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Encyclopedia > United States presidential election, 1980
‹ 1976  Flag of the United States 1984 ›
United States presidential election, 1980
4 November 1980
Nominee Ronald Reagan Jimmy Carter
Party Republican Democratic
Home State California Georgia
Running mate George H. W. Bush Walter Mondale
Electoral Vote 489 49
States Carried 44 6+DC
Popular Vote 43,903,230 35,480,115
Percentage 50.7% 41.0%
United States presidential election, 1980

Presidential election results map. Red denotes states won by Reagan/Bush, Blue denotes those won by Carter/Mondale. The United States presidential election of 1976 followed the resignation of President Richard M. Nixon in the wake of the Watergate scandal. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (594x750, 49 KB) Official Portrait of President Reagan, 1981. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (910x1201, 108 KB)Official White House Portrait of U.S. President Ronald Reagan. ... Reagan redirects here. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Walter Frederick Fritz Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (largely established by former Vice President Hubert Humphrey). ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Download high resolution version (1182x635, 107 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: U.S. presidential election, 1980 Categories: National Atlas images ...

Before Election
Jimmy Carter
Democratic For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic...

After Election
Ronald Reagan
Republican Reagan redirects here. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ...

The United States presidential election of 1980 featured a contest between incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent, Ronald Reagan, along with third party candidates, the independent John B. Anderson and Libertarian Ed Clark. The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Third parties in the United States are political parties other than the two... John Bayard Anderson (born February 15, 1922) was a U.S. Representative from Illinois and presidential candidate in the 1980 election. ... The Libertarian Party is an American political party founded on Dec. ... Ed Clark was the Libertarian candidate for President of the United States in the 1980 presidential election. ...

Contents

Background

Through the 1970s, the United States was experiencing a wrenching episode of low economic growth, high inflation and interest rates, and intermittent energy crises, added to a sense of malaise that in both foreign and domestic affairs the nation was headed downward. By the beginning of the election season, the prolonged Iran hostage crisis sharpened public perceptions of a crisis.[1] An interest rate is the rental price of money. ... Malaise is a feeling of general discomfort or uneasiness, an out of sorts feeling, often the first indication of an infection or other disease. ... Iranian militants escort a blindfolded U.S. hostage to the media. ...


Carter was blamed for most of the nation's woes, especially the Iran hostage crisis, which proved humiliating. Many Americans saw Carter as having failed to have dealt with any of these situations either decisively or effectively. Carter, after defeating Ted Kennedy for the nomination, attacked Reagan as a dangerous radical. For his part, Reagan, the charismatic ex-Governor of California, repeatedly ridiculed Carter, and won a decisive victory; in the simultaneous Congressional elections, Republicans won control of the United States Senate for the first time in 28 years. This win marked the beginning of the "Reagan Revolution." Edward Moore Ted Kennedy (born February 22, 1932) is the senior United States Senator from Massachusetts and a member of the Democratic Party. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... President Reagan, with his Cabinet and staff, in the Oval Office (February 4, 1981) Headed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan from 1981 to 1989, the Reagan Administration was conservative, steadfastly anti-Communist and in favor of tax cuts and smaller government. ...


Nominations

Republican Party nomination

Republican Candidates

John Bayard Anderson (born February 15, 1922) was a U.S. Representative from Illinois and presidential candidate in the 1980 election. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Howard Henry Baker, Jr. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... The Senate Minority Leader is a member of the United States Senate who is elected by his or her party conference to serve as the chief Senate spokesmen for his or her party and to manage and schedule the legislative and executive business of the Senate. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... “CIA” redirects here. ... The Republican National Committee (RNC) provides national leadership for the Republican Party of the United States. ... John Bowden Connally, Jr. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... Phil Crane, right, meets with President George W. Bush and Bill Thomas, chairman of the Ways and Means Committee. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... § Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) was a United States Senator from Kansas from 1969-1996, serving part of that time as United States Senate Majority Leader. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Benjamin “Ben” Fernandez (February 24, 1925 - April 25, 2000) was an American politician, financial consultant, World War II veteran, ambassador, and the first known Hispanic to run for the The candidacy of Fernandez was recently publicized again in light of comments from Governor of New Mexico Bill Richardson, a candidate... Hispanic flag, not widely used. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Harold Edward Stassen (April 13, 1907 - March 4, 2001) was the 25th Governor of Minnesota from 1939 to 1943. ... The Governor of Minnesota is the chief executive of the U.S. state of Minnesota, leading the states executive branch. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...

Candidates gallery

The primaries

As the 1970s came to a close, Former Governor Ronald Reagan was the odds-on favorite to win his party's nomination for president (after nearly beating incumbent President Gerald Ford just four years earlier). He was so far ahead in the polls that campaign director John Sears decided on an "above the fray" strategy. He did not attend many of the multicandidate forums and straw poll events held in the summer and fall of 1979. Reagan redirects here. ... John Patrick Sears is a Republican political strategist, best known for three things: Being Richard Nixons campaign manager in 1972, Managing Ronald Reagans presidential bid, prior to being fired by Reagan and replaced by William Casey on the day he won the New Hampshire primary in 1980. ...


However, George Bush, the former director of the Central Intelligence Agency and chairman of the Republican National Committee, taking a page from the George McGovern/Jimmy Carter playbook, did go to all the so-called "cattle calls", and began to come in first at a number of these events. George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... “CIA” redirects here. ... The Republican National Committee (RNC) provides national leadership for the Republican Party of the United States. ... George McGovern on May 8, 1972 cover of Time Magazine George Stanley McGovern, Ph. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... An audition which is open to the public and thus draws a large number of candidates most of whom are inexperienced and/or highly unlikely to earn a role Category: ...


In January of 1980, the Iowa Republicans decided to have a straw poll as a part of their caucuses for that year. Bush's hard work paid off, and he defeated Reagan by a small margin. Bush declared he had the "Big Mo" (for "momentum"), and with Reagan boycotting the Puerto Rico primary in deference to New Hampshire, the victorious Bush looked like he might actually beat Reagan to the nomination. Look up mo, MO in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Reagan heatedly declaring, "I am paying for this microphone!"

With the other candidates in single digits, the Nashua Telegraph offered to host a debate between Reagan and Bush. Worried that a newspaper-sponsored debate might violate electoral regulations, Reagan subsequently arranged to fund the event with his own campaign money, inviting the other candidates to participate at short notice. The Bush camp did not learn of Reagan's decision to include the other candidates until the debate was due to commence. Bush refused to participate, which led to an impasse on the stage. As Reagan attempted to explain his decision, the editor of the Nashua Telegraph ordered the sound man to mute Reagan's microphone. A visibly angry Reagan responded "I am paying for this microphone, Mr. Green!" (the editor's name was in fact Jon Breen).[1][2] Eventually the other candidates agreed to leave, and the debate proceeded between Reagan and Bush. Reagan's quote was often repeated as "I paid for this microphone!" and dominated news coverage of the event; Bush did not make an impact with the voters. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Telegraph of Nashua is a daily newspaper in Nashua, New Hampshire. ...


Reagan swept the South, and although he lost five more primaries to Bush, including one where he came in third behind John Anderson, the former governor had a lock on the nomination very early in the season. Reagan would always be grateful to the people of Iowa for giving him "the kick in the pants" he needed.

Ronald Reagan giving his Acceptance Speech at the Republican National Convention, Detroit, Michigan. 7/17/80.

Reagan was an adherent to a policy known as supply side economics, which holds that incentives targeted toward wealthy people will result in increased production and benefit people at all levels of the economy. Accordingly, Reagan promised an economic revival that would affect all sectors of the population. He said that cutting tax rates would actually increase tax revenues because the lower rates would cause people to work harder as they would be able to keep more of their money. Reagan also called for a drastic cut in "big government" programs and pledged to deliver a balanced budget for the first time since 1969. In the primaries Bush famously called Reagan's economic policy "voodoo economics" because it promised to lower taxes and increase revenues at the same time. The wisdom of "supply-side economics" remains in contention. Although many economists credit the Reagan tax cut with helping to stimulate the strong growth later in the decade, it was also followed by the largest peacetime deficits in American history. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The 1980 Republican National Convention was held in july,1980 in Detroit, Michigan ... Supply-side economics is a school of macroeconomic thought which emphasizes the importance of tax cuts and business incentives in encouraging economic growth, in the belief that businesses and individuals will use their tax savings to create new businesses and expand old businesses, which in turn will increase productivity, employment... Supply-side economics is a school of macroeconomic thought which emphasizes the importance of tax cuts and business incentives in encouraging economic growth, in the belief that businesses and individuals will use their tax savings to create new businesses and expand old businesses, which in turn will increase productivity, employment...


The 1980 Republican National Convention was held in Detroit, Michigan in the month of July. The tally at the convention was as follows: The 1980 Republican National Convention was held in july,1980 in Detroit, Michigan ... Detroit redirects here. ...

Reagan initially negotiated with Gerald Ford to be his running mate; when the complex plan fell through (Ford reportedly insisted Henry Kissinger and Alan Greenspan be offered cabinet positions), Reagan chose Bush as the Republican vice presidential candidate. Reagan redirects here. ... John Bayard Anderson (born February 15, 1922) was a liberal Republican U.S. Representative from Illinois and presidential candidate in the 1980 election. ... Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born... Anne L. Armstrong (b. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... Squalltoonix (born March 6, 1926 in New York City) is an American economist and was Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve of the United States from 1987 to 2006. ... This article is about the governmental body. ...


For Vice President the vote was:

... Jesse Alexander Helms, Jr. ... Jack French Kemp (born July 13, 1935) is an American politician and former professional football player. ... Phil Crane, right, meets with President George W. Bush and Bill Thomas, chairman of the Ways and Means Committee. ...

Democratic Party nomination

Democratic Candidates

For the whistleblower, see Gerald W. Brown. ... Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (left) and Governor Gray Davis (right) with President George W. Bush in 2003 The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government, whose responsibilities include making yearly State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Edward Moore Ted Kennedy (born February 22, 1932) is the senior United States Senator from Massachusetts and a member of the Democratic Party. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Edward William Proxmire (November 11, 1915 – December 15, 2005) was a member of the Democratic Party who served in the United States Senate for the state of Wisconsin from 1957 to 1989. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Largest metro area Greater Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to...

Candidates gallery

The primaries

In the spring and summer of 1979 unemployment was high, inflation was on the rise, and in California, the gasoline supply was running out. The gas lines last seen just after the Arab/Israeli war of 1973 were back and President Carter was widely blamed.[citation needed]


The President’s approval ratings were very low -- 28% according to Gallup,[2] with some other polls giving even lower numbers. In July Carter returned from Camp David to reshuffle his cabinet and give a televised address to the nation widely dubbed the "malaise" speech, though the word malaise was never used. While the speech caused a brief upswing in the president's approval rating, the decision to dismiss several cabinet members was widely seen as a rash act of desperation, causing his approval rating to plummet back into the twenties. Some Democrats felt it worth the risk to mount a challenge to Carter in the primaries. Although Hugh Carey and William Proxmire decided not to run, Senator Edward Kennedy finally made his long-expected run at the Presidency. The West Wing, see NSF Thurmont (The West Wing). ... Hugh Leo Carey (born April 11, 1919) was the Governor of New York between 1975 and 1983. ... Edward William Proxmire (November 11, 1915 – December 15, 2005) was a member of the Democratic Party who served in the United States Senate for the state of Wisconsin from 1957 to 1989. ... Edward Kennedy Edward Moore Ted Kennedy, (born February 22, 1932, in Brookline, Massachusetts) is a Democratic U.S. senator from Massachusetts. ...


Ted Kennedy had been asked to take his brother’s place at the 1968 Democratic Convention and had refused. He ran for Senate Majority Whip in 1969, however, and many thought that he was going to use that as a platform for 1972.[3] But then came the notorious Chappaquiddick incident. (Redirected from 1968 Democratic Convention) Police and protesters at the Convention The 1968 Democratic National Convention was held in Chicago by the United States Democratic Party, for the purposes of choosing the Democratic nominee for the 1968 U.S. Presidential Election. ... The Chappaquiddick Incident refers to the circumstances surrounding the 1969 death of Mary Jo Kopechne, a campaign worker for the brother of U.S. Senator Edward M. Kennedy of Massachusetts. ...


Kennedy refused to run in 1972, and again in 1976. Many suspected that Chappaquiddick had destroyed any ability he had to win on a national level. However, in the summer of 1979, he consulted with his family, and that fall, he let it leak out that because of Carter’s failings, 1980 might indeed be the year. Gallup had him beating the president by over two to one.


Kennedy’s official announcement was scheduled for early November. There was a prime time interview with CBS’s Roger Mudd and it was a minor disaster. Kennedy flubbed a number of the questions and couldn’t exactly explain why he was running, and the polls, which showed him leading the President by 58-25 in August now had him ahead 49-39.[4] Then the hostages were taken in Tehran, Iran and the bottom fell out of the Kennedy campaign. Roger Mudd, born February 9, 1928 in Washington, is a U.S. television journalist. ... Iranian militants escort a blindfolded U.S. hostage to the media. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ...


Carter’s approval ratings jumped in the 60-percent range in some polls, due to a "rally ‘round the flag" effect [5] and an appreciation of Carter's calm handling of the crisis. Kennedy was suddenly left far behind. Carter beat Kennedy decisively in Iowa and New Hampshire. Carter decisively defeated Kennedy everywhere except Massachusetts, until impatience began to build with the President’s strategy on Iran. When the primaries in New York and Connecticut came around, it was Kennedy who won.


Carter was still able to maintain a substantial lead even after Kennedy swept the last batch of primaries in June. Despite this, Kennedy refused to drop out, and the 1980 Democratic National Convention was one of the nastiest on record. On the penultimate day, Kennedy conceded the nomination and called for a more liberal party platform in what many saw as the best speech of his career. On the platform on the final day, Kennedy for the most part ignored Carter. The 1980 National Convention of the U.S. Democratic Party nominated President Jimmy Carter for President and Vice President Walter Mondale for Vice President. ...


The presidential tally was in part:

In the vice presidential roll call, Mondale was re-nominated with 2,428.7 votes to 723.3 not voting and 179 scattering. For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Edward Moore Ted Kennedy (born February 22, 1932) is the senior United States Senator from Massachusetts and a member of the Democratic Party. ... Hugh Leo Carey (born April 11, 1919) was the Governor of New York between 1975 and 1983. ... Edward William Proxmire (November 11, 1915 – December 15, 2005) was a member of the Democratic Party who served in the United States Senate for the state of Wisconsin from 1957 to 1989. ... Walter Frederick Fritz Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (largely established by former Vice President Hubert Humphrey). ...


Other nominations

John Bayard Anderson, after being defeated in the Republican primaries, entered the general election as an Independent candidate because of his opposition to the more conservative policies of Reagan. His support levels in the polls fell every week as his former supporters were pulled away by Carter, who was more liberal, or Reagan, who was more conservative. John Bayard Anderson (born February 15, 1922) was a liberal Republican U.S. Representative from Illinois and presidential candidate in the 1980 election. ...


His running mate was Patrick Lucey, former Governor of state of Wisconsin and then Ambassador to Mexico, appointed by President Carter. Patrick Joseph Lucey (born March 21, 1918) was a member of the Democratic Party who served as governor of the U.S. state of Wisconsin from 1971 to 1977. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Libertarian Party nominated Edward Clark for President and David H. Koch for Vice President. The Libertarian Party is an American political party founded on Dec. ... Ed Clark was the Libertarian candidate for President of the United States in the 1980 presidential election. ... David Hamilton Koch (born 1940) was the Libertarian Partys Vice-Presidential candidate in the 1980 U.S. presidential election, sharing the party ticket with Ed Clark. ...


The Socialist Party USA nominated David McReynolds for President and Sister Diane Drufenbrock for Vice President, making McReynolds the first openly gay man to run for President. The Socialist Party USA (SP USA) is one of the heirs to the Socialist Party of America of Eugene V. Debs and Norman Thomas. ... David McReynolds David McReynolds (born October 25, 1929) is an American socialist politician. ... Sister Diane Drufenbrock is a Franciscan nun and Christian socialist. ...


General election

Campaign

Interest rate crisis of 1980
Interest rate crisis of 1980

Under federal election laws, Carter and Reagan received $29 million each, and Anderson $18.5. They were not allowed to spend any other money. Carter and Reagan each spent about $15 million on television advertising, and Anderson under $2 million. The 1980 election is considered by some to be a realigning election. Reagan's supporters praise him for running a campaign of upbeat optimism, together with implications of a more militarily aggressive foreign policy. Carter emphasized his record as a peacemaker, and said Reagan's election would threaten civil rights and social programs that stretched back to the New Deal. Description: Historical chart of the U.S. federal funds rate. ... Description: Historical chart of the U.S. federal funds rate. ... Realigning election or political realignment are terms from political science and political history describing a dramatic change in the political system. ...


Reagan promised a restoration of the nation's military strength. Reagan also promised an end to "'trust me' government" and to restore economic health by implementing a supply-side economic policy. Reagan promised a balanced budget within three years (which he said would be "the beginning of the end of inflation"), accompanied by a 30% reduction in taxes over those same years. With respect to the economy, Reagan famously said, "A recession is when your neighbor loses his job. A depression is when you lose yours. And recovery is when Jimmy Carter loses his." Reagan redirects here. ... Supply-side economics is a school of macroeconomic thought that argues that economic growth can be most effectively created using incentives for people to produce (supply) goods and services, such as adjusting income tax and capital gains tax rates. ... From a Keynesian point of view, a balanced budget in the public sector is achieved when the government has enough fiscal discipline to be able to equate the revenues with expenditure over the business cycles. ...


In August, after the Republican National Convention, Ronald Reagan gave a campaign speech at an annual county fair on the outskirts of Philadelphia, Mississippi. Reagan famously announced, "Programs like education and others should be turned back to the states and local communities with the tax sources to fund them. I believe in states’ rights. I believe in people doing as much as they can at the community level and the private level" (emphasis added). Reagan also stated, "I believe we have distorted the balance of our government today by giving powers that were never intended to be given in the Constitution to that federal establishment." He went on to promise to "restore to states and local governments the power that properly belongs to them." [6] These remarks raise controversy over Reagan's attitude towards the federal civil rights reforms 16 years earlier. Philadelphia is a city located in Neshoba County, Mississippi. ... President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ...


Critics suggest that this speech about states rights at the location of the Mississippi civil rights worker murders was a deliberate signal to show "support for white racists"[7][8] who opposed the federal Civil Rights Act. Critics also suggest this was meant to leverage the Republican Southern Strategy.[9] However, Reagan supporters assert this speech was taken out of context[10]. Reagan supporters would argue that the speech was simply a statement of Reagan's political ideals of smaller and less powerful federal government. The Mississippi Civil Rights Workers Murders involved the 1964 slayings of three political activists during the American Civil Rights Movement. ... In American politics, the Southern strategy refers to the focus of the Republican party on winning U.S. Presidential elections by securing the electoral votes of the U.S. Southern states. ... A federal government is the common government of a federation. ...

Ronald Reagan campaigning with Nancy Reagan in Columbia, South Carolina. 10/10/80.
Ronald Reagan campaigning with Nancy Reagan in Columbia, South Carolina. 10/10/80.

Reagan was also hurt by a series of gaffes during the campaign. When Carter appeared in a small Alabama town, Reagan incorrectly claimed the town had been the birthplace of the Ku Klux Klan. Reagan was widely ridiculed for saying that trees caused pollution. Those remarks, and others, added to the impression that Reagan too often "shot from the hip" without checking his facts. ( This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... ( This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...


But if Reagan's remarks hurt his candidacy, Carter was burdened by a continued weak economy and the Iran hostage crisis. Inflation, high interest rates, and unemployment continued through the course of the campaign, and the ongoing hostage crisis in Iran became, to many, a symbol of American impotence during the Carter years. John Anderson's independent candidacy, aimed at liberals, was also seen as hurting Carter more than Reagan, especially in such Democratic states as Massachusetts and New York.


The campaign was largely negative, with many voters disliking Carter's handling of the economy, but also perceiving Reagan as an intellectual lightweight, possibly unable to handle the presidency and with various questionable policies. One analysis of the election has suggested that "Both Carter and Reagan were perceived negatively by a majority of the electorate."[11]


The election of 1980 was a key turning point in American politics. It signaled the new electoral power of the suburbs and the Sun Belt. Reagan's success as a conservative would initiate a realigning of the parties, as liberal Republicans and conservative Democrats would either leave politics or change party affiliations through the 1980s and 1990s to leave the parties much more ideologically polarized. The Sun Belt, highlighted in red This article is about the region of the United States. ...


The Debates

The most important event of the entire 1980 presidential campaign was the second presidential debate, which was held on the Friday before the election (October 31). Over the course of two hours, the entire race changed drastically, and what was considered an extremely tight race with the President slightly ahead became a comfortable Republican victory. Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Nothing of that magnitude has happened since in any televised confrontations.


The League of Women Voters, who had sponsored the 1976 Ford/Carter series, announced that it would do so again for the next cycle in the spring of 1979. However, Carter was not eager to participate. He had repeatedly refused to debate Sen. Kennedy during the primary season, and had given ambivalent signals as to his participation in the fall. The League of Women Voters is a United States non-partisan political organization founded in 1920 by Carrie Chapman Catt during a meeting of the National American Woman Suffrage Association. ... Edward Kennedy Edward Moore Ted Kennedy, (born February 22, 1932, in Brookline, Massachusetts) is a Democratic U.S. senator from Massachusetts. ...


The LWV had announced a schedule of debates similar to 1976, three presidential and one vice presidential. No one had much of a problem with this until it was announced that Rep. John Anderson might be invited to participate along with Carter and Reagan. Carter steadfastly refused to participate with Anderson included and Reagan refused to debate without him. John Bayard Anderson (born February 15, 1922) was a U.S. Representative from Illinois and presidential candidate in the 1980 election. ... John Bayard Anderson (born February 15, 1922) was a U.S. Representative from Illinois and presidential candidate in the 1980 election. ...


The first debate took place in Baltimore, Maryland on September 21st. The President was nowhere to be found. Moderated by Bill Moyers, the confrontation between Anderson and Reagan was considered a dud. Anderson, who many thought would handily dispatch the former Governor, could according to many in the media manage only a draw. Anderson, who had been as high as 20% in some polls and at the time of the debate was over ten, dropped to about five soon after. Still, with the President boycotting, the whole thing seemed meaningless and ratings were low. Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... Bill D. Moyers (born June 5, 1934 as Billy Don Moyers) is an American journalist and public commentator. ...


As September turned into October, the situation remained pretty much the same. Reagan demanded Anderson in and Carter demanded him out. As the standoff continued, the second round was canceled, as was the Vice Presidential debate.


With two weeks to go to the election, the Reagan campaign decided that the best thing to do at that moment was to accede to all of Carter's demands, and LWV agreed to disinvite Congressman Anderson from the remaining debate, which was rescheduled for October 28 in Cleveland, Ohio. is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cleveland redirects here. ...


Moderated by Howard K. Smith, the Presidential Debate between President Carter and Governor Reagan received among the highest ratings of any television show in the previous decade. Debate topics included the Iranian hostage crisis, and nuclear arms treaties and proliferation. Carter's campaign sought to portray Reagan as a reckless "hawk." Reagan would have none of it, and it came as no surprise, then, when the candidates repeatedly clashed over the nuclear weapons issue in their debate. But it was Carter's reference to his consultation with 12 year old daughter Amy concerning nuclear weapons policy that became the focus of post-debate analysis and late-night television jokes. Howard K. Smith Howard Kingsbury Smith (May 12, 1914 – February 15, 2002) was an American journalist, radio reporter, television anchorman and commentator, and one of the original Murrow boys. ... A decade is a set or a group of ten, commonly a period of 10 years in contemporary English, or a period of 10 days in the French revolutionary calendar. ... A joke is a short story or ironic depiction of a situation communicated with the intent of being humorous. ...


Reagan's demeanor, on the other hand, was sunny and tolerant. When Carter made a reference to the governor's record, he replied with a cheerful "There you go again…"


In his closing remarks, Reagan asked a simple yet devastating question that would resonate with voters in 1980 and beyond: "Are you better off now than you were four years ago?" According to Carter' Press Secretary Jody Powell's memoirs, internal tracking polls showed Carter's tiny lead turning into a major Reagan landslide over the final weekend. The White House Press Secretary is a senior White House official with a rank one step below Presidential Cabinet level. ... Joseph Jody Lester Powell (born 1943) is a U.S. administrator. ...


Results

The election was held on November 4, 1980. Reagan beat Carter by almost ten percentage points in the popular vote. Republicans also gained control of the Senate for the first time in twenty-five years on Reagan's coattails. The electoral college vote was a landslide, with 489 votes (representing 44 states) for Reagan and 49 votes for Carter (representing 6 states and the District of Columbia). NBC News projected Reagan as the winner at 8:15 pm EST (5:15 PST), before voting was finished in the West, based on exit polls. Carter conceded defeat at 9:50 pm EST [12] [13]. Carter's loss was the worst defeat for an incumbent President since Herbert Hoover lost to Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932 by a margin of 18%. Anderson won no electoral votes, but got 5,720,060 popular votes. His 6.6% share of the popular vote total was the best by a third party or independent candidate since George Wallace scored 13.5% in 1968, and would not be bettered again until Ross Perot won 19% in 1992. is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Reagan redirects here. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... Reagans coattails refers to the influence of Ronald Reagans popularity in elections other than his own, after the American political expression to ride in on anothers coattails. ... An exit poll is a poll of voters taken immediately after they have exited the polling stations. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... FDR redirects here. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... John Bayard Anderson (born February 15, 1922) was a liberal Republican U.S. Representative from Illinois and presidential candidate in the 1980 election. ... The United States presidential election of 1968 was a wrenching national experience, and included the assassination of Democratic candidate Robert F. Kennedy, the violence at the 1968 Democratic National Convention, and widespread demonstrations against the Vietnam War across American university and college campuses. ... Henry Ross Perot (born June 27, 1930) is an American businessman from Texas, who is best known for seeking the office of President of the United States in 1992 and 1996. ... The United States presidential elections of 1992 featured a battle between Republican George Bush, the incumbent President; Democrat Bill Clinton, the governor of Arkansas; and independent candidate Ross Perot, a Texas businessman. ...


Libertarian Party candidate Ed Clark received 921,299 popular votes. The Libertarians succeeded in getting Clark on the ballot in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Clark's best showing was in Alaska where he received 12% of the vote; To date, this is the best performance by a Libertarian presidential candidate. Citizens Party candidate Barry Commoner, on the ballots in 31 states, received 234,294 popular votes. His running mate, La Donna Harris, was the second known Native American to run for national office, after Charles Curtis in 1928. The Libertarian Party is an American political party founded on Dec. ... Ed Clark was the Libertarian candidate for President of the United States in the 1980 presidential election. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... The Citizens Party was a short lived United States political party organized by environmental scientist Barry Commoner in approximately 1980. ... Barry Commoner (born May 28, 1917) was an American biologist and college professor. ... La Donna Harris is the wife of former Oklahoma Senator Fred R. Harris. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ...


Trivia

  • After Ronald Reagan and George Bush were officially nominated, the two running mates held a joint press conference in which the microphones kept malfunctioning. Recalling Reagan's memorable line from the New Hampshire primary campaign, a reporter asked Reagan, "Governor, who paid for these microphones?" The press and the candidates greeted the question with laughter.
  • A television ad from the Jerry Brown campaign that aired in Wisconsin showed an image of the California governor with parts of the picture marred by splotches of empty space due to a technical snafu, giving the appearance of holes in the candidate's head. Brown had publicly stated that he needed a win in the Wisconsin primary to stay in the campaign; he dropped out when he lost.
  • After Jimmy Carter's acceptance speech at the Democratic National Convention at Madison Square Garden, a flood of balloons were supposed to drop. However, the overhead machine experienced difficulty and the balloons could not drop, after a significant wait they began to drop, but then at a very slow pace. This was considered a bad omen on the fall campaign. Similar malfunctions occurred during the 1996 Republican National Convention following nominee Bob Dole's speech and the 2004 Democratic Convention following nominee John Kerry's speech. In 2004, TV microphones picked up the voice of a man who (perhaps remembering 1980) uttered several profanities regarding his displeasure at the malfunction.
  • In his nomination acceptance speech at the Democratic National Convention, President Carter recalled deceased Democratic leaders and referred to Hubert Humphrey, whose middle name was Horatio, as "Hubert Horatio Hornblower." He quickly corrected himself.
  • Rock star Joe Walsh ran a mock campaign as a write-in candidate, promising to make his song "Life's Been Good" the new national anthem if he won, and running on a platform of "Free Gas For Everyone." Though Walsh was not old enough to actually assume the office, he wanted to raise public awareness of the election.

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... Horatio Hornblower is a fictional character, an officer in the British Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars, originally the protagonist of a series of novels by C. S. Forester, and later the subject of films and television programs. ... For other persons named Joe Walsh, see Joe Walsh (disambiguation). ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A write-in candidate is a candidate in an election whose name does not appear on the ballot, but for whom voters may vote nonetheless by writing in the persons name. ... This article is about Jerry Falwell, Sr. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Statistics

Presidential Candidate Party Home State Popular Vote Electoral Vote Running Mate Running Mate's
Home State
Running Mate's
Electoral Vote
Count Percentage
Ronald Wilson Reagan Republican California 43,903,230 50.7% 489 George Herbert Walker Bush Texas 489
James Earl Carter, Jr. Democratic Georgia 35,480,115 41.0% 49 Walter Frederick Mondale Minnesota 49
John Bayard Anderson (none) Illinois 5,719,850 6.6% 0 Patrick John Lucey Wisconsin 0
Ed Clark Libertarian California 921,128 1.1% 0 David H. Koch Kansas 0
Barry Commoner Citizens Missouri 233,052 0.3% 0 La Donna Harris Oklahoma 0
Other 252,303 0.3% 0 Other 0
Total 86,509,678 100.0% 538 Total 538
Needed to win 270 Needed to win 270

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. 1980 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (August 7, 2005). Order: 40th President Term of Office: January 20, 1981–January 20, 1989 Preceded by: Jimmy Carter Succeeded by: George H.W. Bush Date of birth: February 6, 1911 Place of birth: Tampico, Illinois Date of death: June 5, 2004 Place of death: Los Angeles, California First Lady: Nancy Reagan... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Walter Frederick Fritz Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (largely established by former Vice President Hubert Humphrey). ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... John Bayard Anderson (born February 15, 1922) was a liberal Republican U.S. Representative from Illinois and presidential candidate in the 1980 election. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Patrick Joseph Lucey (born March 21, 1918) was a member of the Democratic Party who served as governor of the U.S. state of Wisconsin from 1971 to 1977. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Largest metro area Greater Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to... Ed Clark was the Libertarian candidate for President of the United States in the 1980 presidential election. ... The Libertarian Party is an American political party founded on Dec. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... David Hamilton Koch (born 1940) was the Libertarian Partys Vice-Presidential candidate in the 1980 U.S. presidential election, sharing the party ticket with Ed Clark. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Barry Commoner (born May 28, 1917) was an American biologist and college professor. ... The Citizens Party was a short lived United States political party organized by environmental scientist Barry Commoner in approximately 1980. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... La Donna Harris is the wife of former Oklahoma Senator Fred R. Harris. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Source (Electoral Vote): Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (August 7, 2005). is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Voter demographics

SOCIAL GROUPS AND THE PRESIDENTIAL VOTE, 1980 AND 1976
Size '80 Carter '80 Reagan '80 Anderson '76 Carter '76 Ford
Party
Democratic 43 66 26 6 77 22
Independent 23 30 54 12 43 54
Republican 28 11 84 4 9 90
Ideology
Liberal 18 57 27 11 70 26
Moderate 51 42 48 8 51 48
Conservative 31 23 71 4 29 70
Race
Black 10 82 14 3 82 16
Hispanic 2 54 36 7 75 24
White 88 36 55 8 47 52
Sex
Female 48 45 46 7 50 48
Male 52 37 54 7 50 48
Religion
Protestant 46 37 56 6 44 55
White Protestant 41 31 62 6 43 57
Catholic 25 40 51 7 54 44
Jewish 5 45 39 14 64 34
Family Income
Less than $10,000 13 50 41 6 58 40
$10,000–$14,999 15 47 42 8 55 43
$15,000–$24,999 29 38 53 7 48 50
$25,000–$50,000 24 32 58 8 36 62
Over $50,000 5 25 65 8
Occupation
Professional or manager 39 33 56 9 41 57
Clerical, sales, white collar 11 42 48 8 46 53
Blue-collar 17 46 47 5 57 41
Agriculture 3 29 66 3
Unemployed 3 55 35 7 65 34
Education
Less than high school 11 50 45 3 58 41
High school graduate 28 43 51 4 54 46
Some college 28 35 55 8 51 49
College graduate 27 35 51 11 45 55
Union Membership
Labor union household 28 47 44 7 59 39
No member of household in union 62 35 55 8 43 55
Age
18–21 years old 6 44 43 11 48 50
22–29 years old 17 43 43 11 51 46
30–44 years old 31 37 54 7 49 49
45–59 years old 23 39 55 6 47 52
60 years or older 18 40 54 4 47 52
Region
East 25 42 47 9 51 47
South 27 44 51 3 54 45
White South 22 35 60 3 46 52
Midwest 27 40 51 7 48 50
Far West 19 35 53 9 46 51
Community Size
City over 250,000 18 54 35 8 60 40
Suburb/small city 53 37 53 8 53 47
Rural/town 29 39 54 5 47 53

Source: CBS News/ New York Times interviews with 12,782 voters as they left the polls, as reported in the New York Times, November 9, 1980, p. 28, and in further analysis. The 1976 data are from CBS News interviews. is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ...


See also

 Republican holds  Republican pickups  Democratic holds  Democratic pickups The 1980 U.S. Senate elections coincided with Ronald Reagans election to the Presidency. ... // Changing demographics and the growth of the Sun Belt The most widely discussed demographic phenomenon of the 1970s was the rise of the Sun Belt, the Southwest, Southeast, and especially Florida and California (surpassing New York as the nations most populous state in 1964). ... The October Surprise conspiracy was an alleged plot that claimed representatives of the 1980 Ronald Reagan presidential campaign had conspired with Islamic Republic of Iran to delay the release of 52 Americans held hostage in Tehran until after the 1980 U.S. Presidential election. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ...

References

  1. ^ Gil Troy, Morning in America: How Ronald Reagan Invented the 1980s (2005) ch 2; John Ehrman. The Eighties: American in the Age of Reagan (2005)
  2. ^ http://www.cnn.com/2005/POLITICS/11/14/bush.poll
  3. ^ US News and World Report Jan. 1969.
  4. ^ Time Magazine, 11/12/79
  5. ^ http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-0027(199012)34%3A4%3C588%3AFPAPPC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-7
  6. ^ http://gadflyer.com/articles/?ArticleID=134
  7. ^ http://krugman.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/11/10/innocent-mistakes/
  8. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/13/opinion/13herbert.html?_r=2&th&emc=th
  9. ^ http://krugman.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/11/10/innocent-mistakes/
  10. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/09/opinion/09brooks.html?ref=opinion
  11. ^ Wayne, Stephen J. (1984). The Road to the White House (2nd ed.), p. 210. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-68526-2.
  12. ^ Facts on File Yearbook 1980 p865
  13. ^ Facts on File Yearbook 1980 p838
  14. ^ "When worlds collide: politics, religion, and media at the 1970 East Tennessee Billy Graham Crusade. (appearance by President Richard M. Nixon)", Journal of Church and State, March 22, 1997. Retrieved on 2007-08-18. 
Books
  • Busch, Andrew E. Reagan's Victory: The Presidential Election of 1980 and the Rise of the Right, (2005) online review by Michael Barone
  • John Ehrman. The Eighties: American in the Age of Reagan (2005)
  • Ferguson, Thomas; Joel Rogers (1986). Right Turn: The Decline of the Democrats and the Future of American Politics. Hill and Wang. 
  • Germond, Jack W.; Jules Witcover (1981). Blue Smoke & Mirrors: How Reagan Won & Why Carter Lost the Election of 1980. 
  • (1981) in Gerald M. Pomper (ed.): The Election of 1980: Reports and Interpretations. Chatham House. 
  • Gil Troy, Morning in America: How Ronald Reagan Invented the 1980s (2005)
  • West, Darrell M. (1984). Making Campaigns Count: Leadership and Coalition-Building in 1980. Greenwood Press. 
Journal articles
  • Himmelstein, Jerome; J. A. McRae Jr. (1984). "Social Conservatism, New Republicans and the 1980 Election". Public Opinion Quarterly 48: 595–605. 
  • Lipset, Seymour M.; Earl Raab (1981). "Evangelicals and the Elections". Commentary 71: 25–31. 
  • Miller, Arthur H.; Martin P. Wattenberg (1984). "Politics from the Pulpit: Religiosity and the 1980 Elections". Public Opinion Quarterly 48: 300–12. 

is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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