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Encyclopedia > United States presidential election, 1944
Presidential electoral votes by state.

The U.S. presidential election of 1944 took place while the United States was preoccupied with fighting World War II. President Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) had been in office longer than any other president, but remained popular. Unlike 1940, there was little doubt that Roosevelt would run for another term as the Democratic candidate. His Republican opponent in 1944 was New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey. Dewey made an energetic campaign, but there was little doubt, in the midst of a world war, that FDR would win a record fourth term. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1182x635, 99 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): United States presidential election, 1944 ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1182x635, 99 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): United States presidential election, 1944 ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... FDR redirects here. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Thomas Dewey - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...

Contents

Nominations

Democratic Party Nomination

See also: 1944 Democratic National Convention

Roosevelt was a popular, war-time incumbent and faced little formal opposition. Although a growing number of the party's conservatives - especially in the South - were increasingly skeptical of Roosevelt's economic and social policies, few of them dared to publicly oppose Roosevelt, and he was renominated easily. The balloting went thusly: The 1944 Democratic National Convention was held at the Chicago Stadium in Chicago, Illinois from July 19 - July 21, 1944. ...

Although the party's conservatives could not stop FDR from winning the nomination, the obvious physical decline in the President's health, as well as rumors of private health problems - led many delegates and party leaders to strongly oppose Henry Wallace. Wallace, who was FDR's second Vice-President, was regarded by most conservatives as being too left-wing and personally eccentric to be second in line to the Presidency. Numerous party leaders privately told Roosevelt that they would fight Wallace's renomination, and they proposed Missouri Senator Harry Truman, a moderate who had become well-known as the chairman of a Senate wartime investigating committee, as FDR's new running mate. Roosevelt, who personally liked Wallace and knew little about Truman, reluctantly agreed to accept Truman as his running mate. Even so, many liberal delegates refused to abandon Wallace, and they cast their votes for him on the first ballot. However, enough large Northern, Midwestern, and Southern states supported Truman to give him the victory on the second ballot. Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), often referred to as FDR, was the 32nd (1933–1945) President of the United States. ... Harry Flood Byrd, Sr. ... In American history, James Farley led the Bonus army in 1932. ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–46). ... A vice president is an officer in government or business who is next in rank below a president. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area Greater St. ... For the victim of Mt. ...


The balloting (source: Richard C. Bain & Judith H. Parris, Convention Decisions and Voting Records (Washington DC: The Brookings Institution, 1973), pp. 266-267.

vice-presidential vote
ballot 1 2 (before shifts) 2 (after shifts)
Harry S Truman MO 319.5 477.5 1,031
Henry A. Wallace IA 429.5 473 105
John H. Bankhead II AL 98 23.5 0
Scott W. Lucas IL 61 58 0
Alben W. Barkley KY 49.5 40 6
J. Melville Broughton NC 43 30 0
Paul V. McNutt IN 31 28 1
Prentice Cooper TN 26 26 26
Scattering 118.5 20 7

President Roosevelt was making a trip to the South Pacific in order to discuss military strategy with General Douglas MacArthur, and thus didn't attend the convention. This was the last time that a presidential nominee failed to attend a national convention during the 20th century. For the victim of Mt. ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–46). ... John Hollis Bankhead, II (July 8, 1872 - June 12, 1946) was a U.S. senator from the state of Alabama. ... Scott Wike Lucas (1892 - 1968) was a 2-term United States senator from Illinois and Senate Majority Leader from 1948-1950. ... Alben William Barkley (November 24, 1877 – April 30, 1956) was a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives and the United States Senate from Kentucky, and the thirty-fifth Vice President of the United States. ... Joseph Melville Broughton (born 17 November 1888 Raleigh NC - died 6 March 1949 Bethesda MD) was the Democratic governor of the state of North Carolina from 1941 to 1945. ... Paul V. McNutt in his Washington office, 1941. ... William Prentice Cooper (1895 - 1969) was an American politician who was Governor of Tennessee from 1939 to 1945. ... Douglas MacArthur (January 26, 1880 - April 5, 1964), was an American Field Marshal (only in the Philippines) and general who played a prominent role in the Pacific theater of World War II. He was poised to command the invasion of Japan in November 1945 but was instead instructed to accept...


Republican Party Nomination

As 1944 began the frontrunners for the Republican nomination appeared to be Wendell Willkie, the party's 1940 candidate; Senator Robert Taft of Ohio, the leader of the party's conservatives; and New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey, who had risen to national fame as the prosecutor of numerous mafia figures, most notably "Lucky" Luciano, the organized-crime boss of New York City. However, Taft surprised many by announcing that was not a candidate; instead he voiced his support for fellow Ohio Senator John Bricker, another conservative. In the key Wisconsin primary Dewey crushed both Willkie and General Douglas MacArthur, thus forcing Willkie to withdraw as a candidate. At the 1944 Republican National Convention, Dewey easily overcame the candidacy of Bricker and was nominated on the first ballot. Dewey then chose Bricker as his running mate; Bricker was nominated by acclamation. Wendell L. Willkie Wendell Lewis Willkie (February 18, 1892 – October 8, 1944) was a lawyer in the United States and the Republican nominee for the 1940 presidential election. ... Robert A. Taft Robert Alphonso Taft (September 8, 1889 - July 31, 1953), of the Taft political family of Ohio, was a United States Senator and sought to be the Presidential candidate of the Republican Party in 1940 and 1952. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Thomas Dewey - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Mafia (also referred to as Cosa Nostra or the Mob), is a criminal secret society which first developed in the mid-19th century in Sicily. ... Lucky Luciano in his Rome villa, 1949 Charles Lucky Luciano (November 24, 1897 – January 26, 1962) was a legendary Italian-American mobster. ... Nickname: Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1625 Government  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area  - City  468. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42°30N to 47°3N  - Longitude 86°49W to 92°54W Population  Ranked... Douglas MacArthur (January 26, 1880 - April 5, 1964), was an American Field Marshal (only in the Philippines) and general who played a prominent role in the Pacific theater of World War II. He was poised to command the invasion of Japan in November 1945 but was instead instructed to accept... The 1944 Republican National Convention was held in Chicago, Illinois, from June 26 to June 28, 1944. ... Politics An acclamation is a form of election not using a ballot. ...


General election

The Fall Campaign

The Republicans campaigned against the New Deal, seeking a smaller government and less-regulated economy as the end of the war seemed in sight. Nonetheless Roosevelt's continuing popularity was the main theme of the campaign. To quiet rumors of his poor health, Roosevelt insisted on making a vigorous campaign swing in October, and rode in an open car through city streets. A high point of the campaign occurred when Roosevelt, speaking to a meeting of labor union leaders, gave a speech carried on national radio in which he ridiculed Republican claims that his administration was corrupt and wasteful with tax money. He particularly ridiculed a GOP claim that he had sent a US Navy warship to pick up his Scottish terrier Fala in Alaska, noting that "Fala was furious" at such rumors. The speech was met with loud laughter and applause from the labor leaders. In response, Dewey gave a blistering partisan speech in Oklahoma City a few days later on national radio, in which he accused Roosevelt of being "indispensable" to corrupt big-city Democratic organizations and American Communists; he also referred to members of FDR's cabinet as a "motley crew". However, American battlefield successes in Europe and the Pacific during the campaign, such as the liberation of Paris in August 1944 and the successful Battle of Leyte Gulf in the Phillipines in October 1944, made Roosevelt unbeatable. The New Deal was the title President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs initiated between 1933–1938 with the goal of relief, recovery and reform of the United States economy during the Great Depression. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... The Scottish Terrier (also known as the Aberdeen Terrier), popularly called the Scottie, is a breed of dog best known for its distinctive profile. ... Downtown Oklahoma City The State Capitol of Oklahoma From The South Motto: Nickname: Capital of the New Century Founded 1889 Incorporated County Oklahoma County Cleveland County Canadian County Borough {{{borough}}} Parrish {{{parrish}}} Mayor Mick Cornett Area  - Total  - Water 1,608. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Combatants United States Australia Empire of Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr (3rd Fleet) Thomas C. Kinkaid (7th Fleet) Jisaburo Ozawa Strength 17 aircraft carriers 18 escort carriers 12 battleships 24 cruisers 141 destroyers and destroyer escorts Many PT boats, submarines and fleet auxiliaries About 1,500 planes 4 aircraft carriers... The Republic of the Philippines is an island nation consisting of an archipelago of 7,107 islands, lying in the tropical western Pacific Ocean about 100 kilometers southeast of mainland Asia. ...


In the election on November 7, 1944, Roosevelt scored a comfortable victory over Dewey. Roosevelt took 36 states for 432 electoral votes, while Dewey won 12 states and 99 electoral votes (266 were needed to win). In the popular vote Roosevelt won 25,612,916 votes to Dewey's 22,017,929. Dewey did better against Roosevelt than any of FDR's four Republican opponents, and he did have the personal satisfaction of beating Roosevelt in FDR's hometown of Hyde Park, New York, and of winning Truman's hometown of Independence, Missouri. Dewey would again be the Republican presidential nominee in 1948. November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Hyde Park is a town in Dutchess County, New York, United States. ... Independence is a city in Missouri, in the Kansas City metropolitan area. ...


Results

Presidential Candidate Party Home State Popular Vote Electoral Vote Running Mate Running Mate's
Home State
Running Mate's
Electoral Vote
Count Percentage
Franklin D. Roosevelt Democratic New York 25,612,916 53.4% 432 Harry S Truman Missouri 432
Thomas Edmund Dewey Republican New York 22,017,929 45.9% 99 John William Bricker Ohio 99
(none) Texas Regulars (n/a) 135,439 0.3% 0 (none) (n/a) 0
Norman Thomas Socialist 79,017 0.2% 0 Darlington Hoopes Pennsylvania 0
Claude Watson Prohibition 74,758 0.2% 0 Andrew Johnson Kentucky 0
Other 57,004 0.1% 0 Other 0
Total 47,977,063 100.0% 531 Total 531
Needed to win 266 Needed to win 266

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. 1944 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (August 1, 2005). FDR redirects here. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... NY redirects here. ... Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953); as Vice President, he succeeded to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area Greater St. ... Thomas Dewey - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... NY redirects here. ... John William Bricker (September 6, 1893 – March 22, 1986) was a United States politician from Ohio. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... The Texas Regulars was a group based in Texas which was formed in 1944 to deny Franklin Roosevelt a majority of the Electoral College in the 1944 presidential election. ... Norman Thomas Norman Mattoon Thomas (November 20, 1884 - December 19, 1968) was a leading American socialist, pacifist, and six-time presidential candidate for the Socialist Party of America. ... The Socialist Party of America (SPA) is a socialist political party in the United States. ... Darlington Hoopes (September 11, 1896 — September 29, 1989) was a third-party candidate for President of the United States in the 1952 (in which he won 20,065 votes) and 1956 presidential elections, representing the Socialist Party of America. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Claude A. Watson was a lawyer and businessman from Hermon ( a neighborhood in Los Angeles, California ), who was nationally active in the temperance movement. ... National Prohibition Convention, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1892. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... August 1 is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Source (Electoral Vote): Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (August 1, 2005). August 1 is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Further reading

  • Cantril, Hadley and Mildred Strunk, eds.; Public Opinion, 1935-1946 (1951), massive compilation of many public opinion polls from USA

Gallup, George Horace, ed. The Gallup Poll; Public Opinion, 1935-1971 3 vol (1972) esp vol 1; summarizes results of each poll as reported to newspapers


Miscellanea

  • The 1944 election would be the last election in which a Democratic presidential candidate carried every state in the South.
  • The 1944 election was the first since Grover Cleveland's re-election in 1892 in which the bellweather state of Ohio backed a losing candidate.

Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908) was the 22nd and 24th President of the United States, and the only President to serve two non-consecutive terms (1885–1889 and 1893–1897). ... In politics, a bellwether (often, incorrectly, bellweather or bellwhether) is a region whose political tendencies match in microcosm what occurs in a wider area. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ...

See also

Homefront-United States-World War II This article is about the office in the United States. ... Results -- Republican holds in light red, pickups in dark red, Democratic holds in light blue, pickups in dark blue The U.S. Senate election, 1944 was an election for the United States Senate which coincided with the reelection of Franklin Delano Roosevelt to his fourth term as President. ... Homefront-United States-World War II covers all the developments inside the United States, 1940-1945. ...

Hell-Bent For Election was a 1944 two-reel (thirteen minute) animated cartoon short subject. ... Animation refers to the process in which each frame of a film or movie is produced individually, whether generated as a computer graphic, or by photographing a drawn image, or by repeatedly making small changes to a model (see claymation and stop motion), and then photographing the result. ... FDR redirects here. ... Political campaign Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political campaign is an organized effort to influence the decision making process within a group. ... Film is a term that encompasses individual motion pictures, the field of film as an art form, and the motion picture industry. ...

External links

  • 1944 popular vote by counties

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