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Encyclopedia > United States presidential election, 1956
Presidential electoral votes by state.

The U.S. presidential election of 1956 saw a popular Dwight D. Eisenhower successfully run for re-election after his first term. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1182x635, 99 KB) This map was obtained from an edition of the National Atlas of the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1182x635, 99 KB) This map was obtained from an edition of the National Atlas of the United States. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 - March 28, 1969) was an American soldier and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953-1961). ...


Incumbent President Eisenhower was popular, but had health conditions that became a quiet issue. Stevenson remained popular with a core of liberal Democrats but held no office and had no real base. He (and Eisenhower) largely ignored the civil rights issue. Eisenhower had ended the Korean War and the nation was prosperous, so a landslide for the charismatic Eisenhower was never in doubt. Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders...

Contents

Nominations

Republican Party Nomination

As 1956 began there was some speculation that Eisenhower would not run for a second term, primarily due to concerns about his health. In 1955 Eisenhower had suffered a serious heart attack, and in early 1956 he underwent surgery for ileitis. However, he quickly recovered after both incidents, and after being cleared by his doctors he decided to run for a second term. Given "Ike's" enormous popularity, he was renominated with no opposition at the 1956 Republican National Convention in San Francisco, California. A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream. ... Crohns disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the alimentary tract and it can involve any part of it - from the mouth to the anus. ... The 1956 Republican National Convention was held at the Cow Palace in San Francisco, California, from August 20 to August 23, 1956. ... Nickname: Location of the City and County of San Francisco, California Coordinates: Country United States of America State California City-County San Francisco Government  - Mayor Gavin Newsom Area  - City  47 sq mi (122 km²)  - Land  46. ...


The only question among Republicans was whether Vice-President Richard Nixon would once again be Eisenhower's running mate. There is some evidence that Eisenhower would have preferred another running mate, and according to some historians (such as Stephen Ambrose), Eisenhower privately offered Nixon another position in his cabinet, (such as Secretary of Defense). However, Harold Stassen was the only Republican to publicly oppose Nixon's renomination for Vice-President, and Nixon remained highly popular among the GOP's rank-and-file voters. Nixon had also reshaped the vice-presidency, using it as a platform to campaign for Republican state and local candidates across the country, and these candidates came to his defense. In the spring of 1956 Eisenhower publicly announced that Nixon would again be his running mate, and Stassen was forced to second Nixon's nomination at the Republican Convention. Unlike 1952, conservative Republicans (who had supported Robert A. Taft against Eisenhower in 1952) did not attempt to shape the platform. The only thing notable about the Republican Convention was that one delegate voted for a fictitious "Joe Smith" for Vice President in order to protest everything being unanimous. Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Stephen Ambrose, at the 2001 premiere of Band of Brothers Stephen Edward Ambrose, Ph. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Governor Stassen Harold Edward Stassen (April 13, 1907 – March 4, 2001) was the 25th Governor of Minnesota from 1939 to 1943 and a later perennial candidate for other offices, most notably and frequently President of the United States. ... Robert Alphonso Taft I (September 8, 1889 - July 31, 1953), of the Taft family political dynasty of Ohio, was a United States Senator and Presidential candidate in the United States Republican Party. ...


Democratic Party Nomination

Adlai Stevenson II, the Democratic Party's 1952 nominee, fought a tight primary battle with populist Tennessee Senator Estes Kefauver for the 1956 nomination. Although Stevenson was heavily favored, Kefauver upset Stevenson in the New Hampshire primary, and then defeated Stevenson in the Minnesota primary. Realizing that he was in trouble, Stevenson campaigned hard in the Florida primary and narrowly defeated Kefauver. By this point Kefauver's campaign was low on money, and as a result he was unable to effectively compete with the well-funded Stevenson in the California primary. Stevenson easily defeated Kefauver in California, which led Kefauver to withdraw from the race. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... The issue of Time Magazine in which Kefauvers victory in the New Hampshire primary was reported. ... The New Hampshire primary marks the opening of the quadrennial U.S. presidential election. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


At the 1956 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, New York Governor Averell Harriman, who was backed by former President Harry Truman, attempted to challenge Stevenson for the nomination. However, Stevenson's delegate lead was much too large for Harriman to overcome, and Stevenson won the nomination on the first ballot. The 1956 National Convention of the U.S. Democratic Party nominated Adlai E. Stevenson of Illinois for President and Estes Kefauver for Vice President. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in Chicagoland and Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois County Cook & DuPage Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... William Averell Harriman William Averell Harriman (November 15, 1891 – July 26, 1986) was a Governor of New York. ... For the victim of Mt. ...


The roll call, as reported in Richard C. Bain and Judith H. Parris, Convention Decisions and Voting Records, pp. 294-298:

Presidential Balloting, DNC 1956
Contender Vote
Former Illinois Governor Adlai Stevenson 905.5
New York Governor Averell Harriman 210
Senate Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas 80
Missouri Senator Stuart Symington 45.5
Kentucky Governor Albert Chandler 36.5
James C. Davis 33
Former Virginia Governor John S. Battle 32.5
South Carolina Governor George B. Timmerman 23.5
Ohio Governor Frank J. Lausche 5.5

The highlight of the convention came when Stevenson, in an effort to create excitement for the ticket, announced that the convention's delegates would choose his running mate. This set off a desperate scramble among several candidates to win the nomination. The two leading contenders were Senator Kefauver, who retained the support of his primary delegates, and young Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachussetts, who was relatively unknown at that point. Kennedy surprised the experts by surging into the lead on the second ballot; at one point he was only 15 votes shy of winning. However, a number of states then left their "favorite son" candidates and switched to Kefauver, giving him the victory. Kennedy then gave a gracious concession speech. The defeat was actually a boost for Kennedy's long-term presidential chances; by coming so close to defeating Kefauver he gained much favorable national publicity, yet by losing to Kefauver he avoided any blame for Stevenson's expected loss to Eisenhower in November. The vote totals in the vice presidential balloting is recorded in the following table, which also comes from Bain & Parris. Adlai Ewing Stevenson II (February 5, 1900 – July 14, 1965) was an American politician, noted for intellectual demeanor and advocacy of liberal causes in the Democratic party. ... William Averell Harriman William Averell Harriman (November 15, 1891 – July 26, 1986) was a Governor of New York. ... “LBJ” redirects here. ... Official language(s) No Official Language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... William Stuart Symington William Stuart Symington (June 26, 1901–December 14, 1988) was a businessman and political figure from Missouri. ... Albert Chandler Albert Benjamin Happy Chandler (July 14, 1898–June 15, 1991) was a governor of Kentucky, a U.S. Senator and Baseball Commissioner. ... James C. Davis (May 17, 1895 - December 18, 1981) was a politician from the state of Georgia. ... John Stweart Battle (July 11, 1890-April 9, 1972) was an American politician and Democratic Governor of Virginia from 1950-1954. ... George Bell Timmerman, Jr. ... Frank John Lausche (November 14, 1895 - April 21, 1990) was a Democratic politician from Ohio. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ...

Vice Presidential Balloting, DNC 1956
Contender: Ballot 1 2 before shifts 2 after shifts
Estes Kefauver 466.5 551.5 755.5
John F. Kennedy 294.5 618 589
Albert Gore, Sr. 178 110.5 13.5
Robert Wagner, Sr 162.5 9.5 6
Hubert Humphrey 134 74.5 2
Luther Hodges 40 0.5 0
P.T. Maner 33 0 0
Scattering 60.5 1 6

The issue of Time Magazine in which Kefauvers victory in the New Hampshire primary was reported. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Albert Arnold Gore, Sr. ... Hubert Horatio Humphrey, Jr. ... Categories: People stubs | U.S. Secretaries of Commerce | 1898 births | 1974 deaths | Governors of North Carolina ...

General election

Campaign

Stevenson campaigned hard against Eisenhower, with television ads for the first time being the dominant medium for both sides. Because Eisenhower's 1952 election victory was due, in large part, to winning the female vote, there were a plethora of "housewife" focused ads.


Stevenson proposed significant increases in government spending for social programs and treaties with the Soviet Union to lower military spending and end nuclear testing on both sides. He also proposed to end the military draft and switch to an "all-volunteer" military. Eisenhower publicly opposed these ideas, even though in private he was working on a proposal to ban atmospheric nuclear testing. Eisenhower had retained the enormous personal and political popularity he had earned during the Second World War, and he maintained a comfortable lead in the polls throughout the campaign. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


Eisenhower was also helped by two foreign-policy crises that developed in the weekend before the election. In Soviet-occupied Hungary, many citizens rose up in revolt against the Soviet Army; their revolt was brutally crushed within a few days by Soviet troops. In Egypt, a combined force of Israeli, British, and French troops seized the Suez Canal; Eisenhower condemned the seizure and pressured the allied forces to return the canal to Egyptian control. These two events led many Americans to rally in support of the President, thus swelling his expected margin of victory. On election day Eisenhower took over 57% of the popular vote and won 41 of the 48 states. Stevenson won only six Southern states and the border state of Missouri. Suez Canal, seen from Earth orbit, NASA. Ships moored at El Ballah during transit The Suez Canal (Arabic: , transliteration: ), is a large artificial canal in Egypt west of the Sinai Peninsula. ...


Results

Presidential Candidate Party Home State Popular Vote Electoral Vote Running Mate Running Mate's
Home State
Running Mate's
Electoral Vote
Count Percentage
Dwight David Eisenhower Republican Pennsylvania[1] 35,579,180 57.4% 457 Richard Milhous Nixon California 457
Adlai Ewing Stevenson II Democratic Illinois 26,028,028 42.0% 73 (Carey) Estes Kefauver Tennessee 73
Walter Burgwyn Jones Democratic Alabama (a) (a) 1 Herman Talmadge Georgia 1
(unpledged electors) (n/a) (n/a) 196,145 0.3% 0 (n/a) (n/a) 0
T. Coleman Andrews States' Rights Virginia 107,929 0.2% 0 Thomas Werdel California 0
Other 110,046 0.2% 0 Other 0
Total 62,021,328 100.0% 531 Total 531
Needed to win 266 Needed to win 266

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. 1956 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (August 1, 2005). Dwight David Ike Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 - March 28, 1969) was an American soldier and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953-1961). ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Official language(s) English, Pennsylvania Dutch Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Adlai Ewing Stevenson II (February 5, 1900 – July 14, 1965) was an American politician, noted for intellectual demeanor and advocacy of liberal causes in the Democratic party. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... The issue of Time Magazine in which Kefauvers victory in the New Hampshire primary was reported. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... Walter Burgwyn Jones (October 16, 1888 - August 1, 1963) was a judge from Alabama. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  Ranked 30th  - Total 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km²)  - Width 190 miles (306 km)  - Length 330 miles (531 km)  - % water 3. ... Herman Eugene Talmadge (August 9, 1913 – March 21, 2002) was an American politician who served as Governor of the U.S. state of Georgia briefly in 1947 and again from 1948 to 1955, and as a U.S. Senator from 1957 until 1981. ... The Unpledged Elector is an option used for Presidential elections in the United States of America. ... Thomas Coleman Andrews (February 19, 1899 - October 15, 1983) was an accountant and a candidate for President of the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Source (Electoral Vote): Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (August 1, 2005). August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


(a) Alabama faithless elector W. F. Turner, who was pledged to Adlai Stevenson and Estes Kefauver, instead cast his votes for Walter Burgwyn Jones, who was a circuit court judge in Turner's home town, and Herman Talmadge, governor of the neighboring state of Georgia. A faithless elector is a member of the United States Electoral College who casts an electoral vote for someone other than the person whom they have pledged to elect. ... Adlai Ewing Stevenson II (February 5, 1900 – July 14, 1965) was an American politician, noted for intellectual demeanor and advocacy of liberal causes in the Democratic party. ... The issue of Time Magazine in which Kefauvers victory in the New Hampshire primary was reported. ... Walter Burgwyn Jones (October 16, 1888 - August 1, 1963) was a judge from Alabama. ... Herman Eugene Talmadge (August 9, 1913 – March 21, 2002) was an American politician who served as Governor of the U.S. state of Georgia briefly in 1947 and again from 1948 to 1955, and as a U.S. Senator from 1957 until 1981. ...


Because of the admission of Alaska and Hawaii as states in 1959, the 1956 presidential election was the last in which there were 531 electoral votes.


See also

The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... Results -- Republican holds in light red, pickups in dark red, Democratic holds in light blue, pickups in dark blue The U.S. Senate election, 1956 was an election for the United States Senate which coincided with Dwight D. Eisenhower re-election. ... // Era Overview The period of U.S. history 1945-1964 is seen as a period of foreign and domestic stalemate. ...

Trivia

  • Missouri is often considered to be a 'bellwether' state because it has voted for the winner of every Presidential election for the past century. 1956 is the only exception as it voted for Stevenson (by only 4,000 votes out of more than 1.8 million cast).
  • As of 2007, the 1956 election was the last time in which the election was a rematch of the election held four years earlier. (Rematches also occurred in 1800, 1828, 1892, and 1900.)
  • As of 2007, the 1956 Democratic vice presidential vote was the last time any convention voting went to a second ballot

William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was an American politician, the 27th President of the United States, the 10th Chief Justice of the United States, a leader of the progressive conservative wing of the Republican Party in the early 20th century, a pioneer in international arbitration and... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Official language(s) None (English de facto; French is also an administrative language) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Henry Ross Perot (born June 27, 1930) is a billionaire American businessman from Texas, who is best known for seeking the office of President of the United States in 1992 and 1996. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Summary The election was held on November 6, 1900. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ...

Notes

  1. ^ There is some confusion about Eisenhower's home state in this election. Both [Leip] and the National Archives give Eisenhower's home state as New York. There are strong reasons to believe that these two sources are erroneous: The National Archives cites the Senate Manual as a source, and the Senate Manual has Eisenhower's home state as Pennsylvania. The brief description for the book Republican Party National Convention (26th : 1956 : San Francisco) in the Library of Congress' online catalog refers to “Dwight D. Eisenhower of Pennsylvania”. Finally, the Maryland Manual has Eisenhower residing in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

Gettysburg is a borough 38 miles (68 km) south by southwest of Harrisburg in Adams County, Pennsylvania, USA, of which it is the county seatGR6. ...

References

  • Leip, Dave. 1956 Presidential Election - Home States. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved on May 24, 2005.
  • Electoral Votes for President and Vice President 1953–1965. U.S. Electoral College. National Archives. Retrieved on March 18, 2006.
  • (2001) Senate Manual, 107th Congress. United States Government Printing Office, 1131. Retrieved on 2006-03-18. 
  • (1957–58) "General Election Returns: November 6, 1956". Maryland Manual 167: 325. 
  • Republican Party National Convention. (26th : 1956 : San Francisco). Library of Congress Online Catalog. Library of Congress. Retrieved on February 28, 2007.

May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ...

Further reading

  • (1972) in Gallup, George H. (ed.): The Gallup Poll: Public Opinion, 1935–1971, 3 vols., Random House. 
  • Divine, Robert A. (1974). Foreign Policy and U.S. Presidential Elections, 1952–1960. 

External links

  • 1956 popular vote by counties
  • The Living Room Candidate: Presidential Campaign Commercials: 1952 – 2004

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