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Encyclopedia > United States presidential election, 1852
Presidential electoral votes by state.
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Presidential electoral votes by state.

The U.S. presidential election of 1852 was in many ways a replay of the election of 1844. Once again, the incumbent President was a Whig who had succeeded to the presidency upon the death of his war hero predecessor; in this case, it was Millard Fillmore who followed General Zachary Taylor. The Whig party passed over the incumbent for nomination — casting aside Fillmore in favor of General Winfield Scott. The Democrats nominated a "dark horse" candidate, this time Franklin Pierce. The Whigs again campaigned on the obscurity of the Democratic candidate, and once again this strategy failed. Download high resolution version (1182x635, 93 KB)Image from http://nationalatlas. ... Download high resolution version (1182x635, 93 KB)Image from http://nationalatlas. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... The United States Whig Party was a political party of the United States. ... Millard Fillmore (January 7, 1800 – March 8, 1874) was the thirteenth President of the United States, serving from 1850 until 1853, and the last member of the Whig Party to hold that office. ... Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850) was an American military leader and the twelfth President of the United States. ... Winfield Scott Winfield Scott (June 13, 1786 – May 29, 1866) was a United States Army general, diplomat, and presidential candidate. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... A dark horse candidate is one who is nominated unexpectedly, without previously having been discussed or considered as a likely choice. ... Franklin Pierce, Sr. ...


Pierce and running mate William King would go on to win what was at the time one of the nation's largest electoral victories, trouncing Scott and his vice presidential nominee, William Graham of North Carolina, 254 electoral votes to 42. William Rufus DeVane King William Rufus DeVane King (April 7, 1786–April 18, 1853) was a U.S. Representative from North Carolina, a Senator from Alabama, and the thirteenth Vice President of the United States. ... Winfield Scott Winfield Scott (June 13, 1786 – May 29, 1866) was a United States Army general, diplomat, and presidential candidate. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal      The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession... William Alexander Graham (September 5, 1804–August 11, 1875) was a United States Senator from North Carolina from 1840 to 1843 and Governor of North Carolina from 1845 to 1849. ... This article is the current U.S. Collaboration of the Week. ...

Contents

Nominations

Whig Party nomination

The 1852 Whig National Convention, held in Baltimore, was bitterly divided. Supporters of President Fillmore pointed to the successful Compromise of 1850 and the failure of a nascent secession movement in the Southern states in 1850-1851. The northern Whigs believed that the Compromise of 1850 favored the slaveholding South over the North. Northern Whigs favored heroic Mexican-American War General Winfield Scott of Virginia. Scott had earned the nickname of "Old Fuss and Feathers" due to his insistence on military appearance and discipline, and while respected, was also seen by the people as somewhat foppish. A deadlock occurred because most New England delegates supported Daniel Webster. On the first ballot, Fillmore received all delegate votes from the South save four but only received 18 northern delegate votes. The first ballot was Fillmore moo - 133, Scott - 131, and Webster - 29. Scott was nominated on the 53d ballot by a margin of 159-112 (with 21 for Webster), again with a highly sectional vote; Scott won the North by a 142-11 vote (with 21 for Webster) while Fillmore won the South by a margin of 101-17. Millard Fillmore (January 7, 1800 – March 8, 1874) was the thirteenth President of the United States, serving from 1850 until 1853, and the last member of the Whig Party to hold that office. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia Strength 7,000 - 43,000 18,000 - 40,000 Casualties KIA: 1,733 Total dead: 13,283 Wounded: 4,152 25,000 killed or wounded (Mexican government... Winfield Scott Winfield Scott (June 13, 1786 – May 29, 1866) was a United States Army general, diplomat, and presidential candidate. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... Daniel Webster (January 18, 1782 – October 25, 1852) was a prominent American statesman during the nations antebellum, or Pre-Civil War, era. ...


William Alexander Graham was chosen as the Vice Presidential nominee. William Alexander Graham (September 5, 1804–August 11, 1875) was a United States Senator from North Carolina from 1840 to 1843 and Governor of North Carolina from 1845 to 1849. ...


Democratic Party nomination

The Democrats anticipated a loss in the general election and had no consensus on who their candidate should be. 1848 nominee Lewis Cass, James Buchanan, William Marcy, and Stephen Douglas all had substantial support. On the 49th ballot the convention finally nominated, as a compromise candidate, the virtually unknown Franklin Pierce of New Hampshire. Pierce was a former Congressman and Senator. William R. King of Alabama was tapped for Vice President. The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Campaign poster for 12th United States Presidential campaign, 1848. ... This article is about the President of the United States. ... William Learned Marcy (December 12, 1786–July 4, 1857) was an American statesman. ... Stephen A. Douglas Stephen Arnold Douglas (April 23, 1813 - June 3, 1861), American politician from Illinois, was one of the Democratic Party nominees for President in 1860 (the other being John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky). ... Franklin Pierce, Sr. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... William Rufus DeVane King William Rufus DeVane King (April 7, 1786–April 18, 1853) was a U.S. Representative from North Carolina, a Senator from Alabama, and the thirteenth Vice President of the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  Ranked 30th  - Total 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km²)  - Width 190 miles (306 km)  - Length 330 miles (531 km)  - % water 3. ...


General election

Political cartoon favoring Winfield Scott
Political cartoon favoring Winfield Scott

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1257x753, 202 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): United States presidential election, 1852 ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1257x753, 202 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): United States presidential election, 1852 ...

Campaign

The Whigs' platform was almost indistinguishable from that of the Democrats, reducing the campaign to a contest between the personalities of the two candidates. This helped drive down electoral turnout to its lowest level since 1836. The decline was further exacerbated by Scotmoot's anti-slavery reputation, which decimated the Southern Whig vote at the same time as the pro-slavery Whig platform undermined the Northern Whig vote. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Finally, Scott's status as a war hero was somewhat offset by the fact that Pierce was himself a Mexican-American War brigadier general, leading to an overwhelming defeat for Scott, who won only the states of Kentucky, Tennessee, Massachusetts, and Vermont.moo Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia Strength 7,000 - 43,000 18,000 - 40,000 Casualties KIA: 1,733 Total dead: 13,283 Wounded: 4,152 25,000 killed or wounded (Mexican government... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... Official language(s) None[1] Capital Montpelier Largest city Burlington Area  Ranked 45th  - Total 9,620 sq mi (24,923 km²)  - Width 80 miles (130 km)  - Length 160 miles (260 km)  - % water 3. ...


Results

Presidential Candidate Party Home State Popular Vote(a) Electoral Vote Running Mate Running Mate's
Home State
Running Mate's
Electoral Vote
Count Percentage
Franklin Pierce Democratic New Hampshire 1,607,510 50.8% 254 William Rufus DeVane King Alabama 254
Winfield Scott Whig New Jersey 1,386,942 43.9% 42 William Alexander Graham North Carolina 42
John Parker Hale Free Soil New Hampshire 155,210 4.9% 0 George Washington Julian Indiana 0
Daniel Webster(b) Union (c) Massachusetts 6,994 0.2% 0 Charles J. Jenkins Georgia 0
Other 5,174 0.2% 0 Other 0
Total 3,161,830 100.0% 296 Total 296
Needed to win 149 Needed to win 149

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. 1852 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (July 27, 2005). Franklin Pierce, Sr. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... William Rufus DeVane King William Rufus DeVane King (April 7, 1786–April 18, 1853) was a U.S. Representative from North Carolina, a Senator from Alabama, and the thirteenth Vice President of the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  Ranked 30th  - Total 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km²)  - Width 190 miles (306 km)  - Length 330 miles (531 km)  - % water 3. ... Winfield Scott Winfield Scott (June 13, 1786 – May 29, 1866) was a United States Army general, diplomat, and presidential candidate. ... The United States Whig Party was a political party of the United States. ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  Ranked 47th  - Total 8,729 sq mi (22,608 km²)  - Width 70 miles (110 km)  - Length 150 miles (240 km)  - % water 14. ... William Alexander Graham (September 5, 1804–August 11, 1875) was a United States Senator from North Carolina from 1840 to 1843 and Governor of North Carolina from 1845 to 1849. ... This article is the current U.S. Collaboration of the Week. ... John Parker Hale (March 31, 1806 - November 19, 1873) was an American politician. ... The Free Soil Party was a short-lived political party in the United States organized in 1848 that petered out by about 1852. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... George Washington Julian was an American politician born in Indiana. ... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq mi (94,321 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 270 miles (435 km)  - % water 1. ... Daniel Webster (January 18, 1782 – October 25, 1852) was a prominent American statesman during the nations antebellum, or Pre-Civil War, era. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... Charles Jones Jenkins (January 6, 1805 - June 14, 1883) was a politician from Georgia. ... July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 157 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Source (Electoral Vote): Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (July 31, 2005). July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


(a) The popular vote figures exclude South Carolina where the Electors were chosen by the state legislature rather than by popular vote. Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32°430N to 35...


(b) Daniel Webster died on October 25, 1852, one week before the election. However, his name remained on the ballot in Massachusetts and Georgia, and he still managed to poll nearly seven thousand votes.


(c)For a detailed discussion of the Union Party formed by Pro-Union Whigs, see Michael F. Holt, The Rise and Fall of the Whig Party: Jacksonian Politics and the Onset of the Civil War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), Chapters 19 and 20.


Electoral college selection

Method of choosing Electors State(s)
each Elector appointed by state legislature South Carolina
each Elector chosen by voters statewide (all other states)

Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32°430N to 35...

Trivia

  • The candidates for Vice President were both born in North Carolina and in fact both attended the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, albeit two decades apart. While there, they were members of opposing debate societies: the Dialectic and Philanthropic Societies. Both also served in North Carolina politics: King was a representative from North Carolina before he moved to Alabama, and Graham was a governor of North Carolina.

This article is the current U.S. Collaboration of the Week. ... The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a public, coeducational, research university located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States. ...

See also

  • History of the United States (1849-1865)

This period of U.S history saw the breakdown of the ability of white Americans of the North and South to reconcile fundamental differences in their approach to government, economics, society and African Americans. ...

References

Books
  • Holt, Michael F. The Rise and Fall of the American Whig Party: Jacksonian Politics and the Onset of the Civil War. Oxford University Press, New York, New York: 1999.
Web sites

Nickname: Big Apple; City that never Sleeps; Gotham Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Manhattan Queens Brooklyn Staten Island Settled 1613 Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • 1852 popular vote by counties
  • 1852 state-by-state popular vote
  • Democratic National Convention overview
  • Whig National Convention overview
  • Native American National Convention overview

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