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Encyclopedia > United States presidential election, 1832
‹ 1828  Flag of the United States 1836 ›
United States presidential election, 1832
2 November - 5 December 1832
Nominee Andrew Jackson Henry Clay
Party Democratic National Republican
Home State Tennessee Kentucky
Running mate Martin Van Buren, William Wilkins John Sergeant
Electoral Vote 219 49
States Carried 16 6
Popular Vote 701,780 484,205(b)
Percentage 54.2% 37.4%
Nominee John Floyd William Wirt
Party Independent Anti-Masonic
Home State Virginia Maryland
Running mate Henry Lee Amos Ellmaker
Electoral Vote 11 7
States Carried 1 1
Popular Vote (c) 100,715(b)
Percentage —% 7.8%
United States presidential election, 1832

Presidential election results map. Yellow denotes states won by Jackson and Van Buren or Wilkins, Brown denotes those won by Clay/Sergeant, Green denotes those won by Floyd/Lee, and Deep Yellow denotes those won by Wirt/Ellmaker. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Andrew_Jackson. ... From [1], in the public domain This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... For his namesake son, see Henry Clay, Jr. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... it can also be known as NRP.The National Republican Party was a United States political party that existed for a relatively brief period in the 1820s at the start of the Second Party System. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... There have been at least three notable people called William Wilkins: William Wilkins, (1778-1839), British architect and archeologist William Wilkins, (1779-1865), American lawyer, U.S. Senator for Pennsylvania, Secretary of War William A. Wilkins, (fl. ... John Sergeant (born 1944) is a journalist and broadcaster. ... Image File history File links Johnfloydvirginia. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 598 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (739 × 741 pixel, file size: 83 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... John Floyd (April 24, 1783–August 17, 1837) was a United States Representative from Virginia. ... William Wirt (November 8, 1772 – February 18, 1834) was an American author and statesman who is credited with turning the position of United States Attorney General into one of influence. ... The Anti-Masonic Party (also known as the Anti-Masonic Movement) was a 19th century minor political party in the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... Henry Lee (1782–1867) was an political economist from Massachusetts, whose writings were popular in England. ... Amos Ellmaker (1787 - 1851) was a U.S. political figure. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (868x635, 81 KB)Image from http://nationalatlas. ...

Before Election
Andrew Jackson
Democratic For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic...

After Election
Andrew Jackson
Democratic For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic...

The United States presidential election of 1832 saw incumbent President Andrew Jackson, candidate of the Democratic Party, easily win reelection against Henry Clay of Kentucky. Jackson won 219 of the 286 electoral votes cast, easily defeating Clay, the candidate of the National Republican party and Anti-Masonic Party candidate William Wirt. John Floyd, who was not a candidate, received the electoral vote of South Carolina. For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... For his namesake son, see Henry Clay, Jr. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... it can also be known as NRP.The National Republican Party was a United States political party that existed for a relatively brief period in the 1820s at the start of the Second Party System. ... The Anti-Masonic Party (also known as the Anti-Masonic Movement) was a 19th century minor political party in the United States. ... William Wirt (November 8, 1772 – February 18, 1834) was an American author and statesman who is credited with turning the position of United States Attorney General into one of influence. ... John Floyd (April 24, 1783–August 17, 1837) was a United States Representative from Virginia. ...


This was the first national election for Martin Van Buren of New York, who was put on the ticket to succeed John Caldwell Calhoun and four years later would succeed Jackson as President. Van Buren faced opposition for the Vice Presidency within his own party, however, and as a result 30 Pennsylvania electors cast ballots for native son William Wilkins. Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... This article is about the state. ... John Caldwell Calhoun (March 18, 1782–March 31, 1850), was a prominent United States politician in the first half of the 19th century. ... William Wilkins (1779–1865) was an American politician from Pennsylvania. ...

Contents

Nominations

The death of the Congressional nominating caucus in 1824 had left a void: there was no institutional method on the national level for determining the nominees for President. This void was filled by a new political innovation; for the first time in United States history, the candidates were chosen by national conventions. The first national convention was held by the Anti-Masonic Party in Baltimore, Maryland in September 1831. The National Republican Party and the Democratic Party soon imitated them, also holding conventions in Baltimore.[1] The Congressional nominating caucus is the name for informal meetings in which American congressmen would agree on who to nominate for the Presidency and Vice Presidency from their political party. ... In the United States presidential election of 1824, John Quincy Adams was elected President on February 9, 1825 after the election was thrown into the House of Representatives. ... Speeches by important party figures are key features of the convention; here, former President Jimmy Carter addresses the 2004 Democratic National Convention. ... The Anti-Masonic Party (also known as the Anti-Masonic Movement) was a 19th century minor political party in the United States. ... Baltimore redirects here. ... it can also be known as NRP.The National Republican Party was a United States political party that existed for a relatively brief period in the 1820s at the start of the Second Party System. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic...


Anti-Masonic Party nomination

The Anti-Masonic Party held the first national nominating convention in the history of the United States. It was organized in a national convention held from 1830-09-11 to 1830-09-18 in Philadelphia. Ninety-six delegates attended from 10 states and the Michigan Territory. The first Anti-Masonic candidates ran in the spring elections of 1828; Solomon Southwick was the candidate for Governor of New York and received 12% of the vote [1]. At this time, "conventions" were an innovative means of gathering people to discuss common interests; other conventions of the era included those for agricultural or social causes. Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The first Anti-Masonic Party national nominating convention was held in the Athenaeum in Baltimore from 1831-09-26 to 1831-09-28. There were 111 delegates present from 13 states (all from free states except for Maryland and Delaware). The delegates met behind closed doors for several days before the convention officially opened, in which the convention made some initial decisions. Several presidential ballots were taken, in which William Wirt defeated John McLean for the nomination. Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... William Wirt (November 8, 1772 – February 18, 1834) was an American author and statesman who is credited with turning the position of United States Attorney General into one of influence. ...


The convention was organized on the 26th and heard reports of its committees on the 27th. The 28th was spent on the official roll call for President and Vice President. During the balloting, the name of each delegate was called, after which that delegate placed a written ballot in a special box. Wirt was nominated for President with 108 votes to one for Richard Rush and two abstaining. Amos Ellmaker was nominated for Vice President with 108 votes to one for John C. Spencer (chairman of the convention) and two abstaining. Amos Ellmaker (1787 - 1851) was a U.S. political figure. ...


The official proceedings of the convention were printed in Niles's Weekly Register on 1831-10-01 and 1831-10-08. Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


National Republican Party nomination

Soon after the Anti-Masonic Party held its national convention, supporters of Henry Clay called a national convention of the National Republican Party. The purpose of the convention was to officially nominate Clay and to select someone to run for Vice President on his ticket. The convention was held from 1831-12-12 to 1831-12-15, in the Athenaeum in Baltimore. At the opening session, there were 130 delegates from 17 states and the District of Columbia. Additional delegates arrived before the close of the convention. Six states were not represented, four of which were in the deep South. For his namesake son, see Henry Clay, Jr. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On the fourth day of the convention, the roll call ballot for President took place. The chairman of the convention called the name of each delegate, who gave his vote orally. Clay received 155 votes, with delegate Frederick H. Shuman of North Carolina abstaining because he believed that Clay could not win and should wait until 1836. As additional delegates arrived, they were allowed to cast their votes for Clay, and by the end of the convention he had 167 votes to one abstention. A similar procedure was used for the vice presidential ballot; John Sergeant of Pennsylvania was nominated with 162 votes to six abstaining. The convention appointed a committee to visit Charles Carroll of Carrolton, the last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence, then adopted an address to the citizens of the nation. John Sergeant was a Pennsylvania politican from a family of American politicans, including his father, Jonathan Dickinson Sergeant, his grandsons, John Sergeant Wise and Richard Alsop Wise, and his great-grandson, John Crain Kunkel. ... Charles Carroll (1737-1832) Charles Carroll of Carrollton (September 19, 1737 – November 14, 1832) was a lawyer and politician from Maryland who was a delegate to the Continental Congress and later a United States Senator. ...


Democratic Party nomination

President Jackson and Vice President John C. Calhoun had a rocky relationship. After the Eaton affair, Secretary of State Martin Van Buren and Secretary of War John H. Eaton resigned from office in April 1831, and Jackson requested the resignation of all other cabinet offices as well. Van Buren instigated the procedure as a means of removing Calhoun supporters from the Cabinet. In the summer of 1831, Calhoun issued his "Fort Hill Letter," in which he outlined the constitutional basis for a state's ability to nullify an act of Congress. When the President nominated Van Buren to serve as Minister to Great Britain, the vote in the Senate ended in a tie; Vice President Calhoun further annoyed the President when he voted against confirmation on 1832-01-25. John Caldwell Calhoun (March 18, 1782 – March 31, 1850) was a leading United States Southern politician and political philosopher from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century, at the center of the foreign policy and financial disputes of his age and best known as a spokesman for... The Petticoat Affair (also known as the Eaton Affair or the Eaton Malaria) was an 1831 U.S. sex scandal involving members of President Andrew Jacksons Cabinet. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... John Henry Eaton (June 18, 1790–November 17, 1856) was an American politician from Tennessee. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


At the time of Calhoun's vote to "end" Van Buren's political career, it was not clear who the candidates of the Democrats would be in the election later that year. Jackson had already been nominated by several state legislatures, following the pattern of 1824 and 1828, but his worry was that the various state parties would not unite on a vice presidential nominee. As a result, the Democratic Party followed the pattern of the opposition and called a national convention.


The 1832 Democratic National Convention, the first of the Democratic Party, was held in the Athenaeum (same venue as the two opposition parties) from 1832-05-21 to 1832-05-23. Several decisions were made at this initial convention of the party. On the first day, a committee was appointed to provide a list of delegates from each state. This committee, which later came to be called the credentials committee, reported that all states were represented. Delegates were present from the District of Columbia, and on the first contested roll call vote in convention history, the convention voted 126-153 to deprive DC of its voting rights in the convention. The Rules Committee gave a brief report which established several other customs. Each state was allotted as many votes as it had Presidential Electors; several states were over-represented, and many under-represented. Second, balloting was taken by states and not by individual delegates. Third, two-thirds of the delegates would have to support a candidate for nomination, a measure intended to reduce sectional strife. The fourth rule, which banned nomination speeches, was the only one the party quickly abandoned. The 1832 Democratic National Convention was held from May 21st to the 23rd, in Baltimore, Maryland. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


No roll call vote was taken to nominate Jackson for a second term. Instead, the convention passed a resolution stating that "we most cordially concur in the repeated nominations which he has received in various parts of the union." Martin Van Buren was nominated for vice president on the first ballot, receiving 208 votes to 49 for Philip Pendleton Barbour and 26 for Richard Mentor Johnson. Afterwards, the convention approved an address to the nation and adjourned. This article needs cleanup. ... Richard Mentor Johnson (October 17, 1780 – November 19, 1850) was the ninth Vice President of the United States, serving in the administration of Martin Van Buren. ...


all of that up there is true believe me i used it on mi tx histry paper and i got a 100%


General election

Campaign

Anti-Jackson poster shows Andrew Jackson as a monarch trampling the Constitution, the federal judiciary, and the Bank of the United States.

The election campaign revolved around the Second Bank of the United States. Jackson, who disliked banks and paper money in general, vetoed the renewal of the Bank's charter and withdrew federal deposits from the bank. Clay hoped to divide Jackson's supporters and curry favor in Pennsylvania, the bank's headquarters, by attacking Jackson. His supporters attacked Jackson's use of presidential veto power, showing him as “King Andrew”. However, the attacks on Jackson generally failed, in spite of heavy funding by the bank, as Jackson convinced the ordinary population that he was defending them against a privileged elite. Jackson campaign events were marked by enormous turnout, and he swept Pennsylvania and the vast majority of the country. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 422 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,471 × 2,089 pixels, file size: 734 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 1832 King Andrew rejects republican values. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 422 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,471 × 2,089 pixels, file size: 734 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 1832 King Andrew rejects republican values. ... The Second Bank of the United States was a bank chartered in 1816, five years after the expiration of the First Bank of the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...

Hunters of Kentucky Image File history File links Hunters_of_Kentucky. ...

Jackson supporters used this Battle of New Orleans anthem as their campaign song.

Problems listening to the file? See media help.



Results

Presidential Candidate Party Home State Popular Vote(a) Electoral Vote(d) Running Mate Running Mate's
Home State
Running Mate's
Electoral Vote(d)
Count Percentage
Andrew Jackson Democratic Tennessee 701,780 54.2% 219 Martin Van Buren New York 189
William Wilkins Pennsylvania 30
Henry Clay National Republican Kentucky 484,205(b) 37.4% 49 John Sergeant Pennsylvania 49
John Floyd (Nullifier) Virginia (c) 11 Henry Lee Massachusetts 11
William Wirt Anti-Masonic Maryland 100,715(b) 7.8% 7 Amos Ellmaker Pennsylvania 7
Other 7,273 0.6% 0 Other 0
Total 1,293,973 100.0% 286 Total 286
Needed to win 144 Needed to win 144

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. 1832 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (July 27, 2005). For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... This article is about the state. ... William Wilkins (1779–1865) was an American politician from Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For his namesake son, see Henry Clay, Jr. ... The National Republican Party was a United States political party that existed in the first half of the 19th century. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... John Sergeant was a Pennsylvania politican from a family of American politicans, including his father, Jonathan Dickinson Sergeant, his grandsons, John Sergeant Wise and Richard Alsop Wise, and his great-grandson, John Crain Kunkel. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... John Floyd (April 24, 1783–August 17, 1837) was a United States Representative from Virginia. ... The Nullifier Party was a short-lived political party based in South Carolina in the 1830s. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Henry Lee (1782–1867) was an political economist from Massachusetts, whose writings were popular in England. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... William Wirt (November 8, 1772 – February 18, 1834) was an American author and statesman who is credited with turning the position of United States Attorney General into one of influence. ... The Anti-Masonic Party (also known as the Anti-Masonic Movement) was a 19th century minor political party in the United States. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... Amos Ellmaker (1787 - 1851) was a U.S. political figure. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Source (Electoral Vote): Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (July 31, 2005). is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


(a) The popular vote figures exclude South Carolina where the Electors were chosen by the state legislature rather than by popular vote.
(b) 66,706 Pennsylvanians voted for the Union slate, which represented both Clay and Wirt. These voters have been assigned to Wirt and not Clay.
(c) All of John Floyd's electoral votes came from South Carolina where the Electors were chosen by the state legislatures rather than by popular vote.
(d) Two electors from Maryland failed to cast votes. Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83...


Electoral college selection

Method of choosing Electors State(s)
state is divided into electoral districts, with one Elector chosen per district by the voters of that district Maryland
each Elector appointed by state legislature South Carolina
each Elector chosen by voters statewide (all other states)

Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83...

See also

  • History of the United States (1789-1849)

This article covers the History of the United States from 1789 through 1849. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Chase, James S. Emergence of the Presidential Nominating Convention, 1789-1832 (1973).

References

Books
  • Gammon, Samuel Rhea (1922). The Presidential Campaign of 1832. Johns Hopkins Press. 
  • Remini, Robert V. Henry Clay: Statesman for the Union (1993)
  • Remini, Robert V. Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Freedom 1822-1832 (1981)
Primary sources
  • (1831) Journal Of The National Republican Convention, Which Assembled In The City Of Baltimore, Dec. 12, 1831, For The Nominations Of Candidates To Fill The Offices Of President And Vice President. Washington: National Journal. 
  • (1832) Summary Of The Proceedings Of A Convention Of Republican Delegates, From The Several States In The Union, For The Purpose of Nominating A Candidate For The Office Of Vice-President Of The United States; Held At Baltimore, In The State Of Maryland, May, 1832. Albany: Packard and Van Benthuysen.  Note: the account of the convention in Niles' Weekly Register has more information than the printed proceedings.
Web sites
  • Andrew Jackson (1829–1837). AmericanPresident.org. Retrieved on March 18, 2005.
  • Elections. answers.com. Retrieved on March 19, 2005.
  • A Historical Analysis of the Electoral College. The Green Papers. Retrieved on March 20, 2005.
    • source for “Electoral college selection”
  • Pennsylvania Presidential Election Returns 1832. The Wilkes University Election Statistics Project: Pennsylvania Election Statistics: 1682–2006. Retrieved on March 19, 2005.
  • Overview of Anti-Masonic National Convention of 1831. Our Campaigns.com.
  • Overview of National Republican Convention of 1831. Our Campaigns.com.
  • Overview of Democratic National Convention of 1832. Our Campaigns.com.

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