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Encyclopedia > United States presidential election
United States

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the United States
Image File history File links US-GreatSeal-Obverse. ... Politics of the United States takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of the United States is head of state, head of government, and of a two-party legislative and electoral system. ...



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For the current presidential election see: United States presidential election, 2008

United States presidential election determines who serves as president and vice president of the United States for a four-year term, starting at midday on Inauguration Day, which is January 20 of the year after the election. The elections are conducted by the various states and not by the federal government. This article is about the federal government of the United States. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer—or speaker—of the United States House of Representatives. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Party leaders of the United States House of Representatives are elected by their... Congressional districts for representation in the United States House of Representatives are determined after each census. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Robert C. Byrd of West Virginia the current President pro tempore of the United States Senate. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Senate Majority and Minority Leaders (also called Senate Floor Leaders) are two... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... The Cabinet meets in the Cabinet Room on May 16, 2001. ... This is an incomplete list of federal agencies, which are either departmental agencies within the executive branch of the United States government or are Independent Agencies of the United States Government (including regulatory agencies and government corporations). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The United States federal courts are the system of courts organized under the... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... The United States courts of appeals (or circuit courts) are the mid-level appellate courts of the United States federal court system. ... Map of the boundaries of the United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      The United States has a federal government, with elected officials at federal (national), state and... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Midterm elections are elections in the United States in which members of Congress, state legislatures, and... Political parties in the United States lists political parties in the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... GOP redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Third parties in the United States are political parties other than the two... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Current party control of Governors offices (2006). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      In the United States of America, a state legislature is a generic term referring to the... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      All United States states are required to possess a legislative branch. ... In the U.S., a state court has jurisdiction over disputes which occur in a state. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Local government in the United States (sometimes referred to as municipal government) is generally structured... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... The United States presidential election of 2008, scheduled to be held on November 4, 2008, will be the 55th consecutive quadrennial president and vice president of the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Noon is the time exactly halfway through the day, written 12:00 in the 24-hour clock and 12:00 noon in the 12-hour clock. ... Inauguration Day 2005 of President George W. Bush on the west steps of the U.S. Capitol. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A U.S. state is any one of the 50 states which have membership of the federation known as the United States of America (USA or U.S.). The separate state governments and the U.S. federal government share sovereignty. ... This article is about the federal government of the United States. ...


The presidential election occurs quadrennially. The most recent election occurred on November 2, 2004. The next election is scheduled for November 4, 2008. Elections are held on Election Day—the Tuesday after the first Monday in November of every fourth year. The United States presidential election of 2004 was held on Election Day, Tuesday, November 2, 2004. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States presidential election of 2008, scheduled to be held on November 4, 2008, will be the 55th consecutive quadrennial president and vice president of the United States. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... For the current (upcoming) federal elections, see United States general elections, 2007. ...


The current process is an indirect election. Constitutionally, the election is by United States Electoral College electors, who are chosen by methods each state individually establishes. The electors can vote for anyone, but—with rare exceptions—they vote for the designated candidates and their votes are certified by Congress in early January. The Congress is the final judge of the electors; the last serious dispute was in United States presidential election, 2000. Indirect election is a process in which voters in an election do not actually choose between candidates for an office but rather elect persons who will then make the choice. ... Electoral votes by state/federal district, for the elections of 2004 and 2008 The United States Electoral College is a term used to describe the 538 President Electors who meet every 4 years to cast the electoral votes for President and Vice President of the United States; their votes represent... A faithless elector is a member of the United States Electoral College who casts an electoral vote for someone other than the person whom they have pledged to elect. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The United States presidential election of 2000 was a contest between the Democratic candidate Al Gore versus the Republican candidate of George W. Bush. ...

Contents

How elections are administered

The election of the president is governed by Section 1 of Article Two of the United States Constitution, as amended by Amendments XII, XXII, and XXIII. The president and vice president are elected on the same ticket by the Electoral College, whose members are selected from each state; the president and vice president serve four-year terms. These electors are appointed by mechanisms chosen by each state's legislature (prevailingly, by popular vote of the voters of each state). The individual who receives a majority of votes for president — as of 2008, 270 votes are needed for a majority — will be the president-elect of the United States; and the individual who receives a majority of electoral votes for vice president will be the vice president-elect of the United States. If no presidential candidate receives a majority in the Electoral College, then the president-elect will be selected by a vote of the House of Representatives, with each state receiving a single vote. If no vice presidential candidate receives a majority, then the vice president-elect will be selected by a vote of the Senate. Although rare, these latter scenarios have occurred twice in America's history; the House of Representatives chose the president in 1825, and the Senate chose the vice president in 1837. Wikisource has original text related to this article: Article Two of the United States Constitution Article Two of the United States Constitution creates the executive branch of the government, comprising the President and other executive officers. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... Amendment XII in the National Archives The Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution alterd Article II pertaining to presidential elections. ... Amendment XXII in the National Archives The Twenty-second Amendment of the United States Constitution sets a term limit for the President of the United States, providing that No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office... Amendment XXIII in the National Archives Amendment XXIII was the twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution which permits the District of Columbia to choose Electors for President and Vice President. ... Electoral votes by state/federal district, for the elections of 2004 and 2008 The United States Electoral College is a term used to describe the 538 President Electors who meet every 4 years to cast the electoral votes for President and Vice President of the United States; their votes represent... A President-elect is a candidate who has officially been elected President, but who has not yet acceded to his Office, as it is still occupied by the out-going President. ... In the United States presidential election of 1824, John Quincy Adams was elected President on February 9, 1825 after the election was thrown into the House of Representatives. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


Elections take place every four years on the first Tuesday following the first Monday of November (although in many states early and absentee voting begins several weeks before Election Day). The elections are run by local election boards who ensure the fair and impartial nature of the election and prevent tampering of the results. For the current (upcoming) federal elections, see United States general elections, 2007. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Electoral fraud is illegal interference with the process of an election. ...


Neither the constitution, nor the XII, XXII, and XXIII amendments describe the manner for states to select their electoral college representatives. This means then that individual citizens are not granted the right to vote for president by the federal government but rather by their respective state or local governments. This does not mean the current system is unconstitutional; it is just not constitutionally protected and individual states do have a right therefore to bar their citizens from voting for President. (See Disfranchisement.) Amendment XII in the National Archives The Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution alterd Article II pertaining to presidential elections. ... Amendment XXII in the National Archives The Twenty-second Amendment of the United States Constitution sets a term limit for the President of the United States, providing that No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office... Amendment XXIII in the National Archives Amendment XXIII was the twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution which permits the District of Columbia to choose Electors for President and Vice President. ... Disfranchisement or disenfranchisement is the revocation of, or failure to grant, the right of suffrage (the right to vote) to a person or group of people. ...


Ballot candidates

Voters are required to vote on a ballot where they select the candidate of their choice. The presidential ballot is actually voting "for the electors of a candidate" meaning that the voter is not actually voting for the candidate, but endorsing members of the Electoral College who will, in turn, directly elect the President.


Many voting ballots allow a voter to "blanket vote" for all candidates in a particular political party or to select individual candidates on a line by line voting system. Which candidates appear on the voting ticket is determined through a legal process known as ballot access. Usually, the size of the candidate's political party and the results of the major nomination conventions determine who is pre-listed on the presidential ballot. Thus, the presidential election ticket will not list every single candidate running for President, but only those who have secured a major party nomination or whose size of their political party warrants having been formally listed. Laws are in effect to have other candidates pre-listed on a ticket, provided that a sufficient number of voters have endorsed the candidate, usually through a signature list. Never, however, in U.S. history has a 3rd party candidate for president secured a place on the election ticket in this fashion.[citation needed] Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      This list of political parties in the United States contains past and present... Ballot access rules regulate the conditions under which a candidate or political party is entitled to appear on voters ballots. ...


The final way to be elected for president is to have one's name written in at the time of election as a write-in candidate. This is used for candidates who did not fulfill the legal requirements to be pre-listed on the voting ticket. It is also used by voters to express a distaste for the listed candidates, by writing in a ridiculous candidate for president such as Mickey Mouse. In any event, a write-in candidate has never won an election for President of the United States. Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A write-in candidate is a candidate in an election whose name does not appear on the ballot, but for whom voters may vote nonetheless by writing in the persons name. ... Mickey Mouse is an Academy Award-winning comic animal cartoon character who has become an icon for The Walt Disney Company. ...


Non-Majority Votes

In the presidential election of 1800, Aaron Burr, Jefferson's vice presidential candidate, received the same number of electoral votes as Jefferson and challenged Jefferson's election to the office. In the end, Jefferson was chosen as the president due to Alexander Hamilton's influence in the House of Representatives. This created a deep rivalry between Burr and Hamilton which resulted in their famous 1804 duel. After this election, the 12th Amendment was passed to stop a future event like this one. In the United States presidential election of 1800, sometimes referred to as the “Revolution of 1800”, Thomas Jefferson defeated John Adams. ... A contemporary artistic rendering of the July 11, 1804 duel between Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton by J. Mund. ... Amendment XII in the National Archives The Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution alterd Article II pertaining to presidential elections. ...


In the presidential election of 1824, Andrew Jackson received a plurality, but not a majority, of electoral votes cast. The election was thrown to the House of Representatives, and John Quincy Adams was elected to the presidency. In this case as well, a deep rivalry was fermented, this time between Andrew Jackson and House Speaker Henry Clay, who had also been a candidate in the election. In the United States presidential election of 1824, John Quincy Adams was elected President on February 9, 1825 after the election was thrown into the House of Representatives. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... For the use of the term in political theory, see Pluralism (political theory). ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was a diplomat, politician, and the sixth President of the United States (March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829). ... Henry Clay, Sr. ...


According to the current system, the same one used in the election of 1824, if no candidate wins a majority vote in the electoral, the President and Vice President are chosen per the 12th Amendment. The selection of President is decided by a ballot of the House of Representatives. For the purposes of electing the President, each state only has one vote. A ballot of the Senate is held to choose the Vice President. In this ballot, each senator has one vote. If the President is not chosen by Inauguration Day, the Vice President-elect acts as President. If neither are chosen by then, Congress by law determines who shall act as President, pursuant to the 20th Amendment. Amendment XII in the National Archives The Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution alterd Article II pertaining to presidential elections. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Page 1 of Amendment XX in the National Archives Page 2 of the amendment Amendment XX (the Twentieth Amendment) of the United States Constitution, also called The Lame Duck Amendment, or the Norris Amendment, establishes some details of presidential succession and of the beginning and ending of the terms of...


Nominating process

The nominating process of U.S. presidential elections currently consists of two major parts: a series of presidential primary elections and caucuses held in each state, and the presidential nominating conventions held by each political party. This process is not included in the United States Constitution, and thus evolved over time. The series of Presidential primary elections and caucuses is one of the first steps in the long, complex process of electing the President of the United States of America. ... Speeches by important party figures are key features of the convention; here, former President Jimmy Carter addresses the 2004 Democratic National Convention. ... The series of Presidential primary elections and caucuses is one of the first steps in the long, complex process of electing the President of the United States of America. ... Speeches by important party figures are key features of the convention; here, former President Jimmy Carter addresses the 2004 Democratic National Convention. ... A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ...


The primary elections and caucuses are run by state and local governments. Some states only hold primary elections, some only hold caucuses, and others use a combination of both. These primaries and caucuses are staggered between January and June before the federal election, with Iowa and New Hampshire traditionally holding the first presidential state caucus and primary, respectively. For other uses, see Primary. ... A caucus is most generally defined as being a meeting of supporters or members of a political party or movement. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ...


Like the general election, presidential caucuses or primaries select the candidates indirectly. The major political parties officially vote for their presidential candidate at their respective nominating conventions, usually all held in the summer before the federal election. Depending on each state's law and state's political party rules, when voters cast ballots for a candidate in a presidential caucus or primary, they may actually be voting to award delegates "bound" to vote for a candidate at the presidential nominating conventions, or they may simply be expressing an opinion that the state party is not bound to follow in selecting delegates to their respective national convention.


In addition to delegates chosen during primaries and caucuses, state delegations to both the Democratic and Republican conventions also include "unpledged" delegates who can vote for whomever they want. For Republicans, these include top party officials. Democrats have a more expansive group of unpledged delegates called "superdelegates", who are party leaders and elected officials. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... GOP redirects here. ... Superdelegate is an informal term for some of the delegates to the Democratic National Convention, the presidential nominating convention of the United States Democratic Party. ...


Presidential election trends

In recent decades, one of the presidential nominees of the Democratic and Republican parties has almost always been an incumbent president or a sitting or former vice president. When the candidate has not been a president or vice president, nominees of the two main parties have been state Governors or U.S. Senators. The last nominee from either party who had not previously served in such an office was General Dwight D. Eisenhower, who won the Republican nomination and ultimately the presidency in the 1952 election. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... GOP redirects here. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


Contemporary electoral success has favored state governors. Of the last five presidents, four (Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, Bill Clinton and George W. Bush) have been governors of a state (all except for George H. W. Bush). Geographically, these presidents were from either very large states (California, Texas) or from a state south of the Mason-Dixon Line and east of Texas (Georgia, Arkansas). The last sitting U.S. Senator to be elected president was John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts in 1960. The only other sitting senator to be elected was Warren G. Harding in 1920, whereas major-party candidate Senators Andrew Jackson (1824), Lewis Cass (1848), Stephen Douglas (1860), Barry Goldwater (1964), George McGovern (1972), and John Kerry (2004) all lost their elections. However, the top three candidates in 2008 are all senators, so there will most likely be a senator who will be elected President in 2008. For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... For the fictional character, see Mason Dixon (Rocky Balboa character). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The United States presidential election of 1960 marked the end of Dwight D. Eisenhowers two terms as President. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the 29th President of the United States, from 1921 to 1923. ... The United States presidential election of 1920 was dominated by the aftermath of World War I and the hostile reaction to Woodrow Wilson, the Democratic president. ... In the United States presidential election of 1824, John Quincy Adams was elected President on February 9, 1825 after the election was thrown into the House of Representatives. ... Lewis Cass (October 9, 1782 – June 17, 1866) was an American military officer and politician. ... The United States presidential election of 1848 was an open race. ... Stephen A. Douglas Stephen Arnold Douglas (April 23, 1813 - June 3, 1861), American politician from Illinois, was one of the Democratic Party nominees for President in 1860 (the other being John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky). ... The United States presidential election of 1860 set the stage for the American Civil War. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... George McGovern on May 8, 1972 cover of Time Magazine George Stanley McGovern, (born July 19, 1922) is a former United States Representative, Senator, and Democratic presidential nominee. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ... The United States presidential election of 2004 was held on Election Day, Tuesday, November 2, 2004. ...


Results

Order Election year Winner Other Major Candidates[1]
1st 1789 George Washington (none) John Adams (none)
John Jay (none)
Robert H. Harrison (none)
John Rutledge (none)
2nd 1792 George Washington (none) John Adams (Federalist)
George Clinton (Democratic-Republican)
3rd 1796 John Adams (Federalist) Thomas Jefferson (Democratic-Republican)
Thomas Pinckney (Federalist)
Aaron Burr (Democratic-Republican)
Samuel Adams (Democratic-Republican)
Oliver Ellsworth (Federalist)
George Clinton (Democratic-Republican)
4th 1800 Thomas Jefferson (Democratic-Republican) Aaron Burr (Democratic-Republican)
John Adams (Federalist)
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney (Federalist)
5th 1804 Thomas Jefferson (Democratic-Republican) Charles Cotesworth Pinckney (Federalist)
6th 1808 James Madison (Democratic-Republican) Charles Cotesworth Pinckney (Federalist)
George Clinton (Democratic-Republican)
James Monroe (Democratic-Republican)
7th 1812 James Madison (Democratic-Republican) DeWitt Clinton (Federalist)
Rufus King (Federalist)
8th 1816 James Monroe (Democratic-Republican) Rufus King (Federalist)
9th 1820 James Monroe (Democratic-Republican) (not opposed)
10th 1824 John Quincy Adams* (Democratic-Republican) Andrew Jackson† (Democratic-Republican)
William H. Crawford (Democratic-Republican)
Henry Clay (Democratic-Republican)
11th 1828 Andrew Jackson (Democrat) John Quincy Adams (National Republican)
12th 1832 Andrew Jackson (Democrat) Henry Clay (National Republican)
John Floyd (Nullifiers)
William Wirt (Anti-Masonic)
13th 1836 Martin Van Buren (Democrat) William Henry Harrison (Whig)
Hugh Lawson White (Whig)
Daniel Webster (Whig)
Willie Person Mangum (A Whig, but votes received from Nullifiers)
14th 1840 William Henry Harrison (Whig) Martin Van Buren (Democrat)
15th 1844* James K. Polk* (Democrat) Henry Clay (Whig)
James G. Birney (Liberty)
16th 1848 Zachary Taylor (Whig) Lewis Cass (Democrat)
Martin Van Buren (Free Soil)
17th 1852 Franklin Pierce (Democratic) Winfield Scott (Whig)
John P. Hale (Free Soil)
18th 1856* James Buchanan* (Democratic) John C. Frémont (Republican)
Millard Fillmore (American Party/Whig)
19th 1860* Abraham Lincoln* (Republican) John C. Breckinridge (National Democrat)
John Bell (Constitutional Union)
Stephen A. Douglas (Democrat)
20th 1864 Abraham Lincoln (Republican) George B. McClellan (Democrat)
21th 1868 Ulysses S. Grant (Republican) Horatio Seymour (Democrat)
22nd 1872 Ulysses S. Grant (Republican) Horace Greeley (Democrat/Liberal Republican)
Thomas A. Hendricks (Democrat)
B. Gratz Brown (Democrat/Liberal Republican)
23rd 1876 Rutherford B. Hayes* (Republican) Samuel J. Tilden‡ (Democrat)
24th 1880* James A. Garfield* (Republican) Winfield Scott Hancock (Democrat)
James Weaver (Greenback)
25th 1884* Grover Cleveland* (Democrat) James G. Blaine (Republican)
26th 1888 Benjamin Harrison* (Republican) Grover Cleveland† (Democrat)
Clinton B. Fisk (Prohibition)
27th 1892* Grover Cleveland* (Democrat) Benjamin Harrison (Republican)
James Weaver (Populist)
John Bidwell (Prohibition)
28th 1896 William McKinley (Republican) William Jennings Bryan (Democrat/Populist)
29th 1900 William McKinley (Republican) William Jennings Bryan (Democrat)
30th 1904 Theodore Roosevelt (Republican) Alton B. Parker (Democrat)
Eugene V. Debs (Socialist)
31st 1908 William Howard Taft (Republican) William Jennings Bryan (Democrat)
Eugene V. Debs (Socialist)
32nd 1912* Woodrow Wilson* (Democrat) Theodore Roosevelt (Bull-Moose/Progressive)
William Howard Taft (Republican)
Eugene V. Debs (Socialist)
33rd 1916* Woodrow Wilson* (Democrat) Charles Evans Hughes (Republican)
Allan L. Benson (Socialist)
34th 1920 Warren G. Harding (Republican) James M. Cox (Democrat)
Eugene V. Debs (Socialist)
35th 1924 Calvin Coolidge (Republican) John W. Davis (Democrat)
Robert M. La Follette, Sr. (Progressive)
36th 1928 Herbert Hoover (Republican) Al Smith (Democrat)
37th 1932 Franklin D. Roosevelt (Democrat) Herbert Hoover (Republican)
Norman Thomas (Socialist)
38th 1936 Franklin D. Roosevelt (Democrat) Alf Landon (Republican)
William Lemke (Union)
39th 1940 Franklin D. Roosevelt (Democrat) Wendell Willkie (Republican)
40th 1944 Franklin D. Roosevelt (Democrat) Thomas E. Dewey (Republican)
41st 1948* Harry S. Truman* (Democrat) Thomas E. Dewey (Republican)
Strom Thurmond (States' Rights Democratic)
Henry A. Wallace (Progressive/Labor)
42nd 1952 Dwight D. Eisenhower (Republican) Adlai Stevenson (Democrat)
43rd 1956 Dwight D. Eisenhower (Republican) Adlai Stevenson (Democrat)
44th 1960* John F. Kennedy* (Democrat) Richard Nixon (Republican)
Harry F. Byrd (none)
45th 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson (Democrat) Barry Goldwater (Republican)
46th 1968* Richard Nixon* (Republican) Hubert Humphrey (Democrat)
George Wallace (American Independent)
47th 1972 Richard Nixon (Republican) George McGovern (Democrat)
48th 1976 Jimmy Carter (Democrat) Gerald Ford (Republican)
49th 1980 Ronald Reagan (Republican) Jimmy Carter (Democrat)
John B. Anderson (none)
50th 1984 Ronald Reagan (Republican) Walter Mondale (Democrat)
51st 1988 George H. W. Bush (Republican) Michael Dukakis (Democrat)
52nd 1992* Bill Clinton* (Democrat) George H. W. Bush (Republican)
Ross Perot (none)
53rd 1996* Bill Clinton* (Democrat) Bob Dole (Republican)
Ross Perot (Reform)
Ralph Nader (Write-in/none of the above)
54th 2000†* George W. Bush* (Republican) Al Gore† (Democrat)
Ralph Nader (Green)
55th 2004 George W. Bush (Republican) John Kerry (Democrat)
Ralph Nader (Green)
56th 2008 yet to be determined John McCain (Republican) (presumptive nominee)
Barack Obama (Democrat)
Hillary Clinton (Democrat)
Ralph Nader (Independent)
* Winner received less than an absolute majority of the popular vote.
† Losing candidate received a plurality of the popular vote.
‡ Losing candidate received an absolute majority of the popular vote.

The United States presidential election of 1789 was the first presidential election in the United States of America. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... For other persons named John Jay, see John Jay (disambiguation). ... The Hon. ... This article is about the Governor and Chief Justice of the United States. ... The United States presidential election of 1792 was the second presidential election in the United States, and the first in which each of the original 13 states appointed electors (in addition to newly added states Kentucky and Vermont). ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... ... This page is for the Vice President George Clinton. ... The Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison as the Republican party (not related to the present-day Republican Party) in 1792, was the dominant political party in the United States from 1800 until the 1820s, when it split into competing factions, one of which became the... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... The Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison as the Republican party (not related to the present-day Republican Party) in 1792, was the dominant political party in the United States from 1800 until the 1820s, when it split into competing factions, one of which became the... Thomas Pinckney Thomas Pinckney (1750–1828), was an American soldier, politician, and diplomat. ... ... This article discusses Aaron Burr (1756-1836), the American politician. ... The Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison as the Republican party (not related to the present-day Republican Party) in 1792, was the dominant political party in the United States from 1800 until the 1820s, when it split into competing factions, one of which became the... For other uses, see Samuel Adams (disambiguation). ... The Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison as the Republican party (not related to the present-day Republican Party) in 1792, was the dominant political party in the United States from 1800 until the 1820s, when it split into competing factions, one of which became the... Oliver Ellsworth (April 29, 1745 – November 26, 1807), an American lawyer and politician, was a revolutionary against British rule, a drafter of the United States Constitution, and third Chief Justice of the United States. ... ... This page is for the Vice President George Clinton. ... The Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison as the Republican party (not related to the present-day Republican Party) in 1792, was the dominant political party in the United States from 1800 until the 1820s, when it split into competing factions, one of which became the... In the United States presidential election of 1800, sometimes referred to as the “Revolution of 1800”, Thomas Jefferson defeated John Adams. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... The Democratic-Republican party was a United States political party, which evolved early in the history of the United States. ... This article discusses Aaron Burr (1756-1836), the American politician. ... The Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison as the Republican party (not related to the present-day Republican Party) in 1792, was the dominant political party in the United States from 1800 until the 1820s, when it split into competing factions, one of which became the... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... ... Charles Cotesworth (C.C.) Pinckney (February 5, 1746 – August 16, 1825), was an early American statesman and a signer of the U.S. Constitution. ... ... Presidential electoral votes by state The U.S. presidential election of 1804 pitted incumbent (Democratic-)Republican President Thomas Jefferson against Federalist Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... The Democratic-Republican party was a United States political party, which evolved early in the history of the United States. ... Charles Cotesworth (C.C.) Pinckney (February 5, 1746 – August 16, 1825), was an early American statesman and a signer of the U.S. Constitution. ... ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... For other persons named James Madison, see James Madison (disambiguation). ... The Democratic-Republican party was a United States political party, which evolved early in the history of the United States. ... Charles Cotesworth (C.C.) Pinckney (February 5, 1746 – August 16, 1825), was an early American statesman and a signer of the U.S. Constitution. ... ... This page is for the Vice President George Clinton. ... The Democratic-Republican party was a United States political party, which evolved early in the history of the United States. ... James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825). ... The Democratic-Republican party was a United States political party, which evolved early in the history of the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... For other persons named James Madison, see James Madison (disambiguation). ... The Democratic-Republican party was a United States political party, which evolved early in the history of the United States. ... DeWitt Clinton. ... ... Rufus King (March 24, 1755 – April 29, 1827) was an American lawyer, politician, and diplomat. ... ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825). ... The Democratic-Republican party was a United States political party, which evolved early in the history of the United States. ... Rufus King (March 24, 1755 – April 29, 1827) was an American lawyer, politician, and diplomat. ... ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825). ... The Democratic-Republican party was a United States political party, which evolved early in the history of the United States. ... In the United States presidential election of 1824, John Quincy Adams was elected President on February 9, 1825 after the election was thrown into the House of Representatives. ... John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was a diplomat, politician, and the sixth President of the United States (March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829). ... The Democratic-Republican party was a United States political party, which evolved early in the history of the United States. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... The Democratic-Republican party was a United States political party, which evolved early in the history of the United States. ... William Harris Crawfordlalalalalalala (February 24, 1772 – September 15, 1834) was an important American politician, as well as a judge, during the early 19th century. ... The Democratic-Republican party was a United States political party, which evolved early in the history of the United States. ... Henry Clay, Sr. ... The Democratic-Republican party was a United States political party, which evolved early in the history of the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was a diplomat, politician, and the sixth President of the United States (March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829). ... The National Republican Party was a United States political party that existed in the first half of the 19th century. ... The United States presidential election of 1832 saw incumbent President Andrew Jackson, candidate of the Democratic Party, easily win reelection against Henry Clay of Kentucky. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Henry Clay, Sr. ... The National Republican Party was a United States political party that existed in the first half of the 19th century. ... John Floyd (April 24, 1783–August 17, 1837) was a United States Representative from Virginia. ... Nullifiers were believers in states rights. ... William Wirt (November 8, 1772 – February 18, 1834) was an American author and statesman who is credited with turning the position of United States Attorney General into one of influence. ... The Anti-Masonic Party (also known as the Anti-Masonic Movement) was a 19th century minor political party in the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ... The United States Whig Party was a political party of the United States. ... This is about the 19th century Tennessee politician; for the 20th century Mississippi politician, see Hugh L. White. ... The United States Whig Party was a political party of the United States. ... Daniel Webster (January 18, 1782 – October 24, 1852), was a leading American statesman during the nations antebellum era. ... The United States Whig Party was a political party of the United States. ... Willie Person Mangum (May 10, 1792–September 7, 1861) was a U.S. Senator from the state of North Carolina between 1831 and 1836 and between 1840 and 1853. ... The United States Whig Party was a political party of the United States. ... Nullifiers were believers in states rights. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ... The United States Whig Party was a political party of the United States. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The United States presidential election of 1844 saw Democrat James Knox Polk defeat Whig Henry Clay in a close contest that turned on foreign policy, with Polk favoring the annexation of Texas and Clay opposed. ... This article is about the U.S. President. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Henry Clay, Sr. ... The United States Whig Party was a political party of the United States. ... James G. Birney James Gillespie Birney (February 4, 1792–November 25, 1857) was an American presidential candidate for the Liberty Party in the 1840 and 1844 elections. ... Liberty Party was a political party in the United States during the mid-19th century. ... The United States presidential election of 1848 was an open race. ... This article is about the twelfth President of the United States. ... The United States Whig Party was a political party of the United States. ... Lewis Cass (October 9, 1782 – June 17, 1866) was an American military officer and politician. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... The Free Soil Party was a short-lived political party in the United States organized in 1848 that petered out by about 1852. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869) was an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States, serving from 1853 to 1857. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ... The United States Whig Party was a political party of the United States. ... John Parker Hale (March 31, 1806 - November 19, 1873) was an American politician. ... The Free Soil Party was a short-lived political party in the United States organized in 1848 that petered out by about 1852. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... For other persons named James Buchanan, see James Buchanan (disambiguation). ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... John Charles Frémont (January 21, 1813 – July 13, 1890), was an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Not to be confused with Mallard Fillmore. ... The Know-Nothing movement was a nativist American political movement of the 1850s. ... The United States Whig Party was a political party of the United States. ... The United States presidential election of 1860 set the stage for the American Civil War. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... John C. Breckinridge This article is about the politician and Confederate General. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... John Bell (also known as The Great Apostate) (February 15, 1797–September 10, 1869) was a U.S. politician, attorney, and plantation owner. ... The United States Whig Party was a political party of the United States. ... Stephen Arnold Douglas (nicknamed the Little Giant because he was short but was considered by many a giant in politics) was an American politician from the western state of Illinois, and was the Democratic Party nominee for President in 1860. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The United States presidential election of 1864 saw Abraham Lincoln, the Republican running on a coalition ticket, win by a landslide over the Democratic candidate, George B. McClellan. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... For the 1960s commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, see George McClellan (police commissioner). ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Governor Horatio Seymour Horatio Seymour (May 31, 1810 - February 12, 1886) was an American politician. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Summary Incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant was easily elected to a second term in office despite a split within the Republican Party that resulted in a defection of many key Republicans to opponent Horace Greeley. ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Horace Greeley (February 3, 1811 – November 29, 1872) was an American editor of a leading newspaper, a founder of the Liberal Republican Party, reformer and politician. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Thomas Andrews Hendricks (September 7, 1819 – November 25, 1885)[1] was a U.S. Representative and a Senator from Indiana, a Governor of Indiana, and the twenty-first Vice President of the United States (serving with Grover Cleveland). ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Benjamin Gratz Brown (May 28, 1826 - December 13, 1885) was a Liberal Republican Senator, Governor of Missouri, and the Vice presidential candidate in the election of 1872. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The United States presidential election of 1876 was one of the most disputed and intense presidential elections in American history. ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the nineteenth President of the United States (1877–1881). ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Samuel Jones Tilden (February 9, 1814 - August 4, 1886) was the Democratic candidate for the US presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The United States presidential election of 1880 was largely seen as a referendum on the Republicans relaxation of Reconstruction efforts in the southern states. ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831–September 19, 1881) was the twentieth President of the United States. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Winfield Scott Hancock (February 14, 1824 – February 9, 1886) was a career U.S. Army officer and the Democratic nominee for President of the United States in 1880. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... James Baird Weaver James Baird Weaver (June 12, 1833 – February 6, 1912) was a United States politician and member of the United States House of Representatives, representing Iowa as a member of the Greenback Party. ... The Greenback Party (Greenback-Labor Party) was an American political party that was active between 1874 and 1884. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837–June 24, 1908), was the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... The United States Presidential Election of 1888 was held on November 6, 1888. ... For other persons named Benjamin Harrison, see Benjamin Harrison (disambiguation). ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837–June 24, 1908), was the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... General Clinton Bowen Fisk (1828-1890), for whom Fisk University is named, was a senior officer in the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands. ... National Prohibition Convention, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1892. ... The United States presidential election of 1892 was held on November 8, 1892. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837–June 24, 1908), was the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... For other persons named Benjamin Harrison, see Benjamin Harrison (disambiguation). ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... James Baird Weaver James Baird Weaver (June 12, 1833 – February 6, 1912) was a United States politician and member of the United States House of Representatives, representing Iowa as a member of the Greenback Party. ... The Populist Party was a short-lived political party in late 19th century in the United States. ... John Bidwell John Bidwell (August 5, 1819- April 4, 1900) was known throughout California and across the nation as an important pioneer, farmer, soldier, statesman, politician and philanthropist. ... National Prohibition Convention, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1892. ... The United States presidential election of November 3, 1896 saw Republican William McKinley defeat Democrat William Jennings Bryan in a campaign considered by historians to be one of the most dramatic in American history. ... This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... For other persons of the same name, see William Bryan. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The Populist Party was a short-lived political party in late 19th century in the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... For other persons of the same name, see William Bryan. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Alton Brooks Parker (May 14, 1852 – May 10, 1926) was an American lawyer and judge and a U.S. presidential candidate in the 1904 elections. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Eugene Victor Debs (November 5, 1855 – October 20, 1926) was an American labor and political leader, one of the founders of the International Labor Union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), and five-time Socialist Party of America candidate for President of the United States. ... The Socialist Party of America (SPA) is a socialist political party in the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... For other persons named William Howard Taft, see William Howard Taft (disambiguation). ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... For other persons of the same name, see William Bryan. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Eugene Victor Debs (November 5, 1855 – October 20, 1926) was an American labor and political leader, one of the founders of the International Labor Union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), and five-time Socialist Party of America candidate for President of the United States. ... The Socialist Party of America (SPA) is a socialist political party in the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... The United States Progressive Party of 1912 was a political party created by a split in the Republican Party in the presidential election 1912. ... For other persons named William Howard Taft, see William Howard Taft (disambiguation). ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Eugene Victor Debs (November 5, 1855 – October 20, 1926) was an American labor and political leader, one of the founders of the International Labor Union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), and five-time Socialist Party of America candidate for President of the United States. ... The Socialist Party of America (SPA) is a socialist political party in the United States. ... The United States presidential election of 1916 took place while Europe was embroiled in World War I. Public sentiment in the still neutral United States leaned towards the British and French (allied) forces, due to the harsh treatment of civilians by the German Army, which had invaded and occupied large... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Charles Evans Hughes, Sr. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Allan Louis Benson (November 6, 1871–August 19, 1940) was an American newspaper editor who stood as the United States Socialist Party candidate for President in 1916. ... The Socialist Party of America (SPA) is a socialist political party in the United States. ... The United States presidential election of 1920 was dominated by the aftermath of World War I and the hostile reaction to Woodrow Wilson, the Democratic president. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the 29th President of the United States, from 1921 to 1923. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... James Middleton Cox (March 31, 1870 – July 15, 1957) was a Governor of Ohio, U.S. Representative from Ohio and Democratic candidate for President of the United States in the election of 1920. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Eugene Victor Debs (November 5, 1855 – October 20, 1926) was an American labor and political leader, one of the founders of the International Labor Union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), and five-time Socialist Party of America candidate for President of the United States. ... The Socialist Party of America (SPA) is a socialist political party in the United States. ... The United States presidential election of 1924 was won by incumbent President Calvin Coolidge, the Republican candidate. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... John W. Davis John William Davis (April 13, 1873 — March 24, 1955) was an American politician and lawyer. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Robert Marion La Follette, Sr. ... The United States Progressive Party of 1924 was a national ticket created by Robert M. La Follette, Sr. ... The United States presidential election of 1928 pitted Republican Herbert Hoover against Democrat Al Smith. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Alfred Emanuel Al Smith (December 30, 1873 – October 4, 1944) was Governor of New York, and Democratic U.S. presidential candidate in 1928. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... FDR redirects here. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Norman Thomas Norman Mattoon Thomas (November 20, 1884 - December 19, 1968) was a leading American socialist, pacifist, and six-time presidential candidate for the Socialist Party of America. ... The Socialist Party of America (SPA) is a socialist political party in the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... FDR redirects here. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Alf Landon Alfred Mossman Alf Landon (September 9, 1887 – October 12, 1987) was an American Republican politician from Kansas, who was defeated in a landslide by Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1936 presidential election. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... William Frederick Lemke (August 13, 1878 – May 30, 1950), was a United States politician. ... The Union Party was a short-lived political party in the United States, formed in 1936 by a coalition of radio priest Father Charles Coughlin, old-age pension advocate Francis Townsend, and Gerald L. K. Smith, who had taken control of Huey Longs Share Our Wealth movement after Long... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... FDR redirects here. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Wendell L. Willkie Wendell Lewis Willkie (February 18, 1892 – October 8, 1944) was a lawyer in the United States and the Republican nominee for the 1940 presidential election. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... FDR redirects here. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Thomas Edmund Dewey (March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was the Governor of New York (1943-1954) and the unsuccessful Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in 1944 and 1948. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... The United States presidential election of 1948 is considered by most historians as the greatest election upset in American history. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Thomas Edmund Dewey (March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was the Governor of New York (1943-1954) and the unsuccessful Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in 1944 and 1948. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... James Strom Thurmond (December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) was an American politician who served as governor of South Carolina and as a United States Senator representing that state. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 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Henry Ross Perot (born June 27, 1930) is an American businessman from Texas, who is best known for seeking the office of President of the United States in 1992 and 1996. ... Presidential electoral votes. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... § Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) was a United States Senator from Kansas from 1969-1996, serving part of that time as United States Senate Majority Leader. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Henry Ross Perot (born June 27, 1930) is an American businessman from Texas, who is best known for seeking the office of President of the United States in 1992 and 1996. ... The Reform Party of the United States of America (abbreviated Reform Party USA or RPUSA) is a political party in the United States, founded by Ross Perot in 1995 under the belief that Americans were disillusioned with the state of politics--as being corrupt and unable to deal with vital... Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American attorney and political activist in the areas of consumer rights, humanitarianism, environmentalism and democratic government. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A write-in candidate is a candidate in an election whose name does not appear on the ballot, but for whom voters may vote nonetheless by writing in the persons name. ... None of the Above (NOTA) is a ballot choice in some jurisdictions or organizations, placed so as to allow the voter to indicate his disapproval with all of the candidates in any voting system. ... The United States presidential election of 2000 was a contest between the Democratic candidate Al Gore versus the Republican candidate of George W. Bush. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American attorney and political activist in the areas of consumer rights, humanitarianism, environmentalism and democratic government. ... In American politics, the Green Party is a third party which has been active in some areas since the 1980s, but first gained widespread public attention for Ralph Naders presidential runs in 1996 and 2000. ... The United States presidential election of 2004 was held on Election Day, Tuesday, November 2, 2004. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American attorney and political activist in the areas of consumer rights, humanitarianism, environmentalism and democratic government. ... In American politics, the Green Party is a third party which has been active in some areas since the 1980s, but first gained widespread public attention for Ralph Naders presidential runs in 1996 and 2000. ... The United States presidential election of 2008, scheduled to be held on November 4, 2008, will be the 55th consecutive quadrennial president and vice president of the United States. ... McCain redirects here. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... “Barack” redirects here. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... REDIRECT Hillary Rodham Clinton   This is a redirect from a title with another method of capitalisation. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American attorney and political activist in the areas of consumer rights, humanitarianism, environmentalism and democratic government. ... A majority is a subset of a group that is more than half of the entire group. ... For the use of the term in political theory, see Pluralism (political theory). ... Absolute majority is a supermajoritarian voting requirement which is stricter than a simple majority. ...

Voter turnout

Voter turnout in presidential elections has been on the decline in recent years, although the 2004 election showed a noticeable increase over the turnout in 1996 and 2000. While voter turnout has been decreasing, voter registration has been increasing. Registration rates varied from 65% to 70% of the voting age population from the 1960s to the 1980s, and due in part to greater government outreach programs, registration swelled to 75% in 1996 and 2000. Despite greater registration, however, turnout in general has not greatly improved.[2][3][4] Voters lining up outside a Baghdad polling station during the 2005 Iraqi election. ...

Election Voting Age Population ¹ Turnout  % Turnout of VAP
2004 215,694,000 122,295,345 56.69%
2000 205,815,000 105,586,274 51.31%
1996 196,511,000 96,456,345 49.08%
1992 189,529,000 104,405,155 55.09%
1988 182,778,000 91,594,693 50.11%
1984 174,466,000 92,652,680 53.11%
1980 164,597,000 86,515,221 52.56%
1976 152,309,190 81,555,789 53.55%
1972 140,776,000 77,718,554 55.21%
1968 120,328,186 73,199,998 60.83%
1964 114,090,000 70,644,592 60.92%
1960 109,159,000 68,838,204 63.06%

¹ The voting age population includes all persons age 18 and over as reported by the U.S. Census Bureau, which necessarily includes a significant number of persons ineligible to vote, such as non-citizens, felons, and the mentally incompetent. The actual number of eligible voters is somewhat lower, and the number of registered voters is lower still. The number of non-citizens in 1994 was approximately 13 million, and in 1996, felons numbered around 1.3 million, so it can be estimated that around 7-10% of the voting age population is ineligible to vote. The United States presidential election of 2004 was held on Election Day, Tuesday, November 2, 2004. ... The United States presidential election of 2000 was a contest between the Democratic candidate Al Gore versus the Republican candidate of George W. Bush. ... Presidential electoral votes. ... The United States presidential elections of 1992 featured a battle between incumbent President, Republican George Bush; Democrat Bill Clinton, the governor of Arkansas; and independent candidate Ross Perot, a Texas businessman. ... The United States presidential election of 1988 featured an open primary for both major parties. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The United States presidential election of 1980 featured a contest between incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent, Ronald Reagan, along with third party candidates, the independent John B. Anderson and Libertarian Ed Clark. ... The United States presidential election of 1976 followed the resignation of President Richard M. Nixon in the wake of the Watergate scandal. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The United States presidential election of 1968 was a wrenching national experience, and included the assassination of Democratic candidate Robert F. Kennedy, the violence at the 1968 Democratic National Convention, and widespread demonstrations against the Vietnam War across American university and college campuses. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The United States presidential election of 1960 marked the end of Dwight D. Eisenhowers two terms as President. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ...


Note that the large drop in percentage turnout between 1968 and 1972 can be attributed (at least in part) to the expansion of the franchise to 18 year olds (previously restricted to those 21 and older).


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

The series of Presidential primary elections and caucuses is one of the first steps in the long, complex process of electing the President of the United States of America. ... Speeches by important party figures are key features of the convention; here, former President Jimmy Carter addresses the 2004 Democratic National Convention. ... John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon debate in 1960 During presidential elections in the United States, it has become customary for the main candidates (almost always the candidates of the two main parties, the Democratic Party and the Republican Party) to engage in a debate. ... The table below is a list of United States presidential elections ordered by margin of victory in the Electoral College vote. ... In the 19th century, the United States invented or developed a number of new methods for conducting American Election Campaigns. ... The United States presidential election of 2008, scheduled to be held on November 4, 2008, will be the 55th consecutive quadrennial president and vice president of the United States. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Here a “major candidate” is defined as a candidate receiving greater than 2% of the total popular vote for elections including and after 1824, or greater than 5 electoral votes for elections including and before 1820. (This column may not be complete.)
  2. ^ National Voter Turnout in Federal Elections: 1960-1996. Federal Election Commission (2003-07-29). Retrieved on 2007-12-09.
  3. ^ Election Information: Election Statistics. Office of the Clerk. Retrieved on 2007-12-09.
  4. ^ Voting and Registration Date. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2007-12-09.
  • Presidents John Tyler, Millard Fillmore, Andrew Johnson, Chester Arthur and Gerald Ford served as president but never won an election for president.
  • Ford was never elected vice-president.
  • Tyler and A. Johnson were never major candidates, not even as incumbent presidents.
  • Fillmore was a major candidate, but not as an incumbent.

In the United States presidential election of 1824, John Quincy Adams was elected President on February 9, 1825 after the election was thrown into the House of Representatives. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The Federal Election Commission (or FEC) is an independent regulatory agency that was founded in 1975 by the United States Congress to regulate the campaign finance legislation in the United States. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The United States presidential election of 1789 was the first presidential election in the United States of America. ... The United States presidential election of 1792 was the second presidential election in the United States, and the first in which each of the original 13 states appointed electors (in addition to newly added states Kentucky and Vermont). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... In the United States presidential election of 1800, sometimes referred to as the “Revolution of 1800”, Thomas Jefferson defeated John Adams. ... Presidential electoral votes by state The U.S. presidential election of 1804 pitted incumbent (Democratic-)Republican President Thomas Jefferson against Federalist Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... In the United States presidential election of 1824, John Quincy Adams was elected President on February 9, 1825 after the election was thrown into the House of Representatives. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The United States presidential election of 1832 saw incumbent President Andrew Jackson, candidate of the Democratic Party, easily win reelection against Henry Clay of Kentucky. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The United States presidential election of 1844 saw Democrat James Knox Polk defeat Whig Henry Clay in a close contest that turned on foreign policy, with Polk favoring the annexation of Texas and Clay opposed. ... The United States presidential election of 1848 was an open race. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The United States presidential election of 1860 set the stage for the American Civil War. ... 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The United States presidential election of November 3, 1896 saw Republican William McKinley defeat Democrat William Jennings Bryan in a campaign considered by historians to be one of the most dramatic in American history. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The United States presidential election of 1916 took place while Europe was embroiled in World War I. Public sentiment in the still neutral United States leaned towards the British and French (allied) forces, due to the harsh treatment of civilians by the German Army, which had invaded and occupied large... The United States presidential election of 1920 was dominated by the aftermath of World War I and the hostile reaction to Woodrow Wilson, the Democratic president. ... The United States presidential election of 1924 was won by incumbent President Calvin Coolidge, the Republican candidate. ... The United States presidential election of 1928 pitted Republican Herbert Hoover against Democrat Al Smith. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The United States presidential election of 1948 is considered by most historians as the greatest election upset in American history. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The United States presidential election of 1960 marked the end of Dwight D. Eisenhowers two terms as President. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The United States presidential election of 1968 was a wrenching national experience, and included the assassination of Democratic candidate Robert F. Kennedy, the violence at the 1968 Democratic National Convention, and widespread demonstrations against the Vietnam War across American university and college campuses. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The United States presidential election of 1976 followed the resignation of President Richard M. Nixon in the wake of the Watergate scandal. ... The United States presidential election of 1980 featured a contest between incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent, Ronald Reagan, along with third party candidates, the independent John B. Anderson and Libertarian Ed Clark. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The United States presidential election of 1988 featured an open primary for both major parties. ... The United States presidential elections of 1992 featured a battle between incumbent President, Republican George Bush; Democrat Bill Clinton, the governor of Arkansas; and independent candidate Ross Perot, a Texas businessman. ... Presidential electoral votes. ... The United States presidential election of 2000 was a contest between the Democratic candidate Al Gore versus the Republican candidate of George W. Bush. ... The United States presidential election of 2004 was held on Election Day, Tuesday, November 2, 2004. ... The United States presidential election of 2008, scheduled to be held on November 4, 2008, will be the 55th consecutive quadrennial president and vice president of the United States. ... This is an incomplete list of United States presidential election results by state. ...

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