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Encyclopedia > United States presidential election, 1968
‹ 1964  Flag of the United States 1972 ›
United States presidential election, 1968
5 November 1968
Nominee Richard Nixon Hubert Humphrey George Wallace
Party Republican Democratic American Independent
Home State State of New York Minnesota Alabama
Running mate Spiro Agnew Edmund Muskie Curtis LeMay
Electoral Vote 301 191 46
States Carried 32 13+DC 5
Popular Vote 31,783,783 31,271,839 9,901,118
Percentage 43.4% 42.7% 13.5%

Presidential election results map. Red denotes states won by Humphrey/Muskie, Blue denotes those won by Nixon/Agnew. Maroon denotes states won by Wallace/LeMay. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Nixon_30-0316a. ... Image File history File links Official White House portrait of Humphrey. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... George Corley Wallace, Jr. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... The American Independent Party is a California political party. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Spiro Theodore Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996) was the thirty-ninth Vice President of the United States serving under President Richard M. Nixon, and the fifty-fifth Governor of Maryland. ... Edmund Muskie (March 28, 1914 – March 26, 1996) was an American Democratic politician from Maine. ... Curtis Emerson LeMay (November 15, 1906–October 3, 1990) was a general in the United States Air Force and the vice presidential running mate of independent candidate George C. Wallace in 1968. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1182x635, 112 KB) This map was obtained from an edition of the National Atlas of the United States. ...

Before Election
Lyndon Johnson
Democratic LBJ redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic...

After Election
Richard Nixon
Republican Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ...

The United States presidential election of 1968 was a wrenching national experience, and included the assassination of Democratic candidate Robert F. Kennedy, the violence at the 1968 Democratic National Convention, and widespread demonstrations against the Vietnam War across American university and college campuses. The election also featured a strong third-party effort by former Alabama governor George Wallace; although Wallace's campaign was frequently accused of promoting racism, he would prove to be a formidable candidate, and as of 2007 was the last third-party candidate to win electoral votes. In the end, Republican Richard M. Nixon narrowly won the election over Democrat Hubert H. Humphrey on a campaign promise to restore "law and order". The 1968 election is sometimes considered to be a realigning election. Robert Kennedy The assassination of Robert F. Kennedy occurred on June 5, 1968. ... Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ... The 1968 National Convention of the U.S. Democratic Party was held at International Amphitheatre in Chicago, Illinois, from August 26 to August 29, 1968, for the purposes of choosing the Democratic nominee for the 1968 U.S. presidential election. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... In any two-party system of politics, a third party is a party other than the two dominant ones. ... George Corley Wallace, Jr. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about Electoral Colleges in general. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Hubert Horatio Humphrey II (May 27, 1911 – January 13, 1978) was the 38th Vice President of the United States, serving under President Lyndon Johnson. ... Realigning election or political realignment are terms from political science and political history describing a dramatic change in the political system. ...

Contents

Historical background

In the election of 1964, after serving the 14 remaining months after President John F. Kennedy's assassination, Democrat Lyndon Johnson had won the largest popular vote landslide in US Presidential election history over Republican Barry Goldwater. During his term, Johnson had seen many political successes, including the passage of his sweeping Great Society domestic programs (also known as the "War on Poverty"), landmark civil rights legislation, and the continued exploration of space. At the same time, however, the country had been undergoing massive[citation needed] violence in the streets of its larger cities, along with a generational revolt of young people and violent debates over foreign policy. The emergence of the hippie counterculture, the rise of New Left activism, and the emergence of the Black Power movement exacerbated social and cultural cleavages between classes, generations and races. Every summer during Johnson's administration, known thereafter as the "long, hot summers", major US cities erupted in massive race riots that left hundreds dead and destroyed hundreds of millions of dollars in property. Adding to the national tension, on April 4, 1968, civil rights leader Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated in Memphis, Tenn., sparking further mass rioting and chaos. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... President Kennedy with his wife, Jacqueline, and Texas Governor John Connally in the presidential limousine just moments before his assassination The assassination of John F. Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 p. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      United States presidential elections determine who serves as president and vice president of the United... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... The Great Society was also a 1960s band featuring Grace Slick, and a 1914 book by English social theorist Graham Wallas. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Singer of a modern Hippie movement in Russia The hippie subculture was a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread around the world. ... In sociology, counterculture is a term used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a cultural group, or subculture, that run counter to those of the social mainstream of the day, the cultural equivalent of political opposition. ... The New Left is a term used in different countries to describe left-wing movements that occurred in the 1960s and 1970s. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... A race riot is any riot which occurs due to real or perceived inequality or oppression between members of different races. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Martin Luther King redirects here. ... For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). ...


A major factor in President Johnson's precipitous decline in popularity was the Vietnam War, which he greatly escalated during his time in office. By late 1967 over 500,000 American soldiers were fighting in Vietnam and suffering thousands of casualties every month. Johnson was especially hurt when, despite his repeated assurances that the war was being "won", the American news media began to show just the opposite. The Tet Offensive of February 1968, in which Communist Vietcong forces were killed inside the U.S. Embassy compound in Saigon, led to increased criticism from antiwar activists that the war was unwinnable. In response, the U.S. military claimed that only by adding several hundred thousand more soldiers could the war possibly be won. In the months following Tet, Johnson's approval ratings fell below 35%, and the Secret Service refused to let the President make public appearances on the campuses of American colleges and universities, due to his extreme unpopularity among college students. The Secret Service also prevented Johnson from appearing at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, because of their fear that his appearance might cause riots.. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... News media satellite up-link trucks and photojournalists gathered outside the Prudential Financial headquarters in Newark, New Jersey in August, 2004 following the announcement of evidence of a terrorist threat to it and to buildings in New York City. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam, United States, Republic of Korea, New Zealand, Australia National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam, Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders William C. Westmoreland Võ Nguyên Giáp Strength 1. ... A Viet Cong soldier, heavily guarded, awaits interrogation following capture in the attacks on Saigon during the festive Tet holiday period of 1968. ... Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ... Because of both the secrecy of secret services and the controversial nature of the issues involved, there is some difficulty in separating the definitions of secret service, secret police, intelligence agency etc. ...


Nominations

Democratic candidates

Roger Douglas Branigin (July 26, 1902–November 19, 1975) was a Democratic governor of the U.S. state of Indiana from January 11, 1965 to January 13, 1969. ... List of Indiana Governors Jonathan Jennings Dem. ... Hubert Horatio Humphrey II (May 27, 1911 – January 13, 1978) was the 38th Vice President of the United States, serving under President Lyndon Johnson. ... The Vice President of the United States (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[1] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ... This article is about the state. ... Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... LBJ redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Eugene Joseph Gene McCarthy (born March 29, 1916) was a Congressman from Minnesotas Fourth District, from 1949 to 1959, and a United States Senator from Minnesota from 1959 to 1971. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... George Stanley McGovern (born July 19, 1922 in Avon, South Dakota) was a United States Congressman, Senator, and Democratic presidential candidate most noted for his opposition to the Vietnam War. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Daniel Killian Moore (2 April 1906 - 7 September 1986) was the Democratic governor of the state of North Carolina from 1965 to 1969. ... The Governor of North Carolina is the top executive of the government of the U.S. state of North Carolina. ... George Smathers George Armistead Smathers (born November 14, 1913) is an American lawyer and politician who represented Florida in the United States Senate for eighteen years. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... credited to the United States Senate Historical Office Stephen Marvin Young (May 4, 1889 - December 1, 1984) was an American politician of the Democratic Party from Ohio. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Greater Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ...

Democratic Party Candidates' gallery

Favorite Son Democratic Candidates

Though President Lyndon B. Johnson had served during two presidential terms, the 22nd Amendment did not disqualify Johnson from running for another term, because he had only served 14 months following John F. Kennedy's assassination before being elected to his "second" term in 1964. As a result, it was widely assumed when 1968 began that President Johnson would be the Democratic nominee, and that he would have little trouble in winning the Democratic nomination. LBJ redirects here. ... (Redirected from 22nd Amendment) The Twenty-second Amendment of the United States Constitution establishes a two-term limit for the Presidency. ... President Kennedy with his wife, Jacqueline, and Texas Governor John Connally in the presidential limousine just moments before his assassination The assassination of John F. Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 p. ...


Despite the growing opposition to Johnson's policies in Vietnam, no prominent Democratic candidate was prepared to run against a sitting President of his own party. Even Senator Robert F. Kennedy of New York, an outspoken critic of Johnson's policies with a large base of support, refused to run against Johnson in the primaries. Only Senator Eugene McCarthy of Minnesota proved willing to openly challenge Johnson. Running as an anti-war candidate in the New Hampshire primary, McCarthy hoped to pressure the Democrats into publicly opposing the Vietnam War. Normally, an incumbent president faces little formidable opposition within his own party. However, McCarthy, although he was trailing badly in the national polls, decided to pour most of his resources into New Hampshire, the first state to hold a primary election. He was boosted by thousands of young college students, who shaved their beards and cut their hair to be "Clean for Gene". These students rang doorbells and worked hard in New Hampshire for McCarthy. On March 12, McCarthy won 42% of the primary vote to Johnson's 49%, an amazingly strong showing for such a challenger, and one which gave McCarthy's campaign legitimacy and momentum. The momentum ended, however, when Senator Kennedy announced his candidacy four days later, on March 16, as McCarthy supporters cried betrayal and vowed to defeat Kennedy. Thereafter McCarthy and Kennedy would engage in an increasingly bitter series of state primaries; although Kennedy won most of the primaries, he could never shake McCarthy and his devoted following of antiwar activists, which included many Hollywood celebrities such as Paul Newman, Barbra Streisand, and Burt Lancaster. Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ... This article is about the state. ... Not to be confused with the anti-Communist senator Joseph Raymond McCarthy. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... The New Hampshire primary is the first of a number of statewide political party primary elections held in the United States every four years, as part of the process of the Democratic and Republican parties choosing their candidate for the presidential elections on the subsequent November. ... The New Hampshire primary is the first of a number of statewide political party primary elections held in the United States every four years, as part of the process of the Democratic and Republican parties choosing their candidate for the presidential elections on the subsequent November. ... For other uses, see Primary. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... This article is about the American actor and race team owner. ... Barbra Streisand (pronounced STRY-sand, IPA: ; born April 24, 1942) is an American singer, theatre and film actress, composer, liberal political activist, film producer and director. ... Burt Lancaster (November 2, 1913 – October 20, 1994) was an Oscar-winning American film actor, noted for his athletic physique (a rare thing for leading men of that time), distinct smile (which he called The Grin) and, later, his willingness to play roles that went against his initial tough guy...


Johnson withdraws

On March 31, 1968, following the New Hampshire primaries and Kennedy's entry into the election, the President startled the nation by announcing he would not seek re-election. (Not discussed publicly at the time was Johnson's concern that he might not survive another term - Johnson's health was poor, and he had suffered a serious heart attack in 1955. Johnson in fact died two days after the end of the succeeding presidential term.) Bleak political forecasts also contributed to Johnson's withdrawal: internal polling by Johnson's campaign in Wisconsin, the next state to hold a primary election, showed the President trailing badly, and in fact he lost the primary to McCarthy. He did not even leave the White House to campaign in Wisconsin. Johnson had lost control of the Democratic Party, which was splitting into four factions, each of which distrusted the other three. is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Heart attack redirects here. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Largest metro area Greater Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ...

  • The first faction comprised labor unions and big-city party bosses (led by Mayor Richard J. Daley). This group had traditionally controlled the Democratic Party since the days of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and they feared their loss of control over the party. After Johnson's withdrawal this group rallied to support Hubert H. Humphrey, Johnson's Vice-President; it was also believed that President Johnson himself was covertly supporting Humphrey, despite his public claims of neutrality.
  • The second group, which rallied behind Senator McCarthy, was composed of students and intellectuals who had been the early spokespeople against the war in Vietnam; they perceived themselves as the future of the Democratic Party.
  • The third group was primarily composed of Catholics, African-Americans, and other racial and ethnic minorities; these groups rallied behind Senator Robert Kennedy.
  • The fourth group consisted of conservative white Southern Democrats, or "Dixiecrats." Some members (probably older ones remembering the New Deal's positive impact upon rural areas) of this group supported Vice-President Humphrey, but most of them would rally behind George C. Wallace and the Alabama governor's third-party campaign in the general election.

Since the Vietnam War had become the major issue that was dividing the Democratic Party, and Johnson had come to symbolize the war for many liberal Democrats, Johnson believed that he could not win the nomination without a major struggle, and that he would probably lose the election in November to the Republicans. However, by withdrawing from the race he could avoid the stigma of defeat, and he could keep control of the party machinery by giving the nomination to Humphrey, who had been a loyal Vice-President. As the year developed, it also became clear that Johnson believed he could secure his place in the history books by ending the war before the election in November, thus giving Humphrey the boost he would need to win.[1] Richard Joseph Daley (May 15, 1902 – December 20, 1976) was the longest-serving mayor of Chicago. ... FDR redirects here. ... Hubert Horatio Humphrey II (May 27, 1911 – January 13, 1978) was the 38th Vice President of the United States, serving under President Lyndon Johnson. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... The States Rights Democratic Party, usually known as the Dixiecrat Party, was a short-lived splinter group that broke from the Democratic Party in 1948. ... The New Deal was the title President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs he initiated between 1933 and 1938 with the goal of providing relief, recovery, and reform (3 Rs) to the people and economy of the United States during the Great Depression. ... George Corley Wallace (August 25, 1919–September 13, 1998) was an American politician who was elected Governor of Alabama (as a Democrat) four times (1962, 1970, 1974 and 1982) and ran for U.S. President (in 1964, 1968, 1972 and 1976). ...


Contest for the Democratic nomination

After Johnson's withdrawal, Vice President Hubert Humphrey announced his candidacy. Kennedy was successful in four primaries and McCarthy five; however, in primaries where they campaigned directly against one another, Kennedy won three primaries and McCarthy one. Humphrey, for the most part, did not compete in the primaries, leaving that job to favorite sons who were his surrogates, notably Senator George A. Smathers from Florida, Senator Stephen M. Young from Ohio, and Governor Roger D. Branigin of Indiana. Kennedy defeated Branigin and McCarthy in the Indiana primary, and then defeated McCarthy in the Nebraska primary. However, McCarthy upset Kennedy in the Oregon primary - this was considered important because it was the first time a Kennedy had ever lost an election.[citation needed] After Kennedy's defeat in Oregon, the California primary was seen as crucial to both Kennedy and McCarthy. McCarthy stumped the state's many colleges and universities, where he was treated as a hero for being the first presidential candidate to oppose the war. Kennedy campaigned in the ghettos and barrios of the state's larger cities, where he was mobbed by enthusiastic supporters. Kennedy and McCarthy engaged in a television debate a few days before the election, it was generally considered a draw. On June 5 Kennedy narrowly defeated McCarthy in California, 46% - 42%. However, McCarthy refused to withdraw from the race and made it clear that he would contest Kennedy in the upcoming New York primary, where McCarthy had much support from antiwar activists in New York City. The New York primary quickly became a moot point, however, for on the night of June 5, Kennedy was shot shortly after midnight; he died twenty-six hours later. Kennedy had just given his victory speech in a crowded ballroom of the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles; he and his aides squeezed into a kitchen on their way to another ballroom to celebrate their victory. In the kitchen Kennedy was shot by Sirhan Sirhan, a young Palestinian militant who disliked Kennedy because of his support for the nation of Israel. The Vice President of the United States (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[1] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Favorite Son. ... George Smathers George Armistead Smathers (born November 14, 1913) is an American lawyer and politician who represented Florida in the United States Senate for eighteen years. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... credited to the United States Senate Historical Office Stephen Marvin Young (May 4, 1889 - December 1, 1984) was an American politician of the Democratic Party from Ohio. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Greater Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... Roger Douglas Branigin (July 26, 1902–November 19, 1975) was a Democratic governor of the U.S. state of Indiana from January 11, 1965 to January 13, 1969. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... Barrio is a Spanish word meaning neighborhood. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the state. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Kennedy The assassination of Robert F. Kennedy occurred on June 5, 1968. ... This article is about Robert F. Kennedys assassin. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ...


Political historians have debated to this day whether Kennedy could have won the Democratic nomination had he lived. Some historians, such as Theodore H. White and Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., have argued that Kennedy's broad appeal and famed "charisma" would have convinced the party bosses at the Democratic Convention to give him the nomination. However, other writers such as Tom Wicker, who covered the Kennedy campaign for The New York Times, believe that Humphrey's large lead in delegate votes from non-primary states, combined with Senator McCarthy's refusal to quit the race, would have prevented Kennedy from ever winning a majority at the Democratic Convention, and that Humphrey would have been the Democratic nominee even if Kennedy had lived. Journalist Richard Reeves has written that Humphrey was the likely nominee, and RFK's own campaign chairman, future Democratic National Committee chairman Lawrence O'Brien, wrote in his memoirs that Kennedy's chances of winning the nomination had been slim. Theodore H. White (May 6, 1915 - May 15, 1986) was an American political writer and journalist whose book about the 1960 U.S. Presidential election became a surprise best-seller and won the Pulitzer Prize. ... This article is about Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. ... For other uses, see Charisma (disambiguation). ... Tom Wicker (born 1926) is an American journalist. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ...


At the moment of RFK's death, the delegate totals were:

U.S. News and World Report magazine was flatly predicting Humphrey's nomination, based on his delegate strength and the likelihood that "favorite son" candidates in the South would eventually back him over Kennedy and McCarthy. For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... Robert Kennedy Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy, also called RFK (November 20, 1925–June 6, 1968) was the younger brother of President John F. Kennedy, and was appointed by his brother as Attorney General for his administration. ... Not to be confused with the anti-Communist senator Joseph Raymond McCarthy. ...


Democratic Convention and antiwar riots

Robert Kennedy's death altered the dynamics of the race, and threw the Democratic Party into disarray. Although Humphrey appeared the prohibitive favorite for the nomination, thanks to his support from the traditional power blocs of the party, he was an unpopular choice with many of the anti-war elements within the party, who identified him with Johnson's controversial position on the Vietnam War. However, Kennedy's delegates failed to unite behind a single candidate who could have prevented Humphrey from getting the nomination. Some of Kennedy's support went to McCarthy, but many of Kennedy's delegates, remembering their bitter primary battles with McCarthy, refused to vote for him. Instead, these delegates rallied around the late-starting candidacy of Senator George McGovern of South Dakota, a Kennedy supporter in the spring primaries, and who had presidential ambitions. However, by dividing the antiwar votes at the Democratic Convention, it made it easier for Humphrey to gather the delegates he needed to win the nomination. Anti war protest in Melbourne, Australia, 2003 Anti_war is a name that is widely adopted by any social movement or person that seeks to end or oppose a future or current war. ... George McGovern on May 8, 1972 cover of Time Magazine George Stanley McGovern, Ph. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ...


When the 1968 Democratic National Convention opened in Chicago, thousands of young antiwar activists from around the nation gathered in the city to protest the Vietnam War. In a clash which was covered on live television, Americans were shocked to see Chicago police brutally beating anti-war protesters in the streets of Chicago. While the protesters chanted "the world is watching", the police used clubs and tear gas to beat back the protesters, leaving many of them bloody and dazed. The tear gas even wafted into numerous hotel suites; in one of them Vice-President Humphrey was watching the proceedings on television. Meanwhile, the convention itself was marred by the strong-arm tactics of Chicago's mayor Richard J. Daley (who was seen on television angrily cursing Senator Abraham Ribicoff of Connecticut, who made a speech at the convention denouncing the excesses of the Chicago police in the riots). In the end, the nomination itself was anticlimactic, with Vice President Humphrey handily beating McCarthy and McGovern on the first ballot. The convention then chose Senator Edmund Muskie of Maine as Humphrey's running mate. However, the tragedy of the antiwar riots crippled Humphrey's campaign from the start, and it never fully recovered. (White, pgs. 377-378) The 1968 National Convention of the U.S. Democratic Party was held at International Amphitheatre in Chicago, Illinois, from August 26 to August 29, 1968, for the purposes of choosing the Democratic nominee for the 1968 U.S. presidential election. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Richard Joseph Daley (May 15, 1902 – December 20, 1976) was the longest-serving mayor of Chicago. ... Abraham Ribicoff Abraham Alexander Ribicoff (April 9, 1910–February 22, 1998) was an American politician. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[2] Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... Edmund Muskie (March 28, 1914 – March 26, 1996) was an American Democratic politician from Maine. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ...

The Final Ballot
Presidential tally Vice Presidential tally:
Hubert Humphrey 1759.25 Edmund S. Muskie 1942.5
Eugene McCarthy 601 Not Voting 604.25
George S. McGovern 146.5 Julian Bond 48.5
Channing Phillips 67.5 David Hoeh 4
Daniel K. Moore 17.5 Edward M. Kennedy 3.5
Edward M. Kennedy 12.75 Eugene McCarthy 3.0
Paul E. "Bear" Bryant 1.5 Others 16.25
James H. Gray 0.5
George Wallace 0.5

Source: Keating Holland, "All the Votes... Really," CNN [1] For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... Edmund Muskie Edmund Sixtus Muskie (Edmund Marciszewski) (March 28, 1914–March 26, 1996) was a Polish-American politician from Maine. ... Not to be confused with the anti-Communist senator Joseph Raymond McCarthy. ... George Stanley McGovern (born July 19, 1922 in Avon, South Dakota) was a United States Congressman, Senator, and Democratic presidential candidate most noted for his opposition to the Vietnam War. ... Julian Bond (2004) Horace Julian Bond (born January 14, 1940) is an American leader of the American Civil Rights Movement. ... Rev. ... Daniel Killian Moore (2 April 1906 - 7 September 1986) was the Democratic governor of the state of North Carolina from 1965 to 1969. ... Edward Kennedy Edward Moore Ted Kennedy, (born February 22, 1932, in Brookline, Massachusetts) is a Democratic U.S. senator from Massachusetts. ... Edward Kennedy Edward Moore Ted Kennedy, (born February 22, 1932, in Brookline, Massachusetts) is a Democratic U.S. senator from Massachusetts. ... Not to be confused with the anti-Communist senator Joseph Raymond McCarthy. ... Paul William Bear Bryant (September 11, 1913–January 26, 1983) was an American college football coach. ... George Corley Wallace, Jr. ...


Republican Party nomination

Richard Nixon campaign rally
Richard Nixon campaign rally

Republican Candidates Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Frank Carlson (January 23, 1893-May 30, 1987) was theGovernor of Kansas from 1947 to 1950 and a U.S. Senator from 1950 to 1969. ... Official language(s) English[2] Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  Ranked 15th  - Total 82,277 sq mi (213,096 km²)  - Width 211 miles (340 km)  - Length 417 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... Clifford P. Case on the cover of Time Magazine (18 October 1954) Clifford Phillip Case (16 April 1904 in Franklin Park, New Jersey – 5 March 1982 in Washington, DC) was an American lawyer political figure, serving in the U.S. House of Representatives (1945–1953) and United States Senate (1955... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Hiram Fong Hiram Leong Fong (鄺友良; pinyin:Kuàng Yǒuliáng), formally Yau Leong Fong (October 15, 1906-August 18, 2004), was an American elder statesman and business tycoon industrialist from Hawaii. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... John Vliet Lindsay (November 24, 1921–December 19, 2000) was an American politician who served as a Congressman (1959-1966) and mayor of New York City (1966-1973). ... For a list of the Dutch Director-Generals who governed New Amsterdam (as New York City was called when it was a Dutch-run settlement) between 1624 and 1664, see: Director-General of New Netherland. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... The Vice President of the United States (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[1] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... This article is about the state. ... Order: 40th President Term of Office: January 20, 1981–January 20, 1989 Preceded by: Jimmy Carter Succeeded by: George H.W. Bush Date of birth: February 6, 1911 Place of birth: Tampico, Illinois Date of death: June 5, 2004 Place of death: Los Angeles, California First Lady: Nancy Reagan... Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (left) and Governor Gray Davis (right) with President George W. Bush in 2003 The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government, whose responsibilities include making yearly State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that... James Allen Rhodes (September 13, 1909 - March 4, 2001) was a Republican politician from Ohio, and as of 2004 one of only three U.S. state governors to be elected to four terms in office. ... Ohio Governors Ohio was admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803. ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 - January 26, 1979) was a Governor of New York and the 41st Vice President of the United States of America from December 19, 1974 to January 20, 1977. ... This is a list of the Governors of New York. ... This article is about the Governor of Arkansas (1967-1971). ... This is a list of governors of Arkansas. ... George Wilcken Romney (July 8, 1907 – July 26, 1995) was chairman of the American Motors Corporation from 1954 to 1962 and was elected three times as the Republican Governor of Michigan from 1963 to 1969. ... Michigan Governors Territorial Governors State Governors From statehood until the election of 1966, governors were elected to two-year terms. ... Harold Edward Stassen (April 13, 1907 - March 4, 2001) was the 25th Governor of Minnesota from 1939 to 1943. ... The Governor of Minnesota is the chief executive of the U.S. state of Minnesota, leading the states executive branch. ... John Anthony Volpe (December 8, 1908 - September 11, 1994) was a Governor of Massachusetts and a U.S. Secretary of Transportation. ... The Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the executive magistrate of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ...

Candidates gallery

The primaries

The front-runner for the Republican nomination was former Vice President Richard M. Nixon, and to a great extent the story of the Republican primary campaign and nomination is the story of one Nixon opponent after another entering the race and then dropping out. Front-runner is a term to describe the leader in a race, whether political or atheletic. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ...


Nixon's first challenger was Michigan Governor George W. Romney. A Gallup poll in mid-1967 showed Nixon with 39%, followed by Romney with 25%. However, in a slip of the tongue, Romney told a news reporter that he had been "brainwashed" by the military and the diplomatic corps into supporting the Vietnam War; the remark led to weeks of ridicule in the national news media. As the year 1968 opened, Romney was opposed to further American intervention in Vietnam and had decided to run as the Republican version of Eugene McCarthy (New York Times 2/18/1968). Romney's support faded slowly, and he withdrew from the race on February 28, 1968. (New York Times 2/29/1968). This article is about the U.S. State. ... George Wilcken Romney (July 8, 1907 – July 26, 1995) was chairman of the American Motors Corporation from 1954 to 1962 and was elected three times as the Republican Governor of Michigan from 1963 to 1969. ... A Freudian slip, or parapraxis, is an error in speech, memory or physical action that is believed to be caused by the unconscious mind. ... The diplomatic corps, or in French (formerly the lingua franca of diplomacy; hence the term is still used e. ... News media satellite up-link trucks and photojournalists gathered outside the Prudential Financial headquarters in Newark, New Jersey in August, 2004 following the announcement of evidence of a terrorist threat to it and to buildings in New York City. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Nixon won a resounding victory in the important New Hampshire primary on March 12, winning 78% of the vote. Antiwar Republicans wrote in the name of New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller, the leader of the GOP's liberal wing, who received 11% of the vote and became Nixon's new challenger. Nixon led Rockefeller in the polls throughout the primary campaign. Rockefeller defeated Nixon in the Massachusetts primary on April 30 but otherwise fared poorly in the state primaries and conventions. is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the state. ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American Vice President, governor of New York State, philanthropist and businessman. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


By early spring, California Governor Ronald Reagan, the leader of the GOP's conservative wing, had become Nixon's chief rival. In the Nebraska primary on May 14, Nixon won with 70% of the vote to 21% for Reagan and 5% for Rockefeller. While this was a wide margin for Nixon, Reagan remained Nixon's leading challenger. Nixon won the next primary of importance, Oregon, on May 15 with 65% of the vote and won all the following primaries except for California (June 4), where only Reagan appeared on the ballot. Reagan's margin in California gave him a plurality of the nationwide primary vote, but when the Republican National Convention assembled, Nixon had 656 delegates according to a UPI poll (with 667 needed for the nomination). Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (left) and Governor Gray Davis (right) with President George W. Bush in 2003 The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government, whose responsibilities include making yearly State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that... Reagan redirects here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Front of UPI Headquarters, Washington, D.C. United Press International (UPI) is a global news agency headquartered in the United States filing news in English, Spanish and Arabic. ...


At the 1968 Republican National Convention in Miami Beach, Florida, Reagan and Rockefeller planned to unite their forces in a stop-Nixon movement, but the strategy fell apart when neither man agreed to support the other for the nomination. Nixon won the nomination on the first ballot. Nixon then chose Governor of Maryland Spiro Agnew to be his Vice-Presidential candidate, despite complaints from within the GOP that Agnew was an unknown quantity, and that a better-known and more popular candidate, such as Romney, should have been the Vice-Presidential nominee. It was also reported that Nixon's first choice for running mate was his longtime fried and ally, Robert Finch, who was Lt. Governor of California since 1967 and later his HEW Secretary, but Finch declined the offer. The 1968 Republican National Convention was held in Miami Beach, Miami-Dade County, Florida, August 5-8, 1968. ... Location in Miami-Dade and the state of Florida. ... Thomas Johnson, the first Governor of Maryland after independence. ... Spiro Theodore Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996) was the thirty-ninth Vice President of the United States serving under President Richard M. Nixon, and the fifty-fifth Governor of Maryland. ... The Vice President of the United States (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[1] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Robert H. Finch Robert Hutchison Finch (October 9, 1925-October 10, 1995) was a Republican politician from Southern California. ...


Candidates for the Vice-Presidential nomination

The Republican Convention Talley
President (before switches) (after switches) Vice President
Richard M. Nixon 692 1238 Spiro T. Agnew 1119
Nelson Rockefeller 277 93 George Romney 186
Ronald Reagan 182 2 John V. Lindsay 10
Ohio Governor James A. Rhodes 55 Massachusetts Senator Edward Brooke 1
Michigan Governor George Romney 50 James A. Rhodes 1
New Jersey Senator Clifford Case 22 Not Voting 16
Kansas Senator Frank Carlson 20
Arkansas Governor Winthrop Rockefeller 18 -
Hawaii Senator Hiram Fong 14 - -
Harold Stassen 2
New York City Mayor John V. Lindsay 1 -

As of 2007, this was the last time two siblings (Nelson and Winthrop Rockefeller) ran against each other in a Presidential primary. Spiro Theodore Agnew, born Spiro Anagnostopoulos (November 9, 1918–September 17, 1996), was the thirty-ninth Vice President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1973 under President Richard M. Nixon. ... Thomas Johnson, the first Governor of Maryland after independence. ... Edward William Brooke III (born October 26, 1919) is an American politician and was the first African American to be elected by popular vote to the United States Senate when he was elected as a Republican from Massachusetts in 1966, defeating his Democratic opponent, Endicott Peabody 58%-42%. Born in... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... John Lester Hubbard Chafee (October 22, 1922 – October 24, 1999) was an American politician. ... List of Rhode Island Governors Nicholas Cooke None 1775-1778 William Greene None 1778-1786 John Collins None 1786-1790 Arthur Fenner Anti-Federalist 1790-1805 Henry Smith Unknown 1805-1806 Isaac Wilbur Unknown 1806-1807 James Fenner Dem. ... Daniel Jackson Evans Daniel Jackson Evans (born November 11, 1925) served three terms as governor of the state of Washington from 1965 to 1977, and represented the state in the United States Senate from 1983 to 1989. ... This is a list of governors of the U.S. state of Washington. ... Robert Hutchison Finch (October 9, 1925 - October 10, 1995) was a Republican politician from Southern California. ... Mark Odom Hatfield (born July 12, 1922) is an American politician from Oregon. ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... Jacob Koppel Jack Javits (May 18, 1904 – March 7, 1986) was a liberal New York politician. ... This article is about the state. ... John Vliet Lindsay (November 24, 1921–December 19, 2000) was an American politician who served as a Congressman (1959-1966) and mayor of New York City (1966-1973). ... For a list of the Dutch Director-Generals who governed New Amsterdam (as New York City was called when it was a Dutch-run settlement) between 1624 and 1664, see: Director-General of New Netherland. ... John Arthur Love (November 29, 1916, to January 21, 2002) was a United States attorney and Republican politician who served as the 36th Governor of the State of Colorado from 1963 to 1973. ... The Governor of Colorado is the chief executive of the U.S. state of Colorado. ... Rogers Clark Ballard Morton Rogers Clark Ballard Morton (September 19, 1914 – April 19, 1979) was a U.S. Republican political figure. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... Charles Harting Percy (born September 27, 1919) was chairman of the Bell & Howell Corporation from 1949 to 1964 and Republican United States Senator for Illinois from 1967 to 1985. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Order: 40th President Term of Office: January 20, 1981–January 20, 1989 Preceded by: Jimmy Carter Succeeded by: George H.W. Bush Date of birth: February 6, 1911 Place of birth: Tampico, Illinois Date of death: June 5, 2004 Place of death: Los Angeles, California First Lady: Nancy Reagan... Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (left) and Governor Gray Davis (right) with President George W. Bush in 2003 The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government, whose responsibilities include making yearly State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that... James Allen Rhodes (September 13, 1909 - March 4, 2001) was a Republican politician from Ohio, and as of 2004 one of only three U.S. state governors to be elected to four terms in office. ... Ohio Governors Ohio was admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803. ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 - January 26, 1979) was a Governor of New York and the 41st Vice President of the United States of America from December 19, 1974 to January 20, 1977. ... This is a list of the Governors of New York. ... George Wilcken Romney (July 8, 1907 – July 26, 1995) was chairman of the American Motors Corporation from 1954 to 1962 and was elected three times as the Republican Governor of Michigan from 1963 to 1969. ... Michigan Governors Territorial Governors State Governors From statehood until the election of 1966, governors were elected to two-year terms. ... John Goodwin Tower (September 29, 1925 – April 5, 1991) was a conservative Republican United States Senator from Houston, Texas. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... John Anthony Volpe (December 8, 1908 - September 11, 1994) was a Governor of Massachusetts and a U.S. Secretary of Transportation. ... The Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the executive magistrate of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Spiro Theodore Agnew, born Spiro Anagnostopoulos (November 9, 1918–September 17, 1996), was the thirty-ninth Vice President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1973 under President Richard M. Nixon. ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American Vice President, governor of New York State, philanthropist and businessman. ... George Wilcken Romney (July 8, 1907 – July 26, 1995) was chairman of the American Motors Corporation from 1954 to 1962 and was elected three times as the Republican Governor of Michigan from 1963 to 1969. ... Reagan redirects here. ... John Vliet Lindsay (November 24, 1921–December 19, 2000) was an American politician who served as a Congressman (1959-1966) and mayor of New York City (1966-1973). ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Greater Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... James Allen Rhodes (September 13, 1909 - March 4, 2001) was a Republican politician from Ohio, and as of 2004 one of only three U.S. state governors to be elected to four terms in office. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Edward William Brooke III (born October 26, 1919) is an American politician and was the first African American to be elected by popular vote to the United States Senate when he was elected as a Republican from Massachusetts in 1966, defeating his Democratic opponent, Endicott Peabody 58%-42%. Born in... This article is about the U.S. State. ... George Wilcken Romney (July 8, 1907 – July 26, 1995) was chairman of the American Motors Corporation from 1954 to 1962 and was elected three times as the Republican Governor of Michigan from 1963 to 1969. ... James Allen Rhodes (September 13, 1909 - March 4, 2001) was a Republican politician from Ohio, and as of 2004 one of only three U.S. state governors to be elected to four terms in office. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Clifford P. Case (1904-1982) Clifford Phillip Case (16 April 1904 in Franklin Park, New Jersey – 5 March 1982 in Washington, DC) was an American lawyer political figure, serving in the U.S. House of Representatives (1945–1953) and United States Senate (1955–1979) as a Republican from the State... Official language(s) English[2] Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  Ranked 15th  - Total 82,277 sq mi (213,096 km²)  - Width 211 miles (340 km)  - Length 417 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... Frank Carlson (January 23, 1893-May 30, 1987) was theGovernor of Kansas from 1947 to 1950 and a U.S. Senator from 1950 to 1969. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Largest metro area Little Rock Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,002 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the Governor of Arkansas (1967-1971). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Hiram Fong Hiram Leong Fong (鄺友良; pinyin: Kuàng YÇ’uliáng), formally Yau Leong Fong (October 15, 1906 – August 18, 2004), was an American elder statesman and business tycoon industrialist from Hawaii. ... Harold Edward Stassen (April 13, 1907 – March 4, 2001) was the 25th Governor of Minnesota from 1939 to 1943 and a later perennial candidate for other offices, most notably and frequently President of the United States. ... John Vliet Lindsay (November 24, 1921–December 19, 2000) was an American politician who served as a Congressman (1959-1966) and mayor of New York City (1966-1973). ... The series of Presidential primary elections and caucuses is one of the first steps in the long, complex process of electing the President of the United States of America. ...


Other candidates

The American Independent Party was formed by George Wallace, whose pro-segregation policies had been rejected by the mainstream of the Democratic party. The impact of the Wallace campaign was substantial, winning the electoral votes of several states in the Deep South. Wallace also proved to be popular among blue-collar workers in the North and Midwest, and took many votes which might have gone to Humphrey. Although Wallace did not expect to win the election, his strategy was to prevent either major party candidate from winning a preliminary majority in the Electoral College, which would then give him bargaining power to determine the winner. Wallace's running mate was retired U.S. Air Force General Curtis LeMay. LeMay embarrassed Wallace's campaign in the fall by suggesting that nuclear weapons could be used in Vietnam. The American Independent Party is a California political party. ... George Corley Wallace, Jr. ... Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... A blue-collar worker is a working class employee who performs manual or technical labor, such as in a factory or in technical maintenance trades, in contrast to a white-collar worker, who does non-manual work generally at a desk. ... The United States Electoral College is the electoral college that chooses the President and Vice President of the United States at the conclusion of each Presidential election. ... A running mate is a person running for a subordinate position on a joint ticket during an election. ... Curtis Emerson LeMay (November 15, 1906–October 3, 1990) was a general in the United States Air Force and the vice presidential running mate of independent candidate George C. Wallace in 1968. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...


Also on the ballot in some states was black activist Eldridge Cleaver for the Peace and Freedom Party. Comedians Dick Gregory and Pat Paulsen were notable write-in candidates. Another presidential candidate for 1968 was a pig named Pigasus, as a political statement by the Yippies. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... United States Peace and Freedom Party logo The Peace and Freedom Party (PFP) is a United States political party founded in 1967 as a leftist organization opposed to the Vietnam War. ... Dick Gregory (1964) Richard Dick Claxton Gregory, (born October 12, 1932) is an African American comedian, social activist, writer, entrepreneur, and nutritionist. ... Patrick Layton Paulsen (July 6, 1927 – April 24, 1997) was an American comedian and satirist notable for his roles on several of the Smothers Brothers TV shows, and for his supposed campaigns for President of the United States in 1968, 1972, 1980, 1988, 1992, and 1996, which had primarily comedic... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A write-in candidate is a candidate in an election whose name does not appear on the ballot, but for whom voters may vote nonetheless by writing in the persons name. ... Pigasus was a pig which the Yippies, led by Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin, ran as their satiric candidate for President of the United States during the massive protests at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago. ... The Youth International Party (whose adherents were known as Yippies, a variant on Hippies) was a highly theatrical political party established in the United States in 1967. ...


General election

The fall campaign

The New York Times front page from two days after the election: November 7, 1968.

Nixon campaigned on a theme to restore "law and order", which appealed to many voters angry at the hundreds of violent riots that had taken place across the country in the previous few years. Following the murder of Dr. King in April 1968, severe rioting in Detroit and Washington, D.C. had forced President Johnson to call out the U.S. Army to protect lives and property, and smoke from burning buildings a few blocks away had drifted across the White House lawn. However, Vice-President Humphrey criticized the "law and order" issue, claiming that it was a subtle appeal to white racial prejudice. New York Times front page: November 7, 1968. ... New York Times front page: November 7, 1968. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


Nixon also developed a "southern strategy," which was designed to appeal to conservative white southerners, who traditionally voted Democratic but were deeply angered by Johnson and Humphrey's support for the civil rights movement. Wallace, however, won over many of the voters Nixon targeted, effectively splitting the conservative vote and boosting Humphrey's chances. The "southern strategy" would prove more effective in subsequent elections, and would become a staple of Republican presidential campaigns. In American politics, the Southern strategy refers to the focus of the Republican party on winning U.S. Presidential elections by securing the electoral votes of the U.S. Southern states. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ...


After the Democratic Convention in late August Humphrey trailed Nixon by double-digits in most polls, and his chances seemed hopeless. According to Time magazine, "The old Democratic coalition was disintegrating, with untold numbers of blue-collar workers responding to Wallace's blandishments, Negroes threatening to sit out the election, liberals disaffected over the [Vietnam] War, the South lost. The war chest was almost empty, and the party's machinery, neglected by Lyndon Johnson, creaked in disrepair."[2] Calling for "the politics of joy", and using the still-powerful labor unions as his base, Humphrey fought back. He attacked Wallace as a racist bigot who appealed to the darker impulses of Americans. Labor unions also undertook a major effort to win back union members who were supporting Wallace, with substantial success. Polls which showed Wallace winning almost one-half of union members in the summer of 1968 showed a sharp decline in his union support as election day approached. Humphrey also pledged to continue the Great Society welfare programs initiated by President Johnson. Featured at the Democratic National Convention are speeches by prominent party figures. ... Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... In business, a war chest is a stash of money set aside to deal with unexpected changes in the business environment. ... A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers. ... The Great Society was also a 1960s band featuring Grace Slick, and a 1914 book by English social theorist Graham Wallas. ...


While Humphrey ran a fighting, slashing campaign, Nixon's campaign was carefully managed and controlled. Nixon often held "town hall" meetings in cities he visited, where he answered questions from voters who had been carefully screened in advance by his aides. Nixon also implied that he had a "solution" to the war in Vietnam, but was vague in providing the details of his plan. As election day approached and Wallace's support in the North and Midwest began to wane, Humphrey finally began to climb in the polls.


In the end, the Vietnam War became the one remaining problem Humphrey could not overcome. In October, Humphrey - who still trailed Nixon in the polls - began to publicly distance himself from the Johnson administration on the Vietnam War, calling for a bombing halt. The key turning point for Humphrey's campaign came when President Johnson officially announced a bombing halt, and even a possible peace deal, the weekend before the election. Tipped off in advance by Henry Kissinger, and fearing this 'October surprise' might cost him the election, Nixon used Anna Chennault as an intermediary to encourage South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu to stay away from the peace talks in the belief that he could expect a better deal under a Nixon Presidency; Thieu obliged. However, the "Halloween Peace" gave Humphrey's campaign a badly needed boost, and by election day the polls were reporting a dead heat. There have been two Presidents of the United States with the surname Johnson: Andrew Johnson Administration, 17th President of the United States, 1865 - 1869. ... This article is about explosive devices. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... An October surprise is American political jargon describing a stunning news event with the potential to influence the outcome of an election, particularly one for the presidency. ... Anna Chennault, (Chinese name Chen Xiangmei (陳香梅), also known as Anna Chan Chennault/Anna Chen Chennault) is the widow of famous World War II aviation hero Claire Lee Chennault. ... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108... President Nguyen Van Thieu Nguyen Van Thieu, (April 5, 1923 – September 29, 2001) was a former General and President of South Vietnam. ...


The election on November 5, 1968 proved to be extremely close, and it was not until the following morning that the television news networks were able to call Nixon the winner. The key states proved to be California, Ohio, and Illinois, all of which Nixon won by three percentage points or less. Nixon won the popular vote with a plurality of 512,000 votes, or a victory margin of about one percentage point. In the electoral college Nixon's victory was larger, as he carried 32 states with 301 electoral votes, to Humphrey's 13 states and 191 electoral votes and Wallace's 5 states and 46 electoral votes. is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Aftermath

Nixon's victory is often considered a realigning election in American politics. Before 1968 the Democrats had clearly been the majority party, winning seven of the previous nine presidential elections. After 1968, the Republicans won five of the next six presidential elections (and they have won seven of the last ten, as of 2004). Many historians believe the reason for the Democratic Party's decline in strength was the bitter split within the party created by the Vietnam War and other "culture wars" of the 1960's. Most white Southern Democrats (and especially their children) became Republicans in the next two decades, creating a fundamental shift of political power in the nation which favored the GOP. For example, before 1968 the state of North Carolina had voted Republican only once in the twentieth century, and only twice since the American Civil War. However, North Carolina voted for Nixon in 1968 and since that election has voted Republican in every presidential election but one (1976). Realigning election or political realignment are terms from political science and political history describing a dramatic change in the political system. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


Another important result of the 1968 election was that it led to several reforms in how the Democratic Party chose its presidential nominees. After the election, many of McCarthy and Kennedy's supporters gained control of the party machinery, and for the 1972 election they passed a number of initiatives designed to make the nomination process more democratic. A key initiative took the nominating process out of the hands of the party bosses by greatly enlarging the number of states which held presidential primaries. After 1968 the only way to win the party's presidential nomination was through the primary process; Humphrey turned out to be the last nominee of either major party to win his party's nomination without having directly competed in the primaries.


Results

Presidential Candidate Party Home State Popular Vote Electoral Vote Running Mate Running Mate's
Home State
Running Mate's
Electoral Vote
Count Percentage
Richard Milhous Nixon Republican New York[3] 31,783,783 43.4% 301 Spiro Theodore Agnew Maryland 301
Hubert Horatio Humphrey Democratic Minnesota 31,271,839 42.7% 191 Edmund Sixtus Muskie Maine 191
George Corley Wallace American Independent Alabama 9,901,118 13.5% 46 Curtis Emerson LeMay California[4] 46
Other 243,258 0.3% 0 Other 0
Total 73,199,998 100.0% 538 Total 538
Needed to win 270 Needed to win 270

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. 1968 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (August 7, 2005). Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... This article is about the state. ... Spiro Theodore Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996) was the thirty-ninth Vice President of the United States serving under President Richard M. Nixon, and the fifty-fifth Governor of Maryland. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... Edmund Muskie (March 28, 1914 – March 26, 1996) was an American Democratic politician from Maine. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... George Corley Wallace, Jr. ... American Independent Party is a United States American political party. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Curtis Emerson LeMay (November 15, 1906 - October 3, 1990) was a General in the United States Air Force. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Source (Electoral Vote): Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (August 7, 2005). is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


National voter demographics

NBC sample precincts 1968 election
 % Humphrey  % Nixon  % Wallace
High income urban 29 63 5
Middle income urban 43 44 13
Low income urban 69 19 12
Rural (all income) 33 46 21
African-American neighborhoods 94 5 1
Italian neighborhoods 51 39 10
Slavic neighborhoods 65 24 11
Jewish neighborhoods 81 17 2
Unionized neighborhoods 61 29 10

Source: Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report. “Group Analysis of the 1968 Presidential Vote” XXVI, No. 48 (November 1968), p. 3218.


Voter demographics in the South

NBC sample precincts 1968 election: South only
 % Humphrey  % Nixon  % Wallace
Middle income urban neighborhoods 28 40 32
Low income urban neighborhoods 57 18 25
Rural (all income) 29 30 41
African-American neighborhoods 95 3 2
Hispanic neighborhoods 92 7 1

Source: Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report. “Group Analysis of the 1968 Presidential Vote”, XXVI, No. 48 (November 1968), p. 3218.


Miscellanea

  • This is the most recent Presidential Election in which any third party candidate won at least one state in the Electoral College.
  • Had LBJ stayed in the race and won and served out the new term, he would have been president for 9 years, second only to FDR.

The United States Electoral College is the electoral college that chooses the President and Vice President of the United States at the conclusion of each Presidential election. ... FDR may refer to: Franklin Delano Roosevelt - The 32nd President of the United States, Flight data recorder - device used to record aircraft and pilot behavior in order to analyze accidents (usually called black boxes by the news media). ...

See also

The U.S. House election, 1968 was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1968 which coincided with Richard M. Nixons election as President. ...  Republican holds  Republican pickups  Democratic holds  Democratic pickups The U.S. Senate election, 1968 was an election for the United States Senate which coincided with the 1968 presidential election. ... The history of the United States from 1964 through 1980 includes the continuation of the African American Civil Rights Movement; the Vietnam War and protests involved with it; and a continuation of the Cold War, which prompted the United States to send the first man to the Moon. ... The History of the Democratic Party is an account of a continuously supported political party in the United States of America. ... The Republican Party of the United States was established in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... This list includes only those persons who were sworn into office as President of the United States following the ratification of the United States Constitution, which took effect in 1789. ...

Source

  • White, Theodore H., The Making of the President 1968. Pocket Books, 1970.

Notes

  1. ^ Dallek (1998); Woods (2006); Gould (1993).
  2. ^ Time November 15, 1968
  3. ^ In 1968, Richard Nixon's official state of residence was New York, not California. He had moved to New York City to practice law after his loss in the 1962 California gubernatorial race.
  4. ^ Electoral Votes for President and Vice President. Senate Manual. Government Printing Office (2005). Retrieved on March 14, 2006.

Further reading

  • Ambrose, Stephen E. (1987). Nixon: The Education of a Politician. 
  • Brown, Stuart Gerry. The Presidency on Trial: Robert Kennedy's 1968 Campaign and Afterwards. U. Press of Hawaii, 1972. 155 pp.
  • Burner, David and West, Thomas R. The Torch Is Passed: The Kennedy Brothers and American Liberalism. (1984). 307 pp.
  • Carter, Dan T. (1995). The Politics of Rage: George Wallace, the Origins of the New Conservatism, and the Transformation of American Politics. 
  • Gallup, George H., ed. The Gallup Poll: Public Opinion, 1935-1971. 3 vols. Random House, 1972. press releases
  • Lewis, Chester; Hodgson, Godfrey; Page, Bruce (1969). An American Melodrama: The Presidential Campaign of 1968. Viking Press. 
  • Kimball, Warren F. "The Election of 1968." Diplomatic History 2004 28(4): 513-528. ISSN 0145-2096 Fulltext online in SwetsWise, Ingenta and Ebsco. Comments by others at pp. 563-576; reply, p. 577.
  • Farber, David (1988). Chicago '68. University of Chicago Press. 
  • Goodwin, Doris Kearns (1991). Lyndon Johnson and the American Dream. St. Martin's Press. 
  • Gould, Lewis L. (1993). 1968: The Election that Changed America. Ivan R. Dee. 
  • Humphrey, Hubert H. (1976). The Education of a Public Man: My Life and Politics. Doubleday. 
  • Jamieson, Patrick E. "Seeing the Lyndon B. Johnson Presidency through the March 31, 1968 Withdrawal Speech." Presidential Studies Quarterly Vol 29#1 1999 pp. 134+
  • Kogin, Michael (Spring 1966). "Wallace and the Middle Class". Public Opinion Quarterly 30 (1). 
  • by Walter LaFeber. The Deadly Bet: LBJ, Vietnam, and the 1968 Election (2005) short survey
  • Eugene McCarthy, The Year of the People (1969), memoir
  • McGinniss, Joe (1969). The Selling of the President 1968. Trident Press. 
  • Nixon, Richard (1978). RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon. 
  • Richardson, Darcy G. (2002). A Nation Divided: The 1968 Presidential Campaign. 
  • Rising, George (1997). Clean for Gene: Eugene McCarthy's 1968 Presidential Campaign. Praeger Publishers. 
  • Savage, Sean J. (2004). JFK, LBJ, and the Democratic Party. SUNY Albany Press. 
  • Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. (1978). Robert Kennedy and His Times. Houghton Mifflin. 
  • Jeff Shesol, Mutual Contempt: Lyndon Johnson, Robert Kennedy, and the Feud that Defined a Decade (1997)
  • Unger, Irwin; Debi Unger, Debi (1988). Turning Point: 1968. Scribner's. 
  • White, Theodore H. (1969). The Making of the President—1968. Atheneum. 
  • Woods, Randall. LBJ: Architect of American Ambition (2006)

This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

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