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Encyclopedia > United States presidential election, 1960
1956  Flag of the United States 1964
United States presidential election, 1960
November 8, 1960
Nominee John F. Kennedy Richard Nixon Harry F. Byrd
Party Democratic Republican Independent
Home state Massachusetts California Virginia
Running mate Lyndon B. Johnson Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. James Strom Thurmond
Electoral vote 303 219 15
States carried 22 26 2
Popular vote 34,220,984 34,108,157 286,359
Percentage 49.7% 49.5% 0.4%

Presidential election results map. Blue denotes states won by Kennedy/Johnson, Red denotes those won by Nixon/Lodge. Brown denotes the electoral votes for Harry F. Byrd by Alabama and Mississippi unpledged electors, and an Oklahoma "faithless elector". Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (760x1133, 710 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Talk:John F. Kennedy President of the United States John F. Kennedy Template:POTUSgallery Metadata This file contains... Image File history File links Nixon_30-0316a. ... Image File history File links Harry_F._Byrd. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Nixon redirects here. ... Harry Flood Byrd, Sr. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... GOP redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... LBJ redirects here. ... Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. ... Harry Flood Byrd, Sr. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Unpledged Elector is an option used for Presidential elections in the United States of America. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... A faithless elector is a member of the United States Electoral College who casts an electoral vote for someone other than the person whom they have pledged to elect. ...

Incumbent President
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Republican
President-Elect
John F. Kennedy
Democratic

The United States presidential election of 1960 marked the end of Dwight D. Eisenhower's two terms as President. Eisenhower's Vice President, Richard M. Nixon, who had transformed his office into a national political base, was the Republican (GOP) candidate. Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... GOP redirects here. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS,[2] Veep, or VP) is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ...


The Democrats nominated Massachusetts Senator John F. Kennedy (JFK). He was only the second Roman Catholic to become a major-party presidential candidate (the previous one was Democrat Al Smith in 1928). During the campaign, Kennedy charged that under Eisenhower and the Republicans America was falling behind the Soviet Union in the Cold War, both militarily and economically, and that as President he would "get America moving again". Nixon responded that, if elected, he would continue the "peace and prosperity" Eisenhower had brought the nation, and that with the nation engaged in the Cold War, Kennedy was too young and inexperienced to be trusted with the Presidency. The electoral vote was the closest in any presidential election dating to 1916, and Kennedy's margin of victory in the popular vote is among the closest ever in American history. The 1960 election also remains a source of debate among some historians as to whether vote theft in selected states aided Kennedy's victory. This article is about the U.S. state. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Alfred Emanuel Al Smith (December 30, 1873 – October 4, 1944) was Governor of New York, and Democratic U.S. presidential candidate in 1928. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The United States presidential election of 1916 took place while Europe was embroiled in World War I. Public sentiment in the still neutral United States leaned towards the British and French (allied) forces, due to the harsh treatment of civilians by the German Army, which had invaded and occupied large... Electoral fraud is the deliberate interference with the process of an election. ...

Contents

Nominations

Democratic Party nomination

The following political leaders were candidates for the 1960 Democratic presidential nomination. With the exceptions of Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson, Hubert Humphrey, Stuart Symington and Adlai Stevenson[1], these men were "favorite-son" candidates without any realistic chance of winning the nomination:

Kennedy was initially dogged by suggestions from some Democratic Party elders (such as former President Harry Truman) that he was too youthful and inexperienced to be president; these critics suggested that he agree to be the running mate for a "more experienced" Democrat. Realizing that this was a strategy touted by his opponents to keep the public from taking him seriously, Kennedy stated frankly ‘I’m not running for vice president, I’m running for president.’[2] For the victim of Mt. ...


A more serious problem for Kennedy was his Roman Catholic religion. Recalling the experience of 1928 Catholic Democratic presidential nominee Al Smith, many wondered if anti-Catholic prejudice would hurt Kennedy's chances of winning the nomination and the election in November. To prove his vote-getting ability, Kennedy challenged Minnesota Senator Hubert Humphrey, a liberal, in the Wisconsin primary. Although Kennedy defeated Humphrey in Wisconsin, the fact that his margin of victory came mostly from heavily Catholic areas left many party bosses unconvinced of Kennedy's appeal to non-Catholic voters. Kennedy next faced Humphrey in the heavily Protestant state of West Virginia, where anti-Catholic bigotry was said to be widespread. Humphrey's campaign was low on money and could not compete with the well-organized, well-financed Kennedy team. Kennedy's attractive sisters and brothers combed the state looking for votes, leading Humphrey to complain that he "felt like an independent merchant running against a chain store." On primary day Kennedy crushed Humphrey with over 60% of the vote. Humphrey withdrew from the race and Kennedy had gained the victory he needed to prove to the party's bosses that a Catholic could win in a non-Catholic state. In the months leading up to the Democratic Convention Kennedy traveled around the nation persuading delegates from various states to support him. However, as the Convention opened Kennedy was still a few dozen votes short of victory. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Alfred Emanuel Al Smith (December 30, 1873 – October 4, 1944) was Governor of New York, and Democratic U.S. presidential candidate in 1928. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym West Virginian Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st in the US  - Total 24,230 sq mi (62,755 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ...


Primary states won by:


Kennedy

1960 Democratic primaries results
1960 Democratic primaries results

Humphrey This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym West Virginian Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st in the US  - Total 24,230 sq mi (62,755 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

Brown Official language(s) English Demonym South Dakotan Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th in the US  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... ...

Smathers This article is about the U.S. state. ...

DiSalle This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ...

This article is about the U.S. State. ...

Republican Party nomination

Republican candidates

With the ratification of the 22nd Amendment in 1951 President Eisenhower could not run for the office of President again; he had been elected in 1952 and 1956. In 1960 he remained highly popular, and most historians believe that if he could have run for a third term he would have defeated any of the major Democratic candidates, including Kennedy. (Redirected from 22nd Amendment) The Twenty-second Amendment of the United States Constitution establishes a two-term limit for the Presidency. ...


In 1959 it looked as if Vice President Richard Nixon might face a serious challenge for the GOP nomination from New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller, the leader of the GOP's moderate-liberal wing. However, Rockefeller announced that he would not be a candidate for president after a national tour revealed that the great majority of Republicans favored Nixon. After Rockefeller's withdrawal, Nixon faced no significant opposition for the Republican nomination. At the 1960 Republican National Convention in Chicago, Nixon was the overwhelming choice of the delegates, with conservative Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona receiving 10 votes from conservative delegates. Nixon then chose former Massachusetts Senator and United Nations Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. as his Vice Presidential candidate. Nixon redirects here. ... This article is about the state. ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American Vice President, governor of New York State, philanthropist and businessman. ... Mitchell who sits next to Ryan Anderson in computer class at Thunderbolt Middle School is weird. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... UN redirects here. ... Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. ...


Democratic Convention

The 1960 Democratic National Convention was held in Los Angeles. In the week before the convention opened, Kennedy received two new challengers when Lyndon B. Johnson, the powerful Senate Majority Leader from Texas, and Adlai Stevenson II, the party's nominee in 1952 and 1956, announced their candidacies. However, neither Johnson nor Stevenson was a match for the talented and highly efficient Kennedy campaign team led by Robert Kennedy. Johnson challenged Kennedy to a televised debate before a joint meeting of the Texas and Massachusetts delegations; Kennedy accepted. Most observers felt that Kennedy won the debate, and Johnson was not able to expand his delegate support beyond the South. Stevenson was popular among many liberal delegates, especially in California, but his two landslide defeats in 1952 and 1956 led party leaders to search for a "fresh face" who had a better chance of winning. Kennedy won the nomination on the first ballot. Then, in a move which surprised many, Johnson was asked by Kennedy to be his running mate. To this day there is much debate regarding the details of Johnson's nomination - why it was offered and why he agreed to take it. Some historians speculate that Kennedy actually wanted someone else (such as Senators Stuart Symington or Henry M. Jackson) to be his running mate, and that he offered the nomination to Johnson first only as a courtesy to the powerful Senate Majority Leader. According to this theory, Kennedy was then surprised when Johnson accepted second place on the Democratic ticket. Another related story is that, after Johnson accepted the offer, Robert Kennedy went to Johnson's hotel suite to dissuade Johnson from becoming the vice-presidential nominee. Johnson was offended that "JFK's kid brother" would brashly urge him to stay off the ticket. In response to his blunt confrontation with Robert Kennedy, Johnson called JFK to confirm that the vice-presidential nomination was his; JFK clearly stated that he wanted Johnson as his running mate. Johnson and Robert Kennedy became so embittered by the experience that they began a fierce personal and political feud that would have grave implications for the Democratic Party in the 1960s. Despite the reservations Robert Kennedy had about Johnson's nomination, the move proved to be a masterstroke for his older brother. Johnson vigorously campaigned for JFK and was instrumental in helping the Democrats to carry several Southern states skeptical of Kennedy, especially Johnson's home state of Texas. The 1960 Democratic National Convention nominated John F. Kennedy for President and Lyndon B. Johnson for Vice President. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... LBJ redirects here. ... A Senate Majority Leader is a politician within a Senate who leads the majority party, or majority coalition, of sitting senators. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Portrait of Adlai Stevenson Adlai Ewing Stevenson II (February 5, 1900–July 14, 1965) was an American politician and statesman, noted for his skill in debate and oratory. ... Robert Kennedy Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy, also called RFK (November 20, 1925–June 6, 1968) was the younger brother of President John F. Kennedy, and was appointed by his brother as Attorney General for his administration. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... William Stuart Symington William Stuart Symington (June 26, 1901–December 14, 1988) was a businessman and political figure from Missouri. ... Henry Martin Scoop Jackson (May 31, 1912 – September 1, 1983) was a U.S. Congressman and Senator for Washington State from 1941 until his death. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ...

The presidential tally
John F. Kennedy 806
Lyndon Johnson 409
Stuart Symington 86
Adlai Stevenson 79.5
Robert B. Meyner 43
Hubert Humphrey 41
George A. Smathers 30
Ross Barnett 23
Herschel Loveless 2
Pat Brown 1
Orval Faubus 1
Albert Rosellini 1

John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... William Stuart Symington William Stuart Symington (June 26, 1901–December 14, 1988) was a businessman and political figure from Missouri. ... This is about the mid-20th-century politician and diplomat; for other American politicians so named, see Adlai Stevenson (disambiguation). ... Robert Baumle Meyner (July 3, 1908 - May 27, 1990) of Phillipsburg, New Jersey was the Democratic Governor of New Jersey from 1954 to 1962. ... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... George Smathers George Armistead Smathers (born November 14, 1913) is an American lawyer and politician who represented Florida in the United States Senate for eighteen years. ... Ross Robert Barnett (January 22, 1898 – November 6, 1987) was the Democratic Governor of the U.S. state of Mississippi from 1960 to 1964. ... For other persons named Pat Brown, see Pat Brown (disambiguation). ... Orval Eugene Faubus (7 January 1910 – 14 December 1994) was a six-term Democratic Governor of Arkansas, having served from 1955-1967. ... Albert Dean Rosellini (born January 21, 1910) is a businessman from the U.S. state of Washington. ...

General election

The fall campaign

Both Kennedy and Nixon drew large and enthusiastic crowds throughout the campaign.[2] In August 1960 most polls gave Vice-President Nixon a slim lead over Kennedy, and many political pundits regarded Nixon as the favorite to win. However, Nixon was plagued by bad luck throughout the fall campaign. In August President Eisenhower, who had long been ambivalent about Nixon, held a televised press conference in which a reporter mentioned Nixon's claims that he had been a valuable administration insider and advisor. The reporter asked Eisenhower if he could think of any Nixon advice or suggestions that he had heeded. Eisenhower responded with the flip comment that "if you give me a week I might think of one." Although both Eisenhower and Nixon later claimed that Ike was merely joking with the reporter, the remark hurt Nixon, as it undercut his claims of having greater decision-making experience than Kennedy. The remark proved so damaging to Nixon that the Democrats turned Eisenhower's statement into a television commercial criticizing Nixon. At the Republican Convention Nixon had pledged to campaign in all fifty states. This pledge backfired when, in August, Nixon injured his knee on a car door while campaigning in North Carolina; the knee became infected and Nixon had to cease campaigning for two weeks while the infected knee was injected with antibiotics. When he left Walter Reed Hospital Nixon refused to abandon his pledge to visit every state; he thus wound up wasting valuable time visiting states that he had no chance to win, or which had few electoral votes and would be of little help in the election. A pandit or pundit(पन्दित् in Devanagari) is a Hindu Brahmin who has memorized a substantial portion of the Vedas, along with the proper rhythms and melodies for chanting or singing them. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... Walter Reed Army Medical Center is a hospital run by the United States Army. ...


The key turning point of the campaign were the four Kennedy-Nixon debates; they were the first presidential debates held on television. Nixon insisted on campaigning until just a few hours before the first debate started; he had not completely recovered from his hospital stay and thus looked haggard, sickly, underweight, and tired. He also refused makeup for the first debate, and as a result his beard stubble showed prominently on the era's black-and-white TV screens. Nixon's poor appearance on television in the first debate is reflected by the fact that his mother called him immediately following the debate to ask if he was sick. Kennedy, by contrast, rested before the first debate and appeared tanned, confident, and relaxed during the debate. An estimated 80 million viewers watched the first debate. After it had ended polls showed Kennedy moving from a slight deficit into a slight lead over Nixon. For the remaining three debates Nixon regained his lost weight, wore television makeup, and appeared more forceful than his initial appearance. However, the audience for the remaining three debates was not as large as for the first debate, with viewership decreasing by 20% after the initial debate.


A key factor which hurt Kennedy in the campaign was the widespread prejudice against his Roman Catholic religion; some Protestants believed that, if he were elected President, Kennedy would have to take orders from the Pope in Rome. In September 1960 Kennedy gave a well-received speech before a meeting of Protestant ministers in Houston, Texas; in the speech Kennedy promised to obey the separation of church and state and to not allow Catholic officials to dictate public policy to him. Even so, it was widely believed after the election that Kennedy lost some heavily Protestant states because of his Catholicism. As the campaign moved into the final two weeks the polls and most political pundits predicted a Kennedy victory. However, President Eisenhower, who had largely sat out the campaign, made a vigorous campaign tour for Nixon over the last ten days before the election. Eisenhower's support gave Nixon a badly needed boost, and by election day the polls showed a virtual tie. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Houston redirects here. ... A pandit or pundit(पन्दित् in Devanagari) is a Hindu Brahmin who has memorized a substantial portion of the Vedas, along with the proper rhythms and melodies for chanting or singing them. ...


Results

The election on November 8 remains one of the most famous election nights in American history. As the early returns poured in from large Northern and Midwestern cities such as Boston, New York City, Buffalo, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, Detroit, and Chicago, Kennedy opened a large lead in the popular and electoral vote, and appeared headed for victory. However, as later returns came in from the Western states and rural and suburban areas in the Midwest, Nixon began to steadily close the gap with Kennedy. It was not until the afternoon of Wednesday, November 9 that Nixon finally conceded the election and Kennedy claimed victory. A sample of how close the election was can be seen in California; Kennedy appeared to have carried the state by 37,000 votes when all of the voting precincts reported, but when the absentee ballots were counted a week later, Nixon came from behind to win the state by 36,000 votes. In the national popular vote Kennedy beat Nixon by just one tenth of one percentage point (0.1%) - the closest popular-vote margin of the twentieth century. In the electoral college Kennedy's victory was larger, as he took 303 electoral votes to Nixon's 219 (269 were needed to win). Kennedy carried 11 states by three percentage points or less, while Nixon won 5 states by the same margin. Kennedy carried all but three states in the populous Northeastern US, and he also carried the large states of Michigan, Illinois, and Missouri in the Midwest. With Lyndon Johnson's help he also carried most of the South, including the large states of North Carolina, Georgia, and Texas. Nixon carried all but three of the Western states, and he ran strong in the farm belt states, where his biggest victory was Ohio. The New York Times, summarizing the discussion late in November, spoke of a “narrow consensus” among the experts that Kennedy had won more than he lost as a result of his Catholicism.[3] Interviewing people who voted in both 1956 and 1960, a University of Michigan team analyzing the election returns discovered that people who voted Democratic in 1956 split 33–6 for Kennedy, while the Republican voters of 1956 split 44–17 for Nixon. That is, Nixon lost 28% (17/61) of the Eisenhower voters, while Kennedy lost only 15% of the Stevenson voters. The Democrats, in other words, did a better job of holding their base than the Republicans by a razor-thin margin.[4] is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... See Buffalo for other places with this name. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... City nickname: The Steel City Location in the state of Pennsylvania Founded 1758 Mayor Tom Murphy (Dem) Area  - Total  - Water 151. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China Rural areas (also referred to as the country, countryside) are settled places outside towns and cities. ... Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... In the United States, an absentee ballot is a ballot that the voter receives and (usually) sends through the mail, rather than travelling to a polling place and marking the ballot at a voting booth. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, U-M, UM or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan. ...


Controversies

Some Republicans and historians have alleged that Kennedy benefited from vote fraud, especially in Texas and Illinois, and that Nixon actually won the national popular vote despite the fact that Republicans tried and failed to overturn the results in both these states at the time--as well as in nine other states. These two states are important because if Nixon had carried both, he would have won the election in the electoral college. Electoral fraud is the deliberate interference with the process of an election. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Kennedy won Illinois by a bare 9,000 votes, even though Nixon carried 92 of the state's 101 counties. Kennedy's victory in Illinois came from the city of Chicago, where Mayor Richard J. Daley held back much of Chicago's vote until the late morning hours of November 9. The efforts of Daley and the powerful Chicago Democratic organization gave Kennedy an extraordinary Cook County victory margin of 450,000 votes --- more than 10% of Chicago's 1960 population of 3.55 million[5] --- thus (barely) overcoming the heavy Republican vote in the rest of Illinois. Earl Mazo, a reporter for the pro-Nixon New York Herald Tribune, investigated the voting in Chicago and claimed to have discovered sufficient evidence of vote fraud to prove that the state was "stolen" for Kennedy. For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Richard Joseph Daley (May 15, 1902 – December 20, 1976) was the longest-serving mayor of Chicago. ... Cook County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Herald Tribune was a newspaper created in 1924 when the New York Tribune acquired the New York Herald. ...


In Texas, some Republicans argued that the formidable political machine of Lyndon B. Johnson had stolen enough votes in counties along the Mexican border to give Kennedy the victory there. LBJ redirects here. ...


According to Nixon partisans, the Republican party urged Nixon to pursue recounts and challenge the validity of some votes for Kennedy, especially in the pivotal states of Illinois, Missouri and New Jersey, where large majorities in Catholic precincts handed Kennedy the election. Nixon publicly refused to call for a recount, saying it would cause a constitutional crisis; he also convinced Mazo and the Herald Tribune to not print any stories suggesting that the election had been stolen by the Democrats. Privately, however, Nixon encouraged Republican National Chairman Thruston Morton to push for a recount, which Morton did in 11 states, keeping challenges in the courts into the summer of 1961; the only result was the loss of the State of Hawaii to Kennedy on a recount petitioned by the Kennedy campaign. A constitutional crisis is a severe breakdown in the smooth operation of government. ... Thruston Ballard Morton (1907 - 1982), a Republican, represented Kentucky in the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Kennedy's defenders, such as historian Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., have argued that Kennedy's margin in Texas (46,000 votes) was simply too large for vote fraud to have been a decisive factor; in Illinois Schlesinger and others have pointed out that even if Nixon carried Illinois, the state alone would not have given him the victory, as Kennedy would still have won 276 electoral votes to Nixon's 246[citation needed] (with 269 needed to win). More to the point, Illinois was the site of the most extensive challenge process, which fell short despite repeated efforts spearheaded by Cook County state's attorney, Benjamin Adamowski, a Republican, who also lost his re-election bid. Despite demonstrating net errors favoring both Nixon and Adamowski (some precincts--40% in Nixon's case--showed errors favoring them, a factor suggesting error, rather than fraud), the totals found fell short of reversing the results for either candidate. The Republican-dominated State Board of Elections unanimously rejected the challenge to the results. Furthermore, there were signs of possible irregularities in downstate areas controlled by Republicans, which Democrats never seriously pressed, since the Republican challenges went nowhere.[6] This article is about Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. ...


Alabama popular vote

The actual number of popular votes received by Kennedy is difficult to determine because of the unusual situation in Alabama. The first, minor issue is that, instead of having the voters choose from slates of electors, the Alabama ballot had voters choose the electors individually. Traditionally, in such a situation, a given candidate is assigned the popular vote of the elector who received the most votes. For instance, candidates pledged to Nixon received anywhere from 230,951 votes (for George Witcher) to 237,981 votes (for Cecil Durham); Nixon is therefore assigned 237,981 popular votes from Alabama. This article is about the U.S. State. ... Presidential Electors in the United States are the individuals who actually vote for Presidential candidates in the Electoral College. ...


The more important issue is that the statewide Democratic primary had chosen eleven candidates for the Electoral College, five of whom were pledged to vote for Kennedy, and six of whom were free to vote for anyone they chose. All of these candidates won, and the six unpledged electors voted against Kennedy. The actual number of popular votes received by Kennedy is therefore difficult to allocate. Traditionally, Kennedy is assigned either 318,303 votes (the votes won by the most popular Kennedy elector) or 324,050 votes (the votes won by the most popular Democratic elector); indeed, the results table below is based on Kennedy winning 318,303 votes in Alabama. However, if any reasonable attempt is made to allocate the popular vote between Kennedy electors and unpledged electors, a plurality of the national popular vote goes to Nixon instead of Kennedy. For instance, if the 324,050 votes mentioned above were split 5 for Kennedy to 6 for unpledged electors, Kennedy would receive 147,295 votes in Alabama for a national popular vote of 34,049,976. In such a scenario, the unpledged Democratic electors would receive 463,113 popular votes: 286,359 from Mississippi and 176,754 from Alabama. [7] This article is about Electoral Colleges in general. ...


Even taking the Alabama totals alone and the vote counts for the other 49 states, Nixon has a 58,181-vote plurality, edging out Kennedy 34,108,157 votes to 34,049,976. Using this calculation without even taking into consideration the alleged occurrences of vote fraud, the 1960 election was even closer than previously thought.[8]


Georgia popular vote

The actual number of votes received by Kennedy and Nixon in Georgia is also difficult to determine because voters voted for 12 separate electors. The vote totals of 458,638 votes for Kennedy and 274,472 votes for Nixon reflect the number of votes for the Kennedy and Nixon electors who received the highest number of votes. However, the Republican and Democratic electors receiving the highest number of votes were outliers from the other 11 electors from their party. The average vote totals for the 12 electors were 455,629 votes for the Democratic electors and 273,110 votes for the Republican electors. This shrinks Kennedy's election margin in Georgia by 1,647 votes to 182,519.[9]


Unpledged Democratic electors

Many Southern Democrats were opposed to the national Democratic Party's platform on supporting civil rights and voting rights for African-Americans living in the South. Both before and after the convention, they attempted to put unpledged Democratic electors on their states' ballots in the hopes of influencing the race: the existence of such electors might influence which candidate would be chosen by the national convention, and, in a close race, such electors might be in a position to extract concessions from either the Democratic or Republican presidential candidates in return for their electoral votes. Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Predominantly Christianity and Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... The Unpledged Elector is an option used for Presidential elections in the United States of America. ...


Most of these attempts failed. Alabama put up a mixed slate of five loyal electors and six unpledged electors. Mississippi put up two distinct slates, one of loyalists and one of unpledged electors. Louisiana also put up two distinct slates, although the unpledged slate did not receive the “Democratic” label. Georgia freed its Democratic electors from pledges to vote for Kennedy, but popular Governor Ernest Vandiver, a candidate for elector himself, publicly backed Kennedy. Samuel Ernest Vandiver Jr. ...


In total, fourteen unpledged Democratic electors won election from the voters. Because electors pledged to Kennedy had won a clear majority of the Electoral College, the unpledged electors could not influence the results. Nonetheless, they refused to vote for Kennedy. Instead they voted for Virginia Senator Harry F. Byrd, a conservative Democrat, even though Byrd was not an announced candidate and did not seek their votes. The Unpledged Elector is an option used for Presidential elections in the United States of America. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Harry Flood Byrd, Sr. ...

Presidential Candidate Party Home State Popular Vote Electoral
Vote
Running Mate Running Mate's
Home State
RM's Electoral
Vote
Count Pct
John Fitzgerald Kennedy Democratic Massachusetts 34,220,984(a) 49.7% 303 Lyndon Baines Johnson Texas 303
Richard Milhous Nixon Republican California 34,108,157 49.5% 219 Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. Massachusetts 219
Harry Flood Byrd (none) Virginia (b) (b) 15 James Strom Thurmond South Carolina 14
Barry Morris Goldwater(c) Arizona 1(c)
(unpledged electors) Democratic (n/a) 286,359 0.4% (d) (n/a) (n/a) (d)
Orval Faubus States' Rights Arkansas 44,984 0.1% 0 John G. Crommelin Alabama 0
Charles Sullivan Constitution Mississippi (TX) 18,162 0.0% 0 Merritt Curtis California 0
Other 216,982 0.3% Other
Total 68,895,628 100 % 537 537
Needed to win 269 269

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. 1960 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (7 February 2008). Note: Sullivan / Curtis run only in Texas. In Washington, Constitution Party run Curtis for President and B. N. Miller for vice-president, receiving 1,401 votes. John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Harry Flood Byrd, Sr. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... James Strom Thurmond (December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) was an American politician who served as governor of South Carolina and as a United States Senator representing that state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... The Unpledged Elector is an option used for Presidential elections in the United States of America. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Orval Eugene Faubus (7 January 1910 – 14 December 1994) was a six-term Democratic Governor of Arkansas, having served from 1955-1967. ... National States Rights Party is a far right party that found a minor role in the politics of the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article needs cleanup. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ...


Source (Electoral Vote): Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (August 2, 2005). is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Close states

  1. Hawaii, 0.06%
  2. Illinois, 0.19%
  3. Missouri, 0.52%
  4. California, 0.55%
  5. New Jersey, 0.80%
  6. New Mexico, 0.74%
  7. Minnesota, 1.43%
  8. Delaware, 1.64%
  9. Alaska, 1.8%
  10. Texas, 2.00%
  11. Michigan, 2.01%
  12. Nevada, 2.32%
  13. Pennsylvania, 2.32%
  14. Washington, 2.41%
  15. South Carolina, 2.48%
  16. Montana, 2.50%
  17. Mississippi, 2.64%
  18. Florida, 3.03%
  19. Wisconsin, 3.72%
  20. North Carolina, 4.22%
  21. New York, 5.26%
  22. Oregon, 5.24%
  23. Virginia, 5.47%
  24. West Virginia, 5.47%
  25. Ohio, 6.57%
  26. New Hampshire, 6.84%
  27. Arkansas, 7.13%
  28. Tennessee, 7.14%
  29. Kentucky, 7.18%
  30. Maryland, 7.23%
  31. Connecticut, 7.46%
  32. Idaho, 7.57%
  33. Utah, 9.64%
  34. Colorado, 9.73%

(a) This figure is problematic; see Alabama popular vote above.
(b) Byrd was not directly on the ballot. Instead, his electoral votes came from unpledged Democratic electors and a faithless elector.
(c) Oklahoma faithless elector Henry D. Irwin, though pledged to vote for Richard Nixon and Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., instead voted for independent Harry F. Byrd. However, unlike other electors who voted for Byrd and Strom Thurmond as Vice President, Irwin voted for Barry Goldwater as Vice President.
(d) In Mississippi, the slate of unpledged Democratic electors won. They cast their 8 votes for Byrd and Thurmond. The Unpledged Elector is an option used for Presidential elections in the United States of America. ... A faithless elector is a member of the United States Electoral College who casts an electoral vote for someone other than the person whom they have pledged to elect. ... Henry D. Irwin was a Republican Presidential Elector (from Oklahoma) for the 1960 U.S. Presidential Election who became a faithless elector when he declined to vote as pledged. ... Harry Flood Byrd, Sr. ... James Strom Thurmond (December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) was an American politician who served as governor of South Carolina and as a United States Senator representing that state. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ...


See also

As in the United States, Canadians were divided over the presidential election in their largest ally the United States of America for reasons of agreeable relations with the United States, but the general view is that Canadians were more favourable to Richard Nixon. ... Italic text The history of the United States from 1945 through 1964 covers the early Cold War and the [[African-American Civil Rights Movement (1955-1968)|Civil Rights Movement]]. The period of United States history is seen as a period of active foreign policy designed to rescue Europe from the...  Republican holds  Republican pickups  Democratic holds  Democratic pickups The U.S. Senate election, 1960 was an election for the United States Senate which coincided with the election of John F. Kennedy as president. ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,825719,00.html
  2. ^ E. Thomas Wood, "Nashville now and then: Nixon paints the town red", 2007-10-05. Retrieved on 2007-10-06. 
  3. ^ New York Times, November 20, 1960, Section 4, p. E5
  4. ^ Campbell, Angus; et al. (1966). Elections and the Political Order, 83. 
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ Slate, October 16, 2000, "Was Nixon Robbed? The legend of the stolen 1960 presidential election" by David Greenberg
  7. ^ Gaines, Brian J. (March 2001). "Popular Myths About Popular Vote–Electoral College Splits". PS: Political Science & Politics: 71–75. 
  8. ^ The Wall Street Journal Online - John Fund on the Trail
  9. ^ Gaines, Brian J. (March 2001). "Popular Myths About Popular Vote–Electoral College Splits". PS: Political Science & Politics: 74. 

E. Thomas Wood (born October 9, 1963) is an American journalist, historian, and freelance writer. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...

Further reading

  • Alexander, Herbert E. (1962). Financing the 1960 Election. 
  • Campbell, Angus; et al. (1966). Elections and the Political Order, statistical studies of poll data
  • Dallek, Robert Gold (1991). "Chapter 16: The Making of a Vice President", Lone Star Rising: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1908–1960. 
  • Divine, Robert A. Foreign Policy and U.S. Presidential Elections, 1952-1960 1974.
  • Fuchs, Lawrence H. (1967). John F. Kennedy and American Catholicism. 
  • Gallup, George H., ed. The Gallup Poll: Public Opinion, 1935-1971. 3 vols. Random House, 1972. press releases
  • Ingle, H. Larry, "Billy Graham: The Evangelical in Politics, 1960s-Style," in Peter Bien and Chuck Fager, In Stillness there is Fullness: A Peacemaker's Harvest, Kimo Press.
  • Kallina, Edmund F. (1988). Courthouse Over White House: Chicago and the Presidential Election of 1960. 
  • Kraus, Sidney (1977). The Great Debates: Kennedy vs. Nixon, 1960. 
  • Lisle, T. David (1988). "Southern Baptists and the Issue of Catholic Autonomy in the 1960 Presidential Campaign", in Paul Harper and Joann P. Krieg, ed.: John F. Kennedy: The Promise Revisited, 273–285. 
  • Nixon, Richard M. (1978). RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon. 
  • White, Theodore H. (1961). The Making of the President, 1960. 

Nixon redirects here. ...

External links

Navigation

Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... The 1960 Democratic National Convention nominated John F. Kennedy for President and Lyndon B. Johnson for Vice President. ... Ross Robert Barnett (January 22, 1898 – November 6, 1987) was the Democratic Governor of the U.S. state of Mississippi from 1960 to 1964. ... For other persons named Pat Brown, see Pat Brown (disambiguation). ... Michael Vincent DiSalle (January 6, 1908 - September 14, 1981) was a Democratic politician from Ohio. ... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... LBJ redirects here. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Robert Baumle Meyner (July 3, 1908 - May 27, 1990) of Phillipsburg, New Jersey was the Democratic Governor of New Jersey from 1954 to 1962. ... Wayne Lyman Morse (October 20, 1900 – July 22, 1974) was a United States Senator from Oregon from 1945 to 1969. ... George Smathers George Armistead Smathers (born November 14, 1913) is an American lawyer and politician who represented Florida in the United States Senate for eighteen years, from 1951 until 1969, as a member of the Democratic Party. ... This is about the mid-20th-century politician and diplomat; for other American politicians so named, see Adlai Stevenson (disambiguation). ... William Stuart Symington William Stuart Symington (June 26, 1901–December 14, 1988) was a businessman and political figure from Missouri. ... LBJ redirects here. ... GOP redirects here. ... Mitchell who sits next to Ryan Anderson in computer class at Thunderbolt Middle School is weird. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... Nixon redirects here. ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American Vice President, governor of New York State, philanthropist and businessman. ... Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. ...

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