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Encyclopedia > United States presidential election, 1800
< 1796  Flag of the United States 1804 >
United States presidential election, 1800
1800
Winner Runner up
Nominee Thomas Jefferson John Adams
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Home State Virginia Massachusetts
Running mate Aaron Burr* Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, John Jay
Electoral Vote 73 65
States Carried 8 7
Popular Vote 41,330 25,952
Percentage 61.4% 38.6%
United States presidential election, 1800

Presidential election results map. Green denotes states won by Jefferson, Brown denotes states won by Adams. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Presidential electoral votes by state The U.S. presidential election of 1804 pitted incumbent (Democratic-)Republican President Thomas Jefferson against Federalist Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... Image File history File links T_Jefferson_by_Charles_Willson_Peale_1791_2. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... John Adams, Jr. ... The Democratic-Republican Party, also known as the the great america party (not related to the present-day Republican Party), was founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in 1792. ... The Federalist Party (or Federal Party) was an American political party in the period 1793 to 1816, with remnants lasting into the 1820s. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article discusses Aaron Burr (1756-1836), the American politician. ... Charles Cotesworth (C.C.) Pinckney (February 5, 1746 – August 16, 1825), was an early American statesman and a signer of the U.S. Constitution. ... John Jay (December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American politician, statesman, revolutionary, diplomat, and jurist. ... Download high resolution version (675x636, 61 KB)Image from http://nationalatlas. ...

Before Election
John Adams
Federalist John Adams, Jr. ... The Federalist Party (or Federal Party) was an American political party in the period 1793 to 1816, with remnants lasting into the 1820s. ...

After Election
Thomas Jefferson
Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... The Democratic-Republican Party, also known as the the great america party (not related to the present-day Republican Party), was founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in 1792. ...

In the United States presidential election of 1800, sometimes referred to as the “Revolution of 1800”, Thomas Jefferson defeated John Adams. The election ushered in a generation of Democratic-Republican Party rule and the eventual demise of the Federalist Party. Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... John Adams, Jr. ... The Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison as the Republican party (not related to the present-day Republican Party) in 1792, was the dominant political party in the United States from 1800 until the 1820s, when it split into competing factions, one of which became the... ...


The election exposed one of the flaws in the original Constitution. Members of the Electoral College could only vote for president; the vice president was the person who had the second largest number of votes during the election. The Democratic-Republican plan to have one elector vote for Jefferson and not Aaron Burr was bungled, resulting in a tie in the electoral vote between Jefferson and Burr. The election was then put into the hands of the outgoing Federalist Party House of Representatives. Most Federalists voted for Burr in order to block Jefferson from the presidency, and the result was a week of deadlock. Federalist Alexander Hamilton, who preferred Jefferson to Burr, intervened on Jefferson's behalf, which allowed Jefferson to ascend to the presidency. Hamilton's actions were one cause of his duel with Burr, which resulted in Hamilton's death in 1804. An electoral college is a set of electors, who are empowered as a deliberative body to elect a candidate to a particular office. ... Seal of the office of the Vice-President of the United States The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the President. ... This article discusses Aaron Burr (1756-1836), the American politician. ... The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. ... Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757–July 12, 1804) was an Army officer, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, financier and political theorist. ... A contemporary artistic rendering of the 11 July 1804 duel between Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton by J. Mund. ...


Jefferson's victory ended America's most acrimonious presidential campaign to date. The Twelfth Amendment, ratified in 1804, was added to the United States Constitution. It required electors to make a distinct choice between their selections for president and vice president. Amendment XII in the National Archives The Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution altered Article II pertaining to presidential elections. ...

Contents

General election

Campaign

The 1800 election was a rematch of the 1796 election. The campaign was bitter and characterized by slander and personal attacks on both sides. Federalists spread rumors that the Democratic-Republicans were radicals who would murder their opponents, burn churches, and destroy the country. In 1798, Federalist George Washington had complained "that you could as soon scrub the blackamoor white, as to change the principles of a profest[sic] Democrat; and that he will leave nothing unattempted to overturn the Government of this Country.”[1] Meanwhile, the Democratic-Republicans accused Federalists of destroying republican values with the Alien and Sedition Acts; they also accused Federalists of favoring Britain in order to promote aristocratic, anti-republican values. [2] Presidential electoral votes by state. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... ======== many recent edits that had nothing to do with article. ...


Adams was attacked by both the opposition Democratic-Republicans and by "High Federalists" in his own Federalist Party who were aligned with Hamilton. The Democratic-Republicans felt that Adams' foreign policy was too favorable toward Britain, feared that the new army called up for the Quasi-War would oppress the people, opposed Adam's new taxes, and attacked his Alien and Sedition Acts as violations of states' rights. A faction of “High Federalists” considered Adams too moderate. Federalist leader Alexander Hamilton schemed to elect vice presidential candidate Charles Cotesworth Pinckney to the presidency. One of Hamilton's letters attacking Adams became public, embarrassing Adams and damaging Hamilton's efforts on behalf of Pinckney.[3] The Quasi-War was an undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1801. ... States rights refers to the idea, in U.S. politics and constitutional law, that U.S. states possess certain rights and political powers in relation to the federal government. ... Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757–July 12, 1804) was an Army officer, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, financier and political theorist. ... Charles Cotesworth (C.C.) Pinckney (February 5, 1746 – August 16, 1825), was an early American statesman and a signer of the U.S. Constitution. ...


Jefferson's platform

Political parties in the 1790s did not issue official platforms as they do today. However, Jefferson issued a major statement in a January 26, 1799 public letter to Elbridge Gerry that was widely reprinted and circulated. It became the political creed for which he was best known in his lifetime.[4] is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...

I am for free commerce with all nations; political connection with none; & little or no diplomatic establishment. And I am not for linking ourselves by new treaties with the quarrels of Europe; entering that field of slaughter to preserve their balance, or joining in the confederacy of kings to war against the principles of liberty.


I am for freedom of religion, and against all maneuvres to bring about a legal ascendancy of one sect over another: for freedom of the press, & against all violations of the constitution to silence By force & not by reason the complaints or criticisms, just or unjust, of our citizens against the conduct of their agents. And I am for encouraging the progress of science in all it's branches; and not for raising a hue and cry against the sacred name of philosophy; for awing the human mind by stories of raw-head & bloody bones to a distrust of its own vision, & to repose implicitly on that of others; to go backwards instead of forwards to look for improvement; to believe that government, religion, morality, & every other science were in the highest perfection in ages of the darkest ignorance, and that nothing can ever be devised more perfect than what was established by our forefathers. To these I will add, that I was a sincere well-wisher to the success of the French revolution, and still wish it may end in the establishment of a free & well-ordered republic; but I have not been insensible under the atrocious depredations they have committed on our commerce.[5]

Selection method changes

Partisans on both sides sought any advantage they could find. In several states, this included changing the method of selection to ensure the desired result. In Georgia, Democratic-Republican legislators replaced the popular vote with selection by the state legislature. Federalist legislators did the same in Massachusetts and New Hampshire. (This may have had some unintended consequences in Massachusetts, where the delegation to the federal House of Representatives was changed from 12–2 Federalist to 8–6 Federalist by irate voters.) Pennsylvania also switched to legislative choice, but this resulted in an almost evenly split set of electors. Virginia switched from electoral districts to winner-take-all, a move that probably switched one or two votes from the Federalist column to the Democratic-Republican column fuck.


Voting

Because each state could choose its own election day, voting lasted from April to October. In April, Burr succeeded in reversing the Federalist majority and getting a Democratic-Republican majority in New York's state legislature. With the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans tied 65–65 in the Electoral College, the last state to vote, South Carolina, chose eight Democratic-Republicans, giving the election to Jefferson and Burr. “NY” redirects here. ...


Under the United States Constitution, each presidential elector cast two votes, without distinction as to which was for president or vice president. The recipient of a majority of votes was elected president, while the vice presidency went to the recipient of the second greatest number of votes. The Federalists therefore had one of their electors vote for John Jay rather than for vice presidential candidate Pinckney. The Democratic-Republicans had a similar plan to have one of their electors cast a vote for another candidate instead of Burr, but, by a misadventure, failed to execute it. As a result, the Democratic-Republican electors each cast their two votes for Jefferson and Burr, giving each of them 73 votes. A contingent election had to be held in the House of Representatives (the old House elected in 1798).[6] Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ...


Disputes

Defective certificates

When the electoral ballots were opened and counted on February 11, 1801, it turned out that the certificate of election from Georgia was defective; while it was clear that the electors had cast their votes for Jefferson and Burr, the certificate did not take the Constitutionally mandated form of a "List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each." Jefferson, who was counting the votes in his role as president of the senate, immediately counted the votes from Georgia as votes for Jefferson and Burr. No objections were raised. The total number of votes for Jefferson and Burr was 73, a majority. is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ...


Results

Jefferson and Burr tied for first place, so the election was thrown into the House of Representatives.

Presidential Candidate Party Home State Popular Vote(a), (b), (c) Electoral Vote
Count Percentage
Thomas Jefferson Democratic-Republican Virginia 41,330 61.4% 73
Aaron Burr Democratic-Republican New York 73
John Adams Federalist Massachusetts 25,952 38.6% 65
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney Federalist South Carolina 64
John Jay Federalist New York 1
Total 67,282 100.0% 276
Needed to win 70

Source (Popular Vote): U.S. President National Vote. Our Campaigns. (February 10, 2006). Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... The Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison as the Republican party (not related to the present-day Republican Party) in 1792, was the dominant political party in the United States from 1800 until the 1820s, when it split into competing factions, one of which became the... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article discusses Aaron Burr (1756-1836), the American politician. ... The Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison as the Republican party (not related to the present-day Republican Party) in 1792, was the dominant political party in the United States from 1800 until the 1820s, when it split into competing factions, one of which became the... “NY” redirects here. ... John Adams, Jr. ... ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Charles Cotesworth (C.C.) Pinckney (February 5, 1746 – August 16, 1825), was an early American statesman and a signer of the U.S. Constitution. ... ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude... John Jay (December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American politician, statesman, revolutionary, diplomat, and jurist. ... ... “NY” redirects here. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Source (Electoral Vote): Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (July 30, 2005). is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


(a) Votes for Federalist electors have been assigned to John Adams and votes for Republican electors have been assigned to Thomas Jefferson.
(b) Only 6 of the 16 states chose electors by any form of popular vote.
(c) Those states that did choose electors by popular vote had widely varying restrictions on suffrage via property requirements.


Breakdown by ticket

Presidential Candidate Running Mate Electoral Vote
Thomas Jefferson Aaron Burr 73
John Adams Charles Cotesworth Pinckney 64
John Adams John Jay 1

Contingent election

The members of the House of Representatives balloted as states to determine whether Jefferson or Burr would become president. There were sixteen states, and an absolute majority—in this case, nine—were required for victory. Absolute majority is a supermajoritarian voting requirement which is stricter than a simple majority. ...


While it was common knowledge that Jefferson was the candidate for president and Burr for vice president, the lame-duck House was controlled by the Federalists, who were loath to vote for Jefferson, their partisan nemesis; Jefferson was the key opponent of Federalists since 1789. Most Federalists voted for Burr, giving Burr six of the eight states controlled by Federalists. The seven states controlled by Democratic-Republicans all voted for Jefferson, and Georgia's lone living Federalist representative also voted for Jefferson, giving Jefferson eight states. Vermont was evenly split, casting a blank ballot. The remaining state, Maryland, had five Federalist representatives to three Democratic-Republicans; one of its Federalist representatives voted for Jefferson, forcing the state delegation to cast a blank ballot.


Over the course of seven days from February 11 to February 17, the House cast a total of 35 ballots, with Jefferson receiving the votes of eight state delegations each time—one short of the necessary majority of nine. During the confusion, Alexander Hamilton said he supported Jefferson because he was “by far not so dangerous a man” as Burr. On Tuesday, February 17, on the 36th ballot, Jefferson was elected. Federalist James A. Bayard of Delaware and his allies in Maryland and Vermont all cast blank ballots, thereby giving Jefferson a majority of ten states to four. [7] is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757–July 12, 1804) was an Army officer, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, financier and political theorist. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... James Asheton Bayard (July 28, 1767 – August 6, 1815) was an American lawyer and politician from Wilmington, in New Castle County, Delaware. ...


Results

Jefferson Burr no result
1st – 35th ballots 8 6 2
36th ballot 10 4 2

In the following table, results for the state delegation are expressed as (<votes for Jefferson>-<votes for Burr>-<abstentions>).

1st ballot 2nd–35th ballots(a) 36th ballot
Georgia (b) Jefferson
(1-0-0)
Jefferson
(1-0-0)
Jefferson
(1-0-0)
Kentucky Jefferson
(2-0-0)
Jefferson
(2-0-0)
Jefferson
(2-0-0)
New Jersey Jefferson
(3-2-0)
Jefferson
(3-2-0)
Jefferson
(3-2-0)
New York Jefferson
(6-4-0)
Jefferson
(6-4-0)
Jefferson
(6-4-0)
North Carolina Jefferson
(9-1-0)
Jefferson
(6-4-0)
Jefferson
(6-4-0)
Pennsylvania Jefferson
(9-4-0)
Jefferson
(9-4-0)
Jefferson
(9-4-0)
Tennessee Jefferson
(1-0-0)
Jefferson
(1-0-0)
Jefferson
(1-0-0)
Virginia Jefferson
(16-3-0)
Jefferson
(14-5-0)
Jefferson
(14-5-0)
Maryland no result
(4-4-0)
no result
(4-4-0)
Jefferson
(4-0-4)
Vermont no result
(1-1-0)
no result
(1-1-0)
Jefferson
(1-0-1)
Delaware Burr
(0-1-0)
Burr
(0-1-0)
no result
(0-0-1)
South Carolina (c) Burr
(0-5-0)
Burr
(1-3-0)
no result
(0-0-4)
Connecticut Burr
(0-7-0)
Burr
(0-7-0)
Burr
(0-7-0)
Massachusetts Burr
(3-11-0)
Burr
(3-11-0)
Burr
(3-11-0)
New Hampshire Burr
(0-4-0)
Burr
(0-4-0)
Burr
(0-4-0)
Rhode Island Burr
(0-2-0)
Burr
(0-2-0)
Burr
(0-2-0)

(a) The votes of the individual representatives is typical and may have fluctuated from ballot to ballot, but the result for each individual state did not change.
(b) Even though Georgia had two representatives apportioned, one seat was vacant due to the death of James Jones.
(c) Even though South Carolina had six representatives apportioned, Thomas Sumter was absent due to illness, and Abraham Nott departed for South Carolina between the first and final ballots. Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... “NJ” redirects here. ... “NY” redirects here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N  - Longitude 75° 03′ W to 79° 29... Official language(s) None Capital Montpelier Largest city Burlington Area  Ranked 45th  - Total 9,620 sq mi (24,923 km²)  - Width 80 miles (130 km)  - Length 160 miles (260 km)  - % water 3. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport Largest metro area Hartford Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[2] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Area  Ranked 46th  - Total 9,350 sq mi (24,217 km²)  - Width 68 miles (110 km)  - Length 190 miles (305 km)  - % water 4. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... James Jones ( d. ... General Thomas Sumter (August 14, 1734 - June 1, 1832) was a hero of the American Revolution and went on to become a longtime member of the Congress of the United States. ... Abraham Nott (February 5, 1768 - June 19, 1830) was a United States Representative from South Carolina. ...


Electoral college selection

Method of choosing Electors State(s)
state is divided into electoral districts, with one Elector chosen per district by the voters of that district Kentucky
Maryland
North Carolina
each Elector chosen by voters statewide Rhode Island
Virginia
  • state is divided into electoral districts, with one Elector chosen per district
  • each county chooses an electoral delegate by popular vote
  • Elector is chosen by electoral delegates of the counties within their district
Tennessee
each Elector appointed by state legislature (all other states)

Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N  - Longitude 75° 03′ W to 79° 29... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ...

See also

This article covers the History of the United States from 1789 through 1849. ... The First Party System is the term political scientists and historians give to the political system existing in the United States between roughly 1792 and 1824. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Mintz, S. (2003). Gilder Lehrman Document Number: GLC 581. Digital History. Retrieved on 2006-09-20.
  2. ^ Buel (1972)
  3. ^ Ferling (2004)
  4. ^ Peterson, Merrill (1975). Thomas Jefferson, 627. 
  5. ^ Jefferson, Thomas (1799-01-26). Letter to Elbridge Gerry.
  6. ^ Ferling (2004)
  7. ^ Ferling (2004)

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ...

References

For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...

Bibliography

  • (1999) in Doron Ben-Atar and Barbara B. Oberg, eds.: Federalists Reconsidered. 
  • (2004) in Jeffrey L. Pasley, et al., eds.: Beyond the Founders: New Approaches to the Political History of the Early American Republic. 
  • Beard, Charles A. (1915). The Economic Origins of Jeffersonian Democracy. 
  • Bowling, Kenneth R.; Donald R. Kennon (2005). Establishing Congress : The Removal to Washington, D.C., and the Election of 1800. 
  • Buel, Richard (1972). Securing the Revolution: Ideology in American Politics, 1789–1815. 
  • Chambers, William Nisbet (1963). Political Parties in a New Nation: The American Experience, 1776–1809. 
  • Cunningham, Noble E., Jr. (1965). The Making of the American Party System 1789 to 1809. 
  • Dunn, Susan (2004). The Election Crisis of 1800 and the Triumph of Republicanism. 
  • Elkins, Stanley; Eric McKitrick (1995). The Age of Federalism. 
  • Ferling, John (2004). Adams vs. Jefferson: The Tumultuous Election of 1800. 
  • Fischer, David Hackett (1965). The Revolution of American Conservatism: The Federalist Party in the Era of Jeffersonian Democracy. 
  • Freeman, Joanne B. (1999). "The election of 1800: a study in the logic of political change". Yale Law Journal 108 (8): 1959-1994. 
  • Goodman, Paul (1967). "The First American Party System", in William Nisbet Chambers and Walter Dean Burnham, eds.: The American Party Systems: Stages of Political Development, 56–89. 
  • Hofstadter, Richard (1970). The Idea of a Party System. 
  • Horn, James P. P.; Jan Ellen Lewis, Peter S. Onuf (2002). The Revolution of 1800: Democracy, Race, and the New Republic. 
  • Miller, John C. (1959). Alexander Hamilton: Portrait in Paradox. 
  • Schachner, Nathan (1961). Aaron Burr: A Biography. 
  • Sharp, James Roger (1993). American Politics in the Early Republic: The New Nation in Crisis. 

External links

  • Documentary Timeline Lesson plans from NEH
  • A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787-1825

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