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Encyclopedia > United States federal courts
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District Courts Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Robert C. Byrd of West Virginia the current President pro tempore of the United States Senate. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Senate Majority and Minority Leaders (also called Senate Floor Leaders) are two... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer—or speaker—of the United States House of Representatives. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Party leaders of the United States House of Representatives are elected by their... Congressional districts for representation in the United States House of Representatives are determined after each census. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... The United States courts of appeals (or circuit courts) are the mid-level appellate courts of the United States federal court system. ... Map of the boundaries of the United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. ...

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The United States federal courts are the system of courts organized under the Constitution and laws of the federal government of the United States. See also United States federal judge. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      The United States has a federal government, with elected officials at federal (national), state and... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      United States presidential elections determine who serves as president and vice president of the United... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Midterm elections are elections in the United States in which members of Congress, state legislatures, and... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      This list of political parties in the United States contains past and present... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... GOP redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Third parties in the United States are political parties other than the two... A state government (provincial government in Canada) is the government of a subnational entity in states with federal forms of government, which shares political power with the federal government or national government. ... Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a state or province. ... Current party control of Governors offices (2006). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      In the United States of America, a state legislature is a generic term referring to the... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      All United States states are required to possess a legislative branch. ... In the U.S., a state court has jurisdiction over disputes which occur in a state. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Local government in the United States (sometimes referred to as municipal government) is generally structured... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... The United States Constitution, the supreme law of the United States The United States Reports, the official reporter of the Supreme Court of the United States The law of the United States was originally largely derived from the common law of the system of English law, which was in force... This article describes the government of the United States. ... A United States federal judge is a judge appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate in accordance with Article III of the United States Constitution. ...

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The courts are a branch of government, and include:

While federal courts are generally created by the U.S. Congress under the constitutional power described in Article III, many of the specialized courts are created under the authority granted in Article I. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... The United States Courts of Appeals (or circuit courts) are the mid-level appellate courts of the United States federal court system. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, or simply the Federal Circuit, was founded in 1982 to combine similar federal cases to a specialized appellate court. ... Map of the boundaries of the United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. ... Subject matter jurisdiction is a legal term used in civil procedure to indicate that a case must be entered in the proper court of law based on the nature of the claim. ... In the United States, Federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction over bankruptcy cases. ... Seal of the United States Tax Court. ... Map of the San Miguel del Bado Grant in central New Mexico, from the United States Court of Private Land Claims, Julian Sandoval Case 25 (1894-1902). ... The United States Court of International Trade is an Article III court, with full powers in law and equity. ... The United States Court of Federal Claims is a special court created on October 1, 1982 by the U.S. Congress and headquartered in Washington, D.C.. By federal law, claims brought against the United States must be brought in this court; however, as this court is established under Article... The United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces exercises worldwide appellate jurisdiction over members of the United States armed forces on active duty and other persons subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, or simply the Federal Circuit, was founded in 1982 to combine similar federal cases to a specialized appellate court. ... The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court is a secret U.S. court composed of eleven federal judges, established by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (1978), and expanded by the USA PATRIOT Act in 2001. ... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Article Three of the United States Constitution Article Three of the United States Constitution establishes the judicial branch of the federal government. ... Article One of the United States Constitution establishes the legislative branch of government, Congress, which includes the House of Representatives and the Senate. ...


Greater power is vested in Article III courts because the greater control that exercise over Article I courts would threaten the balance of power between the branches of government. In the United States, federal courts or tribunals can be classified as either Article I tribunals or Article III tribunals. ... Balance of power is a central concept of realist theories of international relations. ...


Article III requires the establishment of a Supreme Court and permits the U.S. Congress to create other federal courts, and place limitations on their jurisdiction. In theory, Congress could eliminate the entire federal judiciary except for a single Supreme Court Justice (who would be the Chief Justice by default). However, the first Congress immediately established a system of lower federal courts through the Judiciary Act of 1789. Congress in Joint Session. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The first page of the Judiciary Act of 1789 The United States Judiciary Act of 1789 (1 Stat. ...


Levels of U.S. federal courts

The Federal District Courts are the general federal trial courts, although in many cases Congress has passed statutes which divert original jurisdiction to the above-mentioned specialized courts or to administrative law judges (ALJs). In such cases, the district courts have jurisdiction to hear appeals from such lower bodies. Map of the boundaries of the United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... An administrative law judge (ALJ) in the United States is an official who presides at an administrative trial-type hearing. ...


The Federal Courts of Appeals are the intermediate appellate courts. They operate under a system of mandatory review which means they must hear all appeals from the lower courts. The United States courts of appeals (or circuit courts) are the mid-level appellate courts of the United States federal court system. ...


Finally, the United States Supreme Court is the court of last resort. It generally operates under discretionary review, meaning that it can pick and choose cases (through grants of writ of certiorari) and hear only the non-frivolous appeals that present truly novel issues. In a few unusual situations (like lawsuits between state governments or some cases between the federal government and a state) it sits as a court of original jurisdiction. Such matters are generally referred to a designated individual (usually a sitting or retired judge or well-respected attorney) to sit as "Special Master" and report to the Court with recommendations. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... Certiorari (pronunciation: sər-sh(ē-)ə-ˈrer-ē, -ˈrär-ē, -ˈra-rē) is a legal term in Roman, English and American law referring to a type of writ seeking judicial review. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Related organizations

The Judicial Conference of the United States is the policymaking body of the U.S. federal courts. The Conference is responsible for creating and revising federal procedural rules pursuant to the Rules Enabling Act. The Judicial Conference of the United States, formerly known as the Conference of Senior Circuit Judges, was created by the US Congress in 1922, with the principal objective of framing policy guidelines for administration of judicial courts in the United States of America. ... The Rules Enabling Act (28 U.S.C. Â§ 2071 ; Pub. ...


The U.S. Marshals Service is responsible for providing protection for the federal judiciary and transporting federal prisoners. The United States Marshals Service, part of the United States Department of Justice, is the United States oldest federal law enforcement agency. ...


The Supreme Court Police provide security for the Supreme Court building. The Supreme Court of the United States Police is a small yet growing federal law enforcement agency in the District of Columbia, whose mission is to ensure the integrity of the Constitutional mission of the Supreme Court by protecting the United States Supreme Court building, the Justices, employees, guests, and... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the...


Limitations on U.S. Federal Courts

The Supreme Court has interpreted the Constitution as placing some additional restrictions on the federal courts. For example, the doctrines of mootness, ripeness and standing prohibit district courts from issuing advisory opinions. Other doctrines, such as the abstention doctrines and the Rooker-Feldman doctrine limit the power of lower federal courts to disturb rulings made by state courts. This article is about the law term moot. ... In law, ripeness refers to the readiness of a case for litigation; for example, if a law of ambiguous quality has been enacted but never applied, a case challenging that law lacks the ripeness necessary for a decision. ... In law, standing or locus standi is the ability of a party to demonstrate to the court sufficient connection to and harm from the law or action challenged. ... An advisory opinion, in civil procedure, is an opinion issued by a court that does not have the effect of resolving a specific legal case, but merely advises on the constitutionality or interpretation of a law. ... An abstention doctrine is any one of several doctrines that a United States federal court might (or in some cases must) apply to refuse to hear a case, when hearing the case would potentially intrude upon the powers of the state courts. ... The Rooker-Feldman doctrine is a rule of civil procedure enunciated by the United States Supreme Court in two cases, Rooker v. ...


Study of U.S. Federal Courts

Most U.S. law schools offer an elective course that focuses specifically on the powers and limitations of U.S. federal courts, with coverage of topics such as justiciability, abstention doctrines, the abrogation doctrine, and habeas corpus. In the United States, the institution where future lawyers obtain a legal degree is called a law school. ... Justiciability is a term used in civil procedure to describe whether a dispute is capable of being settled by a court of law. ... An abstention doctrine is any one of several doctrines that a United States federal court might (or in some cases must) apply to refuse to hear a case, when hearing the case would potentially intrude upon the powers of the state courts. ... The abrogation doctrine is a doctrine in United States constitutional law which permits the U.S. Congress to allow lawsuits seeking monetary damages against individual U.S. states, so long as this is usually done pursuant to a constitutional limitation on the power of the states. ... For other uses, see Habeas corpus (disambiguation). ...


See also

In the United States, the state supreme court (known by various names in various states) is the highest state court in the state court system. ... In the U.S., a state court has jurisdiction over disputes which occur in a state. ... The United States courts of appeals (or circuit courts) are the mid-level appellate courts of the United States federal court system. ... Map of the boundaries of the United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. ... For the Canadian channel, see CourtTV Canada The Courtroom Television Network, more commonly known as Court TV, is an American cable television network owned by Time Warner that launched on July 1, 1991. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... CM/ECF (Case Management Electronic Case Filing) is the case management and electronic case files system for most of the United States Federal Courts. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
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governpub.com: Courts>>United States courts of appeals (931 words)
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the United States of America.
The Court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight Associate Justices, who are nominated by the President and confirmed with the "advice and consent" of the Senate.
Admission to the bar of a circuit court is granted as a matter of course to any attorney who is admitted to practice law in any state of the United States, whether or not within the circuit, or before another federal court of appeals.
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