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Encyclopedia > United States presidential election, 1812
Presidential electoral votes by state.
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Presidential electoral votes by state.

The U.S. presidential election of 1812 took place in the shadow of the War of 1812. It featured an intriguing competition between incumbent (Democratic-)Republican President James Madison and a dissident Republican, DeWitt Clinton, nephew of Madison's late Vice President. The Federalist opposition threw their support behind Clinton. Nonetheless, Madison was re-elected handily. The War of 1812 was fought between the United States and British Empire from 1812 to 1815, on land in North America and at sea around the world. ... The Democratic-Republican Party was one of two major American political parties in the First Party System that lasted from 1792 to 1824. ... The presidential seal was first used by president Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii The President of the United States of America (often abbreviated to POTUS) is the head of state of the United States. ... James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was the fourth (1809–1817) President of the United States. ... DeWitt Clinton Clinton Memorial at Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn NY DeWitt Clinton (March 2, 1769 – February 11, 1828) was an early American politician. ... The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest executive official of the United States government, the person who, in the words of Adlai Stevenson, is a heartbeat from the presidency, and in the calculation of Vice President John Nance Garner, not worth a bucket of warm piss. ... The Federalist Party was a political party during the First Party System in the United States, 1792-1816. ...

Contents


Background

The spillover from the Napoleonic Wars had been steadily worsening throughout James Madison's first term, with the British and the French both ignoring the United States' neutral rights at sea and seizing American ships. The British provided additional provocations by impressing American seamen, by maintaining forts within United States territory in the Northwest, and by supporting American Indians at war with the United States in both the Northwest and Southwest. The Napoleonic Wars were a series of wars fought during Napoleon Bonapartes rule over France. ...


Meanwhile, expansionists in the South and West of the United States coveted both British Canada and Spanish Florida, and wanted to use the provocations as a pretext to seize both areas. The pressure steadily built, and, on June 12, 1812, after Madison had been nominated by the Republicans but before the Federalists had made their nomination, the United States declared war on Great Britain. June 12 is the 163rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (164th in leap years), with 202 days remaining. ... 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Nominations

Republican Party nomination

On May 18, a Republican Congressional nominating caucus nominated President James Madison. The same caucus later nominated Elbridge Gerry for the Vice Presidency, which had been vacant since George Clinton's death a month earlier. May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... The Congressional nominating caucus is the name for informal meetings in which American congressmen would agree on who to nominate for the Presidency and Vice Presidency from their political party. ... Elbridge Gerry (July 17, 1744 – November 23, 1814) was an American politician, a member of the Democratic-Republican Party. ... This page is for the Vice President George Clinton. ...


Federalist Party nomination

On May 29, a caucus of dissident Republicans in the New York legislature nominated Mayor Dewitt Clinton of New York City, the nephew of the late Vice President. Clinton's campaign tailored their pamphlets and speeches by region. In the Northeast, Clinton was portrayed as the anti-War candidate. Meanwhile, in the South and West, where there were few people opposed to the war, Clinton ran on the basis of a more vigorous prosecution of the war. May 29 is the 149th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (150th in leap years). ... For a list of the Dutch Director-Generals who governed New Amsterdam (as New York City was called when it was a Dutch-run settlement) between 1624 and 1664, see: Director-General of New Netherland. ... DeWitt Clinton Clinton Memorial at Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn NY DeWitt Clinton (March 2, 1769 – February 11, 1828) was an early American politician. ... Nickname: The Big Apple Motto: Official website: City of New York Location Location in the state of New York Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Geographical characteristics Area Total 468. ...


In September, after fierce debate, a Federalist nominating caucus in New York City decided to support Clinton as their best chance to defeat the Republicans since the "Revolution of 1800". The caucus then picked Philadelphia lawyer Jared Ingersoll as his running mate. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love Motto: N/A Official website: http://www. ... Jared Ingersoll Jared Ingersoll (October 24, 1749 – October 31, 1822) was an early American lawyer and statesman from Philadelphia. ...


General election

Campaign

Clinton continued his regional campaigning, anti-war in a Northeast most harmed by the war, and pro-war in the South and West. Although the Federalists made gains in Congress and although Clinton did better than any Federalist candidate since Adams, taking New York and New Jersey, Madison still won the Presidency by a comfortable margin.


Results

Presidential Candidate Party Home State Popular Vote(a) Electoral Vote
Count Percentage
James Madison Republican Virginia 140,431 50.4% 128
DeWitt Clinton Federalist New York 132,781 47.6% 89
Rufus King Federalist New York 5,574 2.0% 0
Total 278,786 100.0% 217
Needed to win 109

Source (Popular Vote): U.S. President National Vote. Our Campaigns. (February 10, 2006). James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was the fourth (1809–1817) President of the United States. ... The Democratic-Republican Party was one of two major American political parties in the First Party System that lasted from 1792 to 1824. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 35th 110,862 km² 320 km 690 km 7. ... DeWitt Clinton Clinton Memorial at Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn NY DeWitt Clinton (March 2, 1769 – February 11, 1828) was an early American politician. ... ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 27th 141,205 km² 455 km 530 km 13. ... Rufus King (March 24, 1755–April 29, 1827) was an American lawyer, politician, and statesman. ... ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 27th 141,205 km² 455 km 530 km 13. ... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI in Roman) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Source (Electoral Vote): Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (July 30, 2005). July 30 is the 211th day (212th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 154 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


(a) Only 9 of the 18 states chose electors by popular vote; moreover, those states that did choose electors by popular vote often restricted the vote via property requirements.
(b) One Elector from Ohio did not vote.

Vice Presidential Candidate Party State Electoral Vote
Elbridge Gerry Republican Massachusetts 131
Jared Ingersoll Federalist Connecticut 86
Total 217
Needed to win 109

Source: Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (July 30, 2005). Elbridge Gerry (July 17, 1744 – November 23, 1814) was an American politician, a member of the Democratic-Republican Party. ... The Democratic-Republican Party was one of two major American political parties in the First Party System that lasted from 1792 to 1824. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 44th 10,555 mi²; 27,360 km² 183 mi; 295 km 113 mi; 182 km 13. ... Jared Ingersoll Jared Ingersoll (October 24, 1749 – October 31, 1822) was an early American lawyer and statesman from Philadelphia. ... ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 48th 14,371 km² 113 km 177 km 12. ... July 30 is the 211th day (212th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 154 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Breakdown by ticket

Presidential Candidate Running Mate Electoral Vote
James Madison Elbridge Gerry 128
DeWitt Clinton Jared Ingersoll 86
DeWitt Clinton Elbridge Gerry 3

The split-party ticket of the Federalist DeWitt Clinton and the Republican Elbridge Gerry was the result of three Federalist Electors in Gerry's home state of Massachusetts. James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was the fourth (1809–1817) President of the United States. ... Elbridge Gerry (July 17, 1744 – November 23, 1814) was an American politician, a member of the Democratic-Republican Party. ... DeWitt Clinton Clinton Memorial at Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn NY DeWitt Clinton (March 2, 1769 – February 11, 1828) was an early American politician. ... Jared Ingersoll Jared Ingersoll (October 24, 1749 – October 31, 1822) was an early American lawyer and statesman from Philadelphia. ... DeWitt Clinton Clinton Memorial at Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn NY DeWitt Clinton (March 2, 1769 – February 11, 1828) was an early American politician. ... Elbridge Gerry (July 17, 1744 – November 23, 1814) was an American politician, a member of the Democratic-Republican Party. ...


Electoral college selection

Method of choosing Electors State(s)
each Elector appointed by state legislature Connecticut
Delaware
Georgia
Louisiana
New Jersey
New York
North Carolina
South Carolina
Vermont
each Elector chosen by voters statewide New Hampshire
Ohio
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Virginia
state is divided into electoral districts, with one Elector chosen per district by the voters of that district Kentucky
Maryland
Tennessee
  • two Electors chosen by voters statewide
  • one Elector chosen per Congressional district by the voters of that district
Massachusetts

Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 48th 14,371 km² 113 km 177 km 12. ... Official language(s) None Capital Dover Largest city Wilmington Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 49th 6,452 km² 48 km 161 km 21. ... Official language(s) English and French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans at last census; probably Baton Rouge since Hurricane Katrina Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 31st 134,382 km² 210 km 610 km 16 29°N to 33°N 89°W to 94°W Population... Official language(s) None defined, English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 47th 22,608 km² 110 km 240 km 14. ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 27th 141,205 km² 455 km 530 km 13. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 28th 139,509 km² 805 km 240 km 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 40th 82,965 km² 320 km 420 km 6 32°430N to 35°12N 78°030W to 83°20W Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 26th 4,012... Official language(s) None Capital Montpelier Largest city Burlington Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 43th 24,923 km² 130 km 260 km 3. ... Official language(s) English Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 46th 24,239 km² 110 km 305 km 3. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus (largest metropolitan area is Cleveland) Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 34th 116,096 km² 355 km 355 km 8. ... Official language(s) None Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 33rd 119,283 km² 255 km 455 km 2. ... Official language(s) None Capital Providence Largest city Providence Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 50th 4,005 km² 50 km 65 km 32. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 35th 110,862 km² 320 km 690 km 7. ... Official language(s) English Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 37th 104,749 km² 225 km 610 km 1. ... Official language(s) None Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 42nd 32,160 km² 145 km 400 km 21 37°53N to 39°43N 75°4W to 79°33W Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 19th 5,296,486 165... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 36th 109,247 km² 195 km 710 km 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 44th 10,555 mi²; 27,360 km² 183 mi; 295 km 113 mi; 182 km 13. ...

See also

  • History of the United States (1789-1849)

This article covers the History of the United States from 1789 through 1849. ...

References

Books
  • Boller, Paul F., Jr. (2004). Presidential Campaigns: From George Washington to George W. Bush, 26–28, Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195167163.
Web

Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in Leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Navigation

United States Presidential Elections

1789–1844: 1789 | 1792 | 1796 | 1800 | 1804 | 1808 | 1812 | 1816 | 1820 | 1824 | 1828 | 1832 | 1836 | 1840 | 1844
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1908–1964: 1908 | 1912 | 1916 | 1920 | 1924 | 1928 | 1932 | 1936 | 1940 | 1944 | 1948 | 1952 | 1956 | 1960 | 1964
1968–2008: 1968 | 1972 | 1976 | 1980 | 1984 | 1988 | 1992 | 1996 | 2000 | 2004 | 2008
The United States presidential elections determine who becomes the President of the United States for the next four years. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state The U.S. presidential election of 1792 was the second presidential election in the United States, and the first in which each of the original 13 states appointed electors (in addition to newly added states Kentucky and Vermont). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state The U.S. presidential election of 1804 pitted incumbent (Democratic-)Republican President Thomas Jefferson against Federalist Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Summary Incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant was easily elected to a second term in office despite a split within the Republican Party that resulted in a defection of many key Republicans to opponent Horace Greeley. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Notes: Introduction As the 1992 presidential election approached, Americans found themselves in a world transformed in ways almost unimaginable four years earlier. ... Map The U.S. presidential election of 2000 took place on Election Day, Tuesday, November 7. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state The U.S. presidential election of 2008 is scheduled to occur on November 4, 2008. ...


 
 

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