News with Tom Brokaw. ...


Results

Chief Justice William Rehnquist administering the oath of office to President George H. W. Bush January 20, 1989.
Chief Justice William Rehnquist administering the oath of office to President George H. W. Bush January 20, 1989.

The election on November 8, 1988 was a majority for Bush in the popular vote and a lopsided majority (40 states) in the Electoral College. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3696x2453, 1055 KB) Chief Justice William Rehnquist administering the oath of office to President George H. W. Bush during Inaugural ceremonies at the United States Capitol. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3696x2453, 1055 KB) Chief Justice William Rehnquist administering the oath of office to President George H. W. Bush during Inaugural ceremonies at the United States Capitol. ... William Hubbs Rehnquist (October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer, jurist, and a political figure, who served as an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States and later as the Chief Justice of the United States. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...


Bush performed very strongly among suburban voters, perhaps owing to his campaign themes of law and order, punctuated by his criticisms of the Massachusetts furlough program. This was a boon in several swing states. In Illinois, Bush won 69% in DuPage County and 63% out of Lake County, suburban areas which adjoin Chicago's Cook County. In Pennsylvania, Bush swept the group of suburban counties that surround Philadelphia, including Bucks, Delaware, Chester, and Montgomery. Bush also won most of the counties in Maryland, perhaps fallout from the fact that Willie Horton committed his infamous criminal acts there. New Jersey, known at the time for its many suburban voters and its moderate Republicanism, went easily for Bush; Bush also gained victory for attacking Dukakis' furlough program he had while he was Governor of Massachusetts [1], though Dukakis still maintained popularity in Massachusetts. DuPage County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois. ... Lake County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Nickname: Motto: Philadelphia maneto - Let brotherly love continue Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: , Country United States Commonwealth Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Government  - Mayor John F. Street (D) Area  - City 369. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N  - Longitude 75° 03′ W to 79° 29... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  Ranked 47th  - Total 8,729 sq mi (22,608 km²)  - Width 70 miles (110 km)  - Length 150 miles (240 km)  - % water 14. ... Look up Furlough in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A furlough (IPA: ) is temporary leave of absence, especially from duty in the armed services or from a prison term. ...


Contrary to the suburbs was the decrease among rural counties, easily falling below the support they gave Reagan in 1980 and 1984. In Illinois, Bush lost a number of downstate counties that previously went for Reagan. He lost the state of Iowa by a surprisingly wide margin, losing counties all across the state even in traditionally Republican areas. The rural state of West Virginia remained handily in the Democratic column. Bush also performed weaker in the northern counties of Missouri, making the state a close win. Three typically solid Republican states, Kansas, South Dakota, and Montana, came much closer than usual. The farm states had faired poorly during farm recession of the 1980's. It is not surprising that the Democrat Dukakis was the beneficiary of these farm problems in America's heartland. Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English Capital Des Moines Largest city Des Moines Area  Ranked 26th  - Total 56,272 sq mi (145,743 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 199 miles (320 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,163 sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Helena Largest city Billings Area  Ranked 4th  - Total 147,165 sq mi (381,156 km²)  - Width 255 miles (410 km)  - Length 630 miles (1,015 km)  - % water 1  - Latitude 44°26N to 49°N  - Longitude 104°2W to 116°2W Population  Ranked...


Bush's greatest area of strength was in the south, winning most states by wide margins. He also performed very well in the northeast, winning Maine (where he had a residence), New Hampshire (at the time a Republican stronghold), Vermont (at the time a bastion of moderate Republicanism), and Connecticut (where his father had been a senator). Bush lost New York by a margin of just over 4 percent. He also won Delaware, at the time a swing state. Despite the presence of Lloyd Bentsen on the Democratic ticket (and other Texans getting prominent roles at the Democratic convention), Bush won the lone star state by a convincing margin. He lost the Pacific northwestern states but kept California in the Republican column for the sixth straight time, albeit by a smaller margin than Reagan had had. Bush's success in the electoral college was a function of his overall popular majority. The larger a majority, the more exaggerated effect in the electoral college. Winning over 53% of the popular vote thus gave Bush a much larger percentage of electoral votes. Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Official language(s) English Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Area  Ranked 46th  - Total 9,359 sq mi (24,239 km²)  - Width 68 miles (110 km)  - Length 190 miles (305 km)  - % water 3. ... Official language(s) None Capital Montpelier Largest city Burlington Area  Ranked 45th  - Total 9,620 sq mi (24,923 km²)  - Width 80 miles (130 km)  - Length 160 miles (260 km)  - % water 3. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport Largest metro area Hartford Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[2] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... NY redirects here. ... Official language(s) None Capital Dover Largest city Wilmington Area  Ranked 49th  - Total 2,491 sq mi (6,452 km²)  - Width 30 miles (48 km)  - Length 100 miles (161 km)  - % water 21. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


Although his victory was not a landslide in the popular, Bush in 1988 was the last Republican to carry certain states which have since gained a reputation as "blue states" that favor the Democratic Party in presidential elections. These states are California, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Vermont, Maryland, New Jersey, Illinois, Connecticut, Maine, and Michigan. New Mexico used to be in this category, but George W. Bush won it in 2004, making him the first Republican to carry it since 1988. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) None Capital Dover Largest city Wilmington Area  Ranked 49th  - Total 2,491 sq mi (6,452 km²)  - Width 30 miles (48 km)  - Length 100 miles (161 km)  - % water 21. ... Official language(s) None Capital Montpelier Largest city Burlington Area  Ranked 45th  - Total 9,620 sq mi (24,923 km²)  - Width 80 miles (130 km)  - Length 160 miles (260 km)  - % water 3. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N  - Longitude 75° 03′ W to 79° 29... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  Ranked 47th  - Total 8,729 sq mi (22,608 km²)  - Width 70 miles (110 km)  - Length 150 miles (240 km)  - % water 14. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport Largest metro area Hartford Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[2] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


Overall, Bush's relatively big win (at least in the electoral college) can be attributed to general satisfaction with the status quo in the country. Peace and prosperity--not any great love for Bush himself--propelled the Republican Party to its third consecutive presidential win. Reagan's popularity and Bush's position as Vice President did more to help his cause than any great dissatisfaction with the "liberal" Dukakis. Bush had essentially no coattails, and he came into office with a Democratic Congress angry and vindictive after all the negative campaign he ran against Dukakis. Even though the Democrats may have lost their presidential bid they were able to strengthen their majorities in Congress. The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ...


Statistics

Presidential Candidate Party Home State Popular Vote Electoral Vote Running Mate Running Mate's
Home State
Running Mate's
Electoral Vote
Count Percentage
George H. W. Bush Republican Texas 48,886,597 53.4% 426 James Danforth Quayle Indiana 426
Michael S. Dukakis Democratic Massachusetts 41,809,476 45.6% 111 Lloyd M. Bentsen Texas 111
Lloyd M. Bentsen Democratic Texas (a) (a) 1 Michael S. Dukakis Massachusetts 1
Ronald E. Paul Libertarian Texas 431,750 0.5% 0 Andre V. Marrou Alaska 0
Lenora Fulani New Alliance   217,221 0.2% 0 (b) 0
Other 249,642 0.3% 0 Other 0
Total 91,594,686 100.0% 538 Total 538
Needed to win 270 Needed to win 270

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. 1988 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (August 7, 2005). George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... James Danforth Quayle III (born February 4, 1947) was the 44th Vice President of the United States under George H. W. Bush (1989-1993). ... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq mi (94,321 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 270 miles (435 km)  - % water 1. ... Michael Stanley Dukakis (born November 3, 1933) is an American Democratic politician, former Governor of Massachusetts, and the Democratic presidential nominee in 1988. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... Lloyd Millard Bentsen Jr. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Lloyd Millard Bentsen Jr. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Michael Stanley Dukakis (born November 3, 1933) is an American Democratic politician, former Governor of Massachusetts, and the Democratic presidential nominee in 1988. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... Ronald Ernest Paul (born August 20, 1935) is a 10th-term Congressman from Lake Jackson, Texas, a member of the Republican Party, a physician, and a candidate for the Republican nomination in the 2008 presidential election. ... The Libertarian Party is a United States political party created in 1971. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Andre V. Marrou (born 4 December American political figure, affiliated with the United States Libertarian Party. ... Official language(s) English[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ... Lenora Branch Fulani (b. ... The New Alliance Party was an American political party formed by psychotherapists Fred Newman and Lenora Fulani. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Source (Electoral Vote): Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (August 7, 2005). is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


(a) West Virginia faithless elector Margaret Leach voted for Bentsen as President and Dukakis as Vice President in order to make a statement against the U.S. Electoral College.
(b) Fulani's running mate varied from state to state.[15] Among the six vice presidential candidates were Joyce Dattner, Harold Moore[16], and somebody with the last name of “Burke”.[17] Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... A faithless elector is a member of the United States Electoral College who casts an electoral vote for someone other than the person whom they have pledged to elect. ... The United States Electoral College is the electoral college that chooses the President and Vice President of the United States at the conclusion of each Presidential election. ... Joyce Dattner is a U.S. life coach and works and resides in San Francisco, California. ...


Close states

Red-colored states were won by Bush, blue by Dukakis.

  1. Washington, 1.59%
  2. Illinois, 2.09%
  3. Pennsylvania, 2.31%
  4. Maryland, 2.91%
  5. Vermont, 3.52%
  6. California, 3.57%
  7. Wisconsin, 3.61%
  8. Missouri, 3.98%
  9. Oregon, 4.67%
  10. New Mexico, 4.96%

References

  • James B. Lemert, William R. Elliott, James M. Bernstein, William L. Rosenberg, Karl J. Nestvold; News Verdicts, the Debates, and Presidential Campaigns Praeger Publishers, 1991
  • Laurence W. Moreland, Robert P. Steed, Tod A. Baker; The 1988 Presidential Election in the South: Continuity Amidst Change in Southern Party Politics Praeger Publishers, 1991
  • David R. Runkel; Campaign for President: The Managers Look at '88 Auburn House, 1989
  • Guido H. Stempel III and John W. Windhauser; The Media in the 1984 and 1988 Presidential Campaigns Greenwood Press, 1991

See also

For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ...  Republican holds  Republican pickups  Democratic holds  Democratic pickups The U.S. Senate election, 1988 was an election for the United States Senate in which, in spite of the Republican victory by George Herbert Walker Bush in the presidential election, the Republicans had a net loss of one seat in the... This article covers the history of the United States from 1988 through present. ...

Notes

  1. ^ "Professional Board Clears Biden In Two Allegations of Plagiarism", The New York Times, May 29, 1989, p. 29. 
  2. ^ Williams, Juan. "Waiting for The Jackson Reaction; Will Jesse End His Crusade With a Bang or a Whimper?", The Washington Post, July 17, 1988, p. C1. 
  3. ^ Brummert, John. "I just fell on my sword", Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, July 22, 1988. 
  4. ^ Dillin, John. "Even with win, Bush seen to be vulnerable", Christian Science Monitor, February 18, 1988, p. 1. 
  5. ^ Bradlee, Ben, Jr., Fred Kaplan. "Dukakis spells out Soviet policy", The Boston Globe, September 14, 1988. 
  6. ^ Safire, William. "Rat-Tat-Tatting", The New York Times, September 15, 1988, p. A35. ;Dowd, Maureen. "Bush Talks of Lasers and Bombers", The New York Times, September 17, 1988, p. 8. 
  7. ^ Mapes, Jeff. "Bush taps Quayle for VP", The Oregonian, August 17, 1988, p. A01. 
  8. ^ Toner, Robin. "Quayle Reflects Badly on Bush, Dukakis Asserts", The New York Times, October 7, 1988, p. B6. 
  9. ^ Dan Quayle in the Vice Presidential Debate (HTML and audio file). The History Channel: Video and Speeches. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved on March 17, 2004.
  10. ^ Conason, Joe (July/August 1992). "Reason No. 1 Not To Vote For George Bush: He Cheats on His Wife." Spy magazine.
  11. ^ Kurtz, Howard (August 12, 1992). "Bush Angrily Denounces Report of Extramarital Affair as 'a Lie.'" Washington Post.
  12. ^ Editors (August 26, 1988) "Story on Mrs. Dukakis Is Denied by Campaign." New York Times.
  13. ^ "Bush Edge Is Holding In Survey", The New York Times, October 23, 1988, p. 24. 
  14. ^ Hirshson, Paul. "Editors on Dukakis: Down, but not out", The Boston Globe, October 19, 1988, p. 29. 
  15. ^ Athitakis, Mark. "Booty Call", SF Weekly, Village Voice Media, 1999-08-11. Retrieved on 2006-03-21. 
  16. ^ Fulani, Lenora (1992). The Making of a Fringe Candidate, 127. 
  17. ^ Political Party History in Alaska. Internet Archive copy of official website of Alaska Division of Elections (2003). Retrieved on March 24, 2006.

is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The logo of Internet Archive The Internet Archive (IA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to maintaining an on-line library and archive of Web and multimedia resources. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

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As a result, several states had a different number of electors in the U.S. Electoral College in 2004 than in 2000, since the number of electors allotted to each state is equal to the sum of the number of Senators and Representatives from that state.
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