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Encyclopedia > United States dollar
United States dollar
$1 to $100 notes
$1 to $100 notes United States coins
ISO 4217 Code USD
Official user(s) Flag of the United States United States
Unofficial user(s)
Inflation 2.7% (United States only)
Source The World Factbook, 2007 est.
Pegged by
Subunit
1/10 Dime
1/100 Cent
1/1000 Mill
Symbol $ or US$
Cent ¢ or c
Mill
Nickname Buck, green, and greenback. Also, Washingtons, Jeffersons, Lincolns, Benjamins, and Hamiltons are used based on denomination,[1] also peso in Puerto Rico.
Coins
Freq. used , , 10¢, 25¢
Rarely used 50¢, $1
Banknotes
Freq. used $1, $5, $10, $20
Rarely used $2, $50, $100
Central bank Federal Reserve Bank
Website www.federalreserve.gov
Printer Bureau of Engraving and Printing
Website www.moneyfactory.gov
Mint United States Mint
Website www.usmint.gov

The dollar (currency code USD) is the unit of currency of the United States. The U.S. dollar has also been adopted as the official and legal currency by the governments in a few other countries. The U.S. dollar is normally abbreviated as the dollar sign, $, or as USD or US$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies and from others that use the $ symbol. It is divided into 100 cents. Look up USD in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... FRN redirects here. ... Top row: Sacagawea Dollar, Lincoln Cent, and Roosevelt Dime. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 619 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (937 × 907 pixel, file size: 612 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Includes new $5. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 668 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (878 × 788 pixel, file size: 93 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_British_Virgin_Islands. ... “UK” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_East_Timor. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ecuador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_El_Salvador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Marshall_Islands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Micronesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palau. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Panama. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Turks_and_Caicos_Islands. ... “UK” redirects here. ... A fixed exchange rate, sometimes (less commonly) called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime wherein a currencys value is matched to the value of another single currency or to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold. ... The Aruban florin is the official currency of Aruba. ... ISO 4217 Code BSD User(s) The Bahamas Inflation 1. ... ISO 4217 Code BHD User(s) Bahrain Inflation 2. ... The Barbados dollar – currency symbol $ or Bds$ – is the national unit of currency of Barbados. ... ISO 4217 Code BZD User(s) Belize Inflation 3% Source The World Factbook, 2006 est. ... Belarusian ruble (ISO-code BYR, before 2000 - BYB) is the official currency of Belarus. ... The dollar (ISO 4217 code: BMD; symbol: $) has been the national currency of Bermuda since 1970. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Cayman Islands dollar. ... The Cuban convertible peso (ISO 4217 code: CUC) is one of two official currencies in Cuba. ... The franc (Arabic: فرنك) is the official currency of the African nation of Djibouti. ... The East Caribbean dollar (currency code XCD) is the currency of eight members of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States. ... The nakfa is the currency of Eritrea, divided into 100 cents. ... ISO 4217 Code HKD User(s) Hong Kong Inflation 2. ... The Jordanian dinar (ISO 4217 code JOD) is the official currency of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the first official one in the State of Palestine. ... The Lebanese pound (Arabic lira, French livre, ISO 4217: LBP) is the currency unit of Lebanon. ... ISO 4217 Code MVR User(s) Maldives Inflation 6% Source The World Factbook, 2005 est. ... The gulden is the unit of currency in the Netherlands Antilles. ... ISO 4217 Code OMR User(s) Oman Inflation 1. ... ISO 4217 Code QAR User(s) Qatar Inflation 7. ... ISO 4217 Code SAR User(s) Saudi Arabia Inflation 1. ... ISO 4217 Code AED User(s) United Arab Emirates Inflation 4. ... The Zimbabwe dollar (Z$) (ISO 4217 currency code ZWD) is the legal tender currency of Zimbabwe. ... For other uses, see Dime. ... ¢ c A United States cent, or 1¢ or a penny In currency, the cent is a monetary unit that equals 1/100 of various countries basic monetary units. ... The mill or mille(â‚¥) (sometimes mil in the UK) is an abstract unit of currency. ... $ redirects here. ... ¢ c A United States cent, or 1¢ or a penny In currency, the cent is a monetary unit that equals 1/100 of various countries basic monetary units. ... The mill or mille(â‚¥) (sometimes mil in the UK) is an abstract unit of currency. ... Buck may refer to any of the following: Look up Buck in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Greenback may refer to: Greenbacks, a colloquial term for the United States dollar, often used when referring to the debate of hard vs. ... The peso is a unit of currency. ... Top row: Sacagawea Dollar, Lincoln Cent, and Roosevelt Dime. ... The United States one-cent coin is a unit of currency equaling one-hundredth of a United States dollar. ... The United States five-cent coin, commonly called a nickel, is a unit of currency equaling one-twentieth, or five hundredths, of a United States dollar. ... For other uses, see Dime. ... A quarter is a coin worth one-quarter of a United States dollar, or 25 cents. ... The Half Dollar of the United States has been produced nearly every year since the inception of the United States Mint in 1794. ... Dollar coins have been minted in the United States in gold, silver, and base metal versions. ... FRN redirects here. ... For the US one-dollar coin, see United States dollar coin. ... Obverse of the $5 bill Reverse of the $5 bill The United States five-dollar bill ($5) is a denomination of United States currency. ... Obverse of the current $10 bill, which entered circulation March 2, 2006 Reverse of the current $10 bill The United States ten-dollar bill ($10) is a denomination of United States currency. ... The United States twenty-dollar bill ($20) is a denomination of United States currency. ... Face of the Series 1995 $2 bill Back of the Series 1995 $2 bill The United States two-dollar bill ($2) is a current denomination of U.S. currency. ... 2004 Federal Reserve Note - Obverse 2004 Federal Reserve Note - Reverse The United States fifty-dollar bill ($50) is a denomination of United States currency. ... Obverse of the Series 2003A $100 bill Reverse of the Series 2003A $100 bill The United States one hundred-dollar bill ($100) is a denomination of United States currency. ... Federal Reserve Districts The United States Federal Reserve System consists of twelve Federal Reserve Banks, each responsible for a particular district, and some with branches. ... The word printer is used to describe a company that provides commercial printing services, involving typesetting, printing and book-binding. ... the bomb. ... A mint is a facility which manufactures coins for currency. ... Seal of the U.S. Mint Denver United States mint building The United States Mint primarily produces circulating coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce. ... $ redirects here. ... This article is about the type of currency, for the U.S. Dollar see United States dollar. ... ¢ c A United States cent, or 1¢ or a penny In currency, the cent is a monetary unit that equals 1/100 of various countries basic monetary units. ...


Taken over by the Congress of the Confederation of the United States on July 6, 1785,[2] the U.S. dollar is the currency most used in international transactions.[3] Several countries use the U.S. dollar as their official currency, and many others allow it to be used in a de facto capacity.[4] In 1995, over US $380 billion were in circulation, two-thirds of which was outside the United States. By 2005, that figure had doubled to nearly $760 billion, with an estimated half to two-thirds being held overseas,[5] representing an annual growth rate of about 7.6%. However, as of December 2006, the dollar was surpassed by the euro in terms of combined value of cash in circulation.[6] Since then the current value of euro cash in circulation has risen to more than €695 billion, equivalent to US$1.029 trillion at current exchange rates.[7] The Congress of the Confederation or the United States in Congress Assembled was a body of representatives appointed by the legislatures of the United States from March 1, 1781 to March 4, 1789. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... The 2006 Asian Games are officially opened by Qatari emir Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani at the 50,000 seater Khalifa Sports Stadium in Doha, Qatar. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Overview

Series of 1917 $1 United States Bearer Note
Series of 1917 $1 United States Bearer Note

The U.S. dollar uses the decimal system, consisting of 100 equal cents (symbol ¢). In another division, there are 1,000 mills or ten dimes to a dollar; additionally, the term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, and subsequently was used in naming gold coins. In the second half of the 19th century there were occasional discussions of creating a $50 gold coin, which was referred to as a "Half Union," thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar; "dime" is used solely as the name of the coin with the value of 10¢, while "eagle" and "mill" are largely unknown to the general public, though mills are sometimes used in matters of tax levies and gasoline prices. When currently issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U.S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes (with the exception of gold, silver and platinum coins valued up to $100 as legal tender, but worth far more as bullion). (Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is significantly more common.) In the past, paper money was occasionally issued in denominations less than a dollar (fractional currency) and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20. Image File history File links One_US_dollar_1917. ... Image File history File links One_US_dollar_1917. ... The mill or mille(â‚¥) (sometimes mil in the UK) is an abstract unit of currency. ... Eagle: retired $10 denomination of a series of gold coins A 1908 Eagle, Graded MS62 1908 Eagle Reverse The Eagle was one of four coins issued in gold by the United States Mint. ... The Coinage Act, passed by the United States Congress on April 2, 1792, established the United States Mint and regulated coinage of the United States. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... A dime is a coin issued by the United States Mint with a denomination of one-tenth of a United States dollar, or ten cents. ... Taxes redirects here. ... Petrol redirects here. ... Top row: Sacagawea Dollar, Lincoln Cent, and Roosevelt Dime. ... FRN redirects here. ... United States Fractional Currency were made by U.S. Government during the U.S. Civil War due to the hoarding and shortage of coins all in gold, silver and copper. ... For the device in heraldry, see Double-headed eagle. ...


U.S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U.S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, and, since 1914, have been issued by the Federal Reserve. The "large-sized notes" issued before 1928 measured 7.42 inches (188 mm) by 3.125 inches (79.4 mm); small-sized notes, introduced that year, measure 6.14 inches (156 mm) by 2.61 inches (66 mm) by 0.0043 inches (0.11 mm). Seal of the U.S. Mint Denver United States mint building The United States Mint primarily produces circulating coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce. ... A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... the bomb. ... The Federal Reserve System is headquartered in the Eccles Building on Constitution Avenue in Washington, DC. The Federal Reserve System (also the Federal Reserve; informally The Fed) is the central banking system of the United States. ... A large-sized note is a bill of any denomination of U.S. currency printed between 1863 and 1929. ... A large-sized note is a bill of any denomination of U.S. currency printed between 1863 and 1929. ...


Etymology

The name Thaler (from German thal, or nowadays usually Tal, "valley", cognate with "dale" in English) came from the German coin Guldengroschen ("great guilder", being of silver but equal in value to a gold guilder), minted from the silver from a rich mine at Joachimsthal (St. Joachim's Valley, now Jáchymov) in Bohemia (then part of the Holy Roman Empire, now part of the Czech Republic). Examples of German and Austrian Thalers compared to a US quarter piece (bottom center) The Thaler (or Taler) was a silver coin used throughout Europe for almost four hundred years. ... An official restrike of the 1486 Tiroler Guldengroschen The guldengroschen was a large silver coin originally minted in Tirol in 1486. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Jáchymov (originally Thal, later Sankt Joachimsthal in German) is a spa town in the Czech Republic, located at the St. ... For other uses, see Bohemia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medieval empire. ...


For further history of the name, see dollar. This article is about the type of currency, for the U.S. Dollar see United States dollar. ...


Nicknames

The colloquialism buck (much like the English "quid") is often used to refer to dollars of various nations, including the U.S. dollar. This term, dating to the 18th century, may have originated with the colonial fur trade. Greenback is another nickname originally applied specifically to the 19th century Demand Note dollars created by Abraham Lincoln to finance the costs of the Civil War for the North. The original note was printed in black and green on the back side. It is still used to refer to the U.S. dollar (and not to the dollars of other countries). Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Look up Colloquialism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Buck may refer to any of the following: Look up Buck in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Quid has several meanings: A small, circular item similar to a dollar; for example, sand dollars Slang (British) for one Pound Sterling (£). The Irish pound was also referred to by this name. ... Greenback may refer to: Greenbacks, a colloquial term for the United States dollar, often used when referring to the debate of hard vs. ... Top row: The distinctive green ink used on the backs of Demand Notes gave rise to the term greenbacks Bottom row: Prominent design elements used on the front of $5 and $20 Demand Notes (located respectively under their denomination); pictured in the middle is the front of a $10 Demand... The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the northern states, popularly referred to as the U.S., the Union, the North, or the Yankees; and the seceding southern states, commonly referred to as the Confederate States of America, the CSA, the Confederacy... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ...


Grand, sometimes shortened to simply G, is a common term for the amount of $1,000. The suffix K (from "kilo-") is also commonly used to denote this amount (such as "$10K" being pronounced "Ten kay" to mean $10,000). Banknotes' nicknames are usually the same as their values (such as five, twenty, etc.) The $5 bill has been referred to as a "fin" or a "fiver" or a "five-spot"; the $10 bill as a "sawbuck," a "ten-spot," or a "Hamilton"; the $20 bill as a "double sawbuck," a "twomp," a "twenty-banger," or a "Jackson"; the $1 bill is sometimes called a "single," the $2 bill a "deuce" or a "Tom", and the $100 bill is nicknamed the hunsky, a "Benjamin," "Benjie," or "Frank" (after Benjamin Franklin, who is honored on the note), or a C-note (C being the Roman numeral for 100) or a Century Note. Occasionally these will be referred to as "dead presidents", although neither Hamilton ($10) nor Franklin ($100) was President. $100 notes are occasionally referred to as 'large' in banking ("twenty large" being $2,000, etc.). The newer designs are sometimes referred to as "Bigface" bills. Kilo (symbol: k) is a prefix in the SI system denoting 103 or 1,000. ... The system of Roman numerals is a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, and was adapted from Etruscan numerals. ...


In Panama, the translation of buck is palo (lit. stick); a nickname for the balboa (dollar). For example: Esto vale 20 palos ("This is worth 20 bucks"). In Puerto Rico (as well as by Puerto Ricans living in the continental U.S.), the dollar is often referred to as a "peso." Buck may refer to any of the following: Look up Buck in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Dollar sign

Main article: Dollar sign

The symbol $, usually written before the numerical amount, is used for the U.S. dollar (as well as for many other currencies). An example would be "$14", which is read as "fourteen dollars". The sign's ultimate origins are not certain, though it is widely accepted that it comes from the Spanish coat of arms, which carries the two Pillars of Hercules and the motto Non Plus Ultra in the shape of an "S". The Spanish were the first to use the dollar sign for their currency, which was later adopted in the US, and which was later replaced by the US dollar. $ redirects here. ...


A popular theory is that the dollar sign was created when a printing press accidentally printed the U and the S overlapping, and it then evolved to look like the modern day $.


History

See also: History of the United States dollar
Rare 1934 $500 Federal Reserve Note, featuring a portrait of President William McKinley.

The first dollar coins issued by the United States Mint were of the same size and composition as the Spanish dollar and even after the American Revolutionary War the Spanish and U.S. silver dollars circulated side by side in the United States. The coinage of various English colonies also circulated. The lion dollar was popular in the Dutch New Netherland Colony (New York), but the lion dollar also circulated throughout the English colonies during the Seventeenth and early Eighteenth centuries. Examples circulating in the colonies were usually fairly well worn so that the design was not fully distinguishable, thus they were sometimes referred to as "dog dollars".[8] U.S. Federal Reserve notes (greenbacks) in the mid-1990s The history of the United States dollar covers more than 200 years. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 560 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1275 × 1365 pixel, file size: 211 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 560 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1275 × 1365 pixel, file size: 211 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... The Spanish dollar or peso (literally, weight) is a silver coin that was minted in the Spanish Empire after a Spanish currency reform in 1497. ... This article is about military actions only. ...


Private banks issued currency backed by Spanish and U.S. silver and gold coinage, although the federal government did not do so until the American Civil War. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


The U.S. dollar was originally specified by the Coinage Act of 1792 to be a unit of weight (471.25 grains of troy silver (about 30.54 g of silver)) and not one of money as it is thought of today. The value of gold or silver contained in the dollar was then converted into relative value in the economy for the buying and selling of goods. This allowed the value of things to remain fairly constant over time, except for the influx and outflux of gold and silver in the nation's economy. According to an evaluation of data from the U.S. Department of Treasury, the cost of goods and services remained relatively consistent between 1635 and 1913, around a level of roughly 25 times the buying power of the U.S. dollar in 2006[citation needed]. The Coinage Act, passed by the United States Congress on April 2, 1792, established the United States Mint and regulated coinage of the United States. ...


For articles on the currencies of the colonies and states, see Connecticut pound, Delaware pound, Georgia pound, Maryland pound, Massachusetts pound, New Hampshire pound, New Jersey pound, New York pound, North Carolina pound, Pennsylvania pound, Rhode Island pound, South Carolina pound and Virginia pound. The pound was the currency of Connecticut until 1793. ... The pound was the currency of Delaware until 1793. ... The pound was the currency of Georgia until 1793. ... The pound was the currency of Maryland until 1793. ... The pound was the currency of Massachusetts until 1793. ... The pound was the currency of New Hampshire until 1793. ... The pound was the currency of New Jersey until 1793. ... The pound was the currency of New York until 1793. ... The pound was the currency of North Carolina until 1793. ... The pound was the currency of Pennsylvania until 1793. ... The pound was the currency of Rhode Island until 1793. ... The pound was the currency of South Carolina until 1793. ... The pound was the currency of Virginia until 1793. ...


Continental currency

See also: Continental currency
Continental One Third Dollar Note (obverse)
Continental One Third Dollar Note (obverse)

In 1775, the United States and the individual states began issuing "Continental Currency" denominated in Spanish dollars and (for the issues of the states) the £sd currencies of the states. The dollar was valued relative to the states' currencies at the following rates: Continental Currency. ... Continental Currency 1/3-Dollar, February 17, 1776, Obverse This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Continental Currency 1/3-Dollar, February 17, 1776, Obverse This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...

State Value of Dollar
in State Currency
Georgia 5 Shillings
Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Virginia 6 Shillings
Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania 7½ Shillings
New York, North Carolina 8 Shillings
South Carolina 32½ Shillings

The continental currency suffered from printing press inflation and was replaced by the silver dollar at the rate of 1 silver dollar = 1000 continental dollars. Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the state. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83...


Silver and gold standards

From 1792, when the Mint Act was passed, the dollar was pegged to silver and gold at 371.25 grains of silver, 24.75 grains of gold (15:1 ratio). 1834 saw a shift in the gold standard to 23.2 grains, followed by a slight adjustment to 23.22 grains in 1837 (16:1 ratio).[citation needed] The Coinage Act, passed by the United States Congress on April 2, 1792, established the United States Mint and regulated coinage of the United States. ... A grain is a unit of mass equal to 0. ... For other uses, see Gold standard (disambiguation). ...


In 1862, paper money was issued without the backing of precious metals, due to the Civil War. Silver and gold coins continued to be issued and in 1878 the link between paper money and coins was reinstated. This disconnect from gold and silver backing also occurred during the War of 1812. The use of paper money not backed by precious metals had occurred under the Articles of Confederation from 1777 to 1788 when paper money became referred to as "not worth a continental". This was a primary reason for the "no state shall require anything but gold and silver as tender in payment of debt" clause of the Constitution. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ...


In 1900, the bimetallic standard was abandoned and the dollar was defined as 23.22 grains of gold, equivalent to setting the price of 1 troy ounce of gold at $20.67. Silver coins continued to be issued for circulation until 1964, when all silver was removed from dimes and quarters, and the half dollar was reduced to 40% silver. Silver half dollars were last issued for circulation in 1969. Troy weight is a system of units of mass customarily used for precious metals and gemstones. ...


Gold coins were withdrawn in 1933 and the gold standard was changed to 13.71 grains, equivalent to setting the price of 1 troy ounce of gold at $35. This standard persisted until 1968. Between 1968 and 1975, a variety of pegs to gold were put in place. The price was at $42.22 per ounce before January 1, 1975[citation needed] saw the U.S. dollar freely float on currency markets. For other uses, see Gold standard (disambiguation). ... Troy weight is a system of units of mass customarily used for precious metals and gemstones. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The foreign exchange (currency or forex or FX) market exists wherever one currency is traded for another. ...


According to the Bureau of Printing and Engraving, the largest note it ever printed was the $100,000 Gold Certificate, Series 1934. These notes were printed from December 18, 1934 through January 9, 1935, and were issued by the Treasurer of the United States to Federal Reserve Banks only against an equal amount of gold bullion held by the Treasury. These notes were used for transactions between Federal Reserve Banks and were not circulated among the general public. is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ...


Coins

Official United States coins have been produced every year from 1792 to the present. In normal circulation today, there are coins of the denominations 1¢ ([one] cent, also referred to as a penny), 5¢ (nickel), 10¢ (dime), 25¢ (quarter dollar officially, or simply quarter in common usage), 50¢ (half dollar officially, sometimes referred to as a fifty-cent piece), and $1 (dollar officially, but frequently referred to as a dollar coin). Top row: Sacagawea Dollar, Lincoln Cent, and Roosevelt Dime. ...


Dollar coins have not been very popular in the United States.[9] Silver dollars were minted intermittently from 1794 through 1935; a copper-nickel dollar of the same large size, featuring President Dwight D. Eisenhower, was minted from 1971 through 1978. Gold dollars were also minted in the 1800s. The Susan B. Anthony dollar coin was introduced in 1979; these proved to be unpopular because they were often mistaken for quarters, due to their nearly-equal size, their milled edge, and their similar color. Minting of these dollars for circulation was suspended in 1980 (collectors' pieces were struck in 1981), but, as with all past U.S. coins, they remain legal tender. As the number of Anthony dollars held by the Federal Reserve and dispensed primarily to make change in postal and transit vending machines had been virtually exhausted, additional Anthony dollars were struck in 1999. In 2000, a new $1 coin featuring Sacagawea was introduced, which corrected some of the mistakes of the Anthony dollar by having a smooth edge and a gold color, without requiring changes to vending machines that accept the Anthony dollar. However, this new coin has failed to achieve the popularity of the still-existing $1 bill and is rarely used in daily transactions. The failure to simultaneously withdraw the dollar bill and weak publicity efforts have been cited by coin proponents as primary reasons for the failure of the dollar coin to gain popular support. Dollar coins have been minted in the United States in gold, silver, and base metal versions. ... Dollar coins have been minted in the United States in both gold and silver versions. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... For other uses, see Susan B. Anthony (disambiguation). ... The Susan B. Anthony dollar is a United States coin minted between 1979 and 1981, and again in 1999. ... Legal tender or forced tender is payment that cannot be refused in settlement of a debt denominated in the same currency by virtue of law. ... Sacagawea (Sakakawea, Sacajawea, Sacajewea; see below) (c. ...


In February 2007, the US Mint, under the Presidential $1 Coin Act of 2005,[10] introduced a new $1 US Presidential dollar coin. Based on the success of the "50 State Quarters" series, the new coin features a rotating portrait of deceased presidents in order of their inaugurations, starting with George Washington, on the obverse side. The reverse side features the Statue of Liberty. To allow for larger, more detailed portraits, the traditional inscriptions of "E Pluribus Unum," "In God We Trust," the year of minting or issuance, and the mint mark will be inscribed on the edge of the coin instead of the face. This feature, similar to the edge inscriptions seen on the British £1 coin, is not usually associated with US coin designs. The inscription "Liberty" has been eliminated, with the Statue of Liberty serving as a sufficient replacement. In addition, due to the nature of US coins, this will be the first time there will be circulating US coins of different denominations with the same President featured. (Lincoln/penny, Jefferson/nickel, Franklin D. Roosevelt/dime, Washington/quarter and Kennedy/half dollar.) Another unusual fact about the new $1 coin is Grover Cleveland will have two coins with his portrait issued due to the fact he was the only US President to be elected to two non-consecutive terms.[11] The United States Mint is responsible for producing and circulating coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce. ... The Presidential $1 Coin Program (Public Law 109-145; 119 Stat. ... Obverse of redesigned quarter The 50 State Quarters program is the release of a series of commemorative coins by the United States Mint. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... For other monuments to freedom, see Monument of Liberty. ... For details of notes and coins, see British coinage and British banknotes. ... For other monuments to freedom, see Monument of Liberty. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... The United States one-cent coin is a unit of currency equaling one-hundredth of a United States dollar. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... The United States five-cent coin, commonly called a nickel, is a unit of currency equaling one-twentieth, or five hundredths, of a United States dollar. ... FDR redirects here. ... For other uses, see Dime. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... A quarter is a coin worth one-quarter of a United States dollar, or 25 cents. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... The Half Dollar of the United States has been produced nearly every year since the inception of the United States Mint in 1794. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837–June 24, 1908), was the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. ...


Early releases of the Washington coin included error coins shipped primarily from the Philadelphia mint to Florida and Tennessee banks. Highly sought after by collectors, and trading for as much as $850 each within a week of discovery, the error coins were identified by the absence of the edge impressions "E PLURIBUS UNUM IN GOD WE TRUST 2007 P". The mint of origin is generally accepted to be mostly Philadelphia, although identifying the source mint is impossible without opening a mint pack also containing marked units. Edge lettering is minted in both orientations with respect to "heads", some amateur collectors were initially duped into buying "upside down lettering error" coins.[12] Some cynics also erroneously point out that the Federal Reserve makes more profit from dollar bills than dollar coins because they wear out in a few years, whereas coins are more permanent. The fallacy of this argument arises because new notes printed to replace worn out notes which have been withdrawn from circulation bring in no net revenue to the government to offset the costs of printing new notes and destroying the old ones. As most vending machines are incapable of making change in banknotes, they commonly accept only $1 bills, though a few will give change in dollar coins. Soda pop and snack machines A vending machine is a machine that dispenses merchandise when a customer deposits money sufficient to purchase the desired item (as opposed to a shop, where personnel is required for every purchase). ... A £20 Ulster Bank banknote. ...


The United States has minted other coin denominations at various times from 1792 to 1935: half-cent, 2-cent, 3-cent, 20-cent, $2.50 (Quarter Eagle), $3.00, $5.00 (Half Eagle), $10.00 (Eagle), $20.00 (Double Eagle) and $50.00 (Half Union). Technically, all these coins are still legal tender at face value, though they are far more valuable today for their numismatic value, and for gold and silver coins, their precious metal value. In addition, an experimental $4.00 (Stella)coin was also minted, but never placed into circulation and is properly considered to be a pattern rather than an actual coin denomination. 1 dollar gold pieces were also made, and are the smallest American coin ever to be made. Half dimes preceded the nickel 5 cent piece for about the first half of the 19th century.The $50 coin mentioned was only produced in 1915 for the Panama-Pacific International Exposition (1915) celebrating the opening of the Panama Canal. Only 1,128 were made, 645 of which were octagonal; this remains the only US coin that was not round as well as the largest and heaviest US coin ever. (The Susan B. Anthony dollar was round in shape; only the frame of the images on either side was decagonal.[13]) For the CSI episode of the same name, see Precious Metal (CSI episode). ... The Palace of Fine Arts from the Exposition The Panama-Pacific International Exposition was a worlds fair held in San Francisco, California between February 20 and December 4 in 1915. ... The Panama Canal is a waterway in Central America which joins the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. ...


From 1934 to present the only denominations produced for circulation have been the familiar penny, nickel, dime, quarter, half dollar and dollar. The nickel is the only coin still in use today that is essentially unchanged (except in its design) from its original version. Every year since 1866, the nickel has been 75% copper and 25% nickel, except for 4 years during World War II when nickel was needed for the war.


Since 1982 the United States Mint has also produced many different denominations and designs specifically for collectors and speculators. There are silver, gold and platinum bullion coins, called "American Eagles," all of which are legal tender though their use in everyday transactions is non-existent. The reason for this is that they are not intended for use in transactions and thus the face value of the coins is much lower than the worth of the precious metals in them. The American Silver Eagle bullion coin is issued only in the $1 (1 troy ounce) denomination and has been minted yearly starting in 1986. The American Gold Eagle bullion coin denominations (with gold content), minted since 1986, are: $5 (1/10 troy oz), $10 (1/4 troy oz), $25 (1/2 troy oz), and $50 (1 troy oz). The American Platinum Eagle bullion coin denominations (with platinum content), minted since 1997, are: $10 (1/10 troy oz), $25 (1/4 troy oz), $50 (1/2 troy oz), and $100 (1 troy oz). The silver coin is 99.9% silver, the gold coins are 91.67% gold (22 karat), and the platinum coins are 99.95% platinum. These coins are not available from the Mint for individuals but must be purchased from authorized dealers. In 2006 The Mint began direct sales to individuals of uncirculated bullion coins with a special finish, and bearing a "W" mintmark. The Mint also produces high quality "proof" coins intended for collectors in the same denominations and bullion content which are available to individuals. This article is about the chemical element. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... A precious metal is a rare metallic element of high, durable economic value. ... American Eagle bullion coins are produced by the United States Mint. ... The American Silver Eagle is the official silver bullion coin of the United States. ... Troy weight is a system of units of mass customarily used for precious metals and gemstones. ... The American Gold Eagle is the official bullion gold coin of the United States. ... The American Platinum Eagle is the official platinum bullion coin of the United States. ... Carat is a measure of the purity of gold and platinum alloys. ... A beautiful example of a proof coin. ...


The largest denominations of currency currently printed or minted by the United States are the $100 bill and the $100 one troy ounce Platinum Eagle.


Banknotes

Main article: Federal Reserve Note

The United States dollar is unique in the way that there have been more than 10 types of banknotes, such as Federal Reserve Bank Note, gold certificate, and United States Note. See Obsolete U.S. currency and coinage for complete listing. The Federal Reserve Note is the only type that remains in circulation since the 1970s. FRN redirects here. ... Federal Reserve bank notes were United States currency issued by individual Federal Reserve banks. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 1880 United States Notes A United States Note is a fiat paper currency that was issued directly into circulation by the United States Department of the Treasury. ... FRN redirects here. ...


Currently printed denominations are $1, $2, $5, $10, $20, $50, and $100. Notes above the $100 denomination ceased being printed in 1946 and were officially withdrawn from circulation in 1969. These notes were used primarily in inter-bank transactions or by organized crime; it was the latter usage that prompted President Richard Nixon to issue an executive order in 1969 halting their use. With the advent of electronic banking, they became less necessary. Notes in denominations of $500, $1,000, $5,000, $10,000, and $100,000 were all produced at one time; see large denomination bills in U.S. currency for details. Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ... For other uses, see President (disambiguation). ... Nixon redirects here. ... Today, the currency of the United States, the U.S. dollar, is printed in bills in denominations of $1, $2, $5, $10, $20, $50, and $100. ...


The design of the notes has been accused of being unfriendly to the visually-impaired. A U.S. District Judge ruled on November 28, 2006 that the American bills gave an undue burden to the blind and denied them "meaningful access" to the U.S. currency system. The judge has ordered the Treasury Department to begin working on a redesign within 30 days.[14] is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Value

Consumer Price Index

US Consumer Price Index 1913-2006
US Consumer Price Index 1913-2006

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... CPI-U 1913-2004; Source: U.S. Department Of Labor The U.S. Consumer Price Index is a time series measure of the price level of consumer goods and services. ...

Factors influencing the price

Borrowing costs, economic growth: The minutes to the August 8, 2006 meeting, at which the Federal Open Market Committee kept short-term interest rates unchanged for the first time in more than two years, supported the view that U.S. borrowing costs have peaked. The dollar fell on the news on August 29, 2006, and has continued lower August 30, 2006, largely ignoring news the U.S. government has revised its estimate of second-quarter economic growth 2006 up to 2.9% from the initial 2.5%.[15] is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), a component of the Federal Reserve System, is charged under U.S. law with overseeing open market operations in the United States, and is the principal tool of US national monetary policy. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... United States Government redirects here. ...


Time-relative value

The following table shows the equivalent amount of goods, in a particular year, that could be purchased with $1.[16]

The value of $1 over time, in 1776 dollars.[17]
Buying power compared to 1980 USD
Year Equivalent buying power Year Equivalent buying power Year Equivalent buying power
1774 $10.53 1860 $10.22 1950 $3.42
1780 $6.20 1870 $6.51 1960 $2.78
1790 $9.30 1880 $8.31 1970 $2.12
1800 $6.77 1890 $9.34 1980 $1.00
1810 $6.91 1900 $10.12 1990 $0.63
1820 $7.25 1910 $8.94 2000 $0.48
1830 $9.21 1920 $4.11 2006 $0.41
1840 $9.83 1930 $4.93
1850 $10.88 1940 $5.87

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 547 pixelsFull resolution (911 × 623 pixel, file size: 6 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Excel chart I made with Data from http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 547 pixelsFull resolution (911 × 623 pixel, file size: 6 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Excel chart I made with Data from http://www. ...

International use

Worldwide use of the U.S. dollar and the euro:      United States      External adopters of the US dollar      Currencies pegged to the US dollar      Currencies pegged to the US dollar w/ narrow band      Eurozone      External adopters of the euro      Currencies pegged to the euro      Currencies pegged to the euro w/ narrow band
Worldwide use of the U.S. dollar and the euro:      United States      External adopters of the US dollar      Currencies pegged to the US dollar      Currencies pegged to the US dollar w/ narrow band      Eurozone      External adopters of the euro      Currencies pegged to the euro      Currencies pegged to the euro w/ narrow band

The dollar is also used as the standard unit of currency in international markets for commodities such as gold and petroleum (the latter sometimes called petrocurrency). Even foreign companies with little direct presence in the United States, such as the European company Airbus, list and sell their products in dollars, although some[who?] argue this is attributed to the aerospace market being dominated by American companies. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ... Petro redirects here. ... Petrocurrency is the currency of a country with oil to export, for instance, Saudi Arabian riyals. ... Airbus S.A.S. (pronounced in English, in French, and in German) is an aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of EADS, a European aerospace concern. ...


At the present time, the U.S. dollar remains the world's foremost reserve currency. In addition to holdings by central banks and other institutions there are many private holdings which are believed to be mostly in $100 denominations. The majority of U.S. notes are actually held outside the United States. All holdings of US dollar bank deposits held by non-residents of the US are known as eurodollars (not to be confused with the euro) regardless of the location of the bank holding the deposit (which may be inside or outside the U.S.) Economist Paul Samuelson and others maintain that the overseas demand for dollars allows the United States to maintain persistent trade deficits without causing the value of the currency to depreciate and the flow of trade to readjust. Milton Friedman at his death believed this to be the case but, more recently, Paul Samuelson has said he now believes that at some stage in the future these pressures will precipitate a run against the U.S. dollar with serious global financial consequences.[18] Percentage of global currencies A reserve currency (or anchor currency) is a currency which is held in significant quantities by many governments and institutions as part of their foreign exchange reserves. ... Eurodollars are deposits denominated in United States dollars at banks outside the United States, and thus are not under the jurisdiction of the Federal Reserve. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... Paul Anthony Samuelson (born May 15, 1915, in Gary, Indiana) is an American neoclassical economist known for his contributions to many fields of economics, beginning with his general statement of the comparative statics method in his 1947 book Foundations of Economic Analysis. ... Balance of trade figures are the sum of the money gained by a given economy by selling exports, minus the cost of buying imports. ... Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American Nobel Laureate economist and public intellectual. ...


Dollar versus euro

Euro per US dollar 1999-2008
Year Highest ↑ Lowest ↓
Date Rate Date Rate
1999 03 Dec €0.9985 05 Jan €0.8482
2000 26 Oct €1.2118 06 Jan €0.9626
2001 06 Jul €1.1927 05 Jan €1.0477
2002 28 Jan €1.1658 31 Dec €0.9536
2003 08 Jan €0.9637 31 Dec €0.7918
2004 14 May €0.8473 28 Dec €0.7335
2005 15 Nov €0.8571 03 Jan €0.7404
2006 02 Jan €0.8456 05 Dec €0.7501
2007 12 Jan €0.7756 27 Nov €0.6723
2008 21 Jan €0.6905 23 Apr €0.6274
Source: Euro exchange rates in USD, ECB

Not long after the introduction of the euro (€ ; ISO 4217 code EUR) as a cash currency in 2002, the dollar began to depreciate steadily in value. As U.S. trade and budget deficits continued to increase, the euro started rising in value. By December 2004, the dollar had fallen to new lows against all major currencies; the euro rose above $1.36/€ (under €0.74/$) for the first time, in contrast to previous lows in early 2003 (€0.87/$). In the first quarter of 2004 the U.S. dollar, with the advantage of Federal Reserve's policy of raising the interest rates, regained some standing against all major currencies, climbing from €0.78/$ to €0.84/$. However, all gains were lost in the second half of 2004, and the dollar stood at €0.74/$ at the end of 2004. Since 2002, the only year in which the dollar actually recovered against the euro was 2005. Although some analysts previewed the dollar dropping as far as $1.60/€ (€0.63/$), it finished 2005 with an increase against the euro, climbing to €0.83/$. An interest rate reduction by the Federal Reserve on September 18, 2007, raised the euro's value significantly and caused the dollar to fall below €0.70 one month later, to new record lows.[19] Economists like Alan Greenspan suggest that another reason for the continued fall of the dollar is its decreasing role as the world's reserve currency. Jim Rogers declared that he thinks the dollar's value will fall even further, especially against the Chinese yuan. Chinese officials signaled plans to diversify the nation's $1.43 trillion reserve in response to a falling U.S. currency which also set the dollar under pressure.[20][21] The dollar sank to new lows against the euro in the days following 4 March 2008, following a series of dour reports on the U.S. economy and expectations that the Federal Reserve will continue slashing interest rates.[22] Headquarters Coordinates , , Established 1 January 1998 President Jean-Claude Trichet Central Bank of Austria, Belgium, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain Currency Euro ISO 4217 Code EUR Reserves €43bn directly, €338bn through the Eurosystem (including gold deposits). ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... An interest rate is the rental price of money. ... The Federal Reserve System is headquartered in the Eccles Building on Constitution Avenue in Washington, DC. The Federal Reserve System (also the Federal Reserve; informally The Fed) is the central banking system of the United States. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Squalltoonix (born March 6, 1926 in New York City) is an American economist and was Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve of the United States from 1987 to 2006. ... James Jim Beeland Rogers, Jr (born 19 October 1942) is co founder along with George Soros, of the Quantum Fund. ... This article is about the Chinese currency base unit. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... The economy of the United States has been the worlds largest national economy since the late 1890s;[1] its gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated as $13. ... The Fed redirects here. ...


The dollar as the major international reserve currency

Main article: Reserve currency
Percentage of global currencies
Percentage of global currencies

The dollar is the most important international reserve currency, followed by the euro. The euro inherited this status from the German mark, and since its introduction, has increased its standing considerably, mostly at the expense of the dollar. Despite the dollar's recent losses to the euro, it is still by far the major international reserve currency, with an accumulation more than double that of the euro. Percentage of global currencies A reserve currency (or anchor currency) is a currency which is held in significant quantities by many governments and institutions as part of their foreign exchange reserves. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Percentage of global currencies A reserve currency (or anchor currency) is a currency which is held in significant quantities by many governments and institutions as part of their foreign exchange reserves. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... ISO 4217 Code DEM User(s) Germany, Montenegro, Kosovo ERM Since 13 March 1979 Fixed rate since 31 December 1998 Replaced by €, non cash 1 January 1999 Replaced by €, cash 1 January 2002 € = 1. ...


In August 2007, two scholars affiliated with the government of the People's Republic of China threatened to sell its substantial reserves in American dollars in response to pressure that they exercise fair trade.[23] The Chinese government denied that selling dollar-denominated assets would be an official policy in the foreseeable future. For the product certification system ( ), see Fairtrade certification. ...


Former Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan said in September 2007 that the euro could replace the U.S. dollar as the world's primary reserve currency. It is "absolutely conceivable that the euro will replace the dollar as reserve currency, or will be traded as an equally important reserve currency."[24] The Federal Reserve System is headquartered in the Eccles Building on Constitution Avenue in Washington, DC. The Federal Reserve System (also the Federal Reserve; informally The Fed) is the central banking system of the United States. ... Squalltoonix (born March 6, 1926 in New York City) is an American economist and was Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve of the United States from 1987 to 2006. ...

Currency composition of official foreign exchange reserves
'95 '96 '97 '98 '99 '00 '01 '02 '03 '04 '05 '06 '07
US dollar 59.0% 62.1% 65.2% 69.3% 70.9% 70.5% 70.7% 66.5% 65.8% 65.9% 66.4% 65.7% 63.3%
Euro 17.9% 18.8% 19.8% 24.2% 25.3% 24.9% 24.3% 25.2% 26.5%
German mark 15.8% 14.7% 14.5% 13.8%
Pound sterling 2.1% 2.7% 2.6% 2.7% 2.9% 2.8% 2.7% 2.9% 2.6% 3.3% 3.6% 4.2% 4.7%
Japanese yen 6.8% 6.7% 5.8% 6.2% 6.4% 6.3% 5.2% 4.5% 4.1% 3.9% 3.7% 3.2% 2.9%
French franc 2.4% 1.8% 1.4% 1.6%
Swiss franc 0.3% 0.2% 0.4% 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2%
Other 13.6% 11.7% 10.2% 6.1% 1.6% 1.4% 1.2% 1.4% 1.9% 1.8% 1.9% 1.5% 1.8%
Sources: 1995-1999, 2006-2007 IMF: Currency Composition of Official Foreign Exchange ReservesPDF (80 KB)
Sources: 1999-2005, ECB: The Accumulation of Foreign ReservesPDF (816 KB)           v  d  e       

Percentage of global currencies A reserve currency (or anchor currency) is a currency which is held in significant quantities by many governments and institutions as part of their foreign exchange reserves. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... The Deutsche Mark (DM, DEM) was the official currency of West and, from 1990, unified Germany. ... GBP redirects here. ... Yen redirects here. ... ISO 4217 Code FRF User(s) Monaco, Andorra, France except New Caledonia, French Polynesia, and Wallis and Futuna ERM Since 13 March 1979 Fixed rate since 31 December 1998 Replaced by €, non cash 1 January 1999 Replaced by €, cash 1 January 2002 € = 6. ... ISO 4217 Code CHF User(s) Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Campione dItalia Inflation 1. ... A list of all currencies, current and historic. ... IMF redirects here. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Established 1 January 1998 President Jean-Claude Trichet Central Bank of Austria, Belgium, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain Currency Euro ISO 4217 Code EUR Reserves €43bn directly, €338bn through the Eurosystem (including gold deposits). ... “PDF” redirects here. ...

US Dollar Index

Main article: US Dollar Index

The US Dollar Index (USDX) is the creation of the New York Board of Trade (NYBOT). It was established in 1973 for tracking the value of the USD against a basket of currencies, which, at that time, represented the largest trading partners of the United States. It began with 17 currencies from 17 nations, but the launch of the euro subsumed 12 of these into just one, so the USDX tracks only six currencies today. The US Dollar Index (USDX) is a number that measures the value of a dollar relative to a base of 100. ... The New York Board of Trade (NYBOT) is a physical commodity futures exchange located in New York, New York. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...

Currency units per U.S. dollar
Weighting
Euro 57.6%
Japanese yen 13.6%
Pound sterling 11.9%
Canadian dollar 9.1%
Swedish krona 4.2%
Swiss franc 3.6%
Source: NYBOT, "US Dollar Index", pg.3 (PDF)


The Index is described by the NYBOT as "a trade weighted geometric average".[25] The baseline of 100.00 on the USDX was set at its launch in March 1973. This event marks the watershed between the fixed-rate system of the Bretton Woods regime and the floating-rate system of the Smithsonian regime. Since then, the USDX has climbed as high as the 160s and drifted as low as the 70s. For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... Yen redirects here. ... GBP redirects here. ... C$ redirects here. ... ISO 4217 Code SEK User(s) Sweden Inflation 2. ... ISO 4217 Code CHF User(s) Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Campione dItalia Inflation 1. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Smithsonian Agreement was a December 1971 agreement that ended the fixed exchange rates established at the Bretton Woods Conference of 1944. ...


The USDX has not been updated to reflect new trading realities in the global economy, where the bulk of trade has shifted strongly towards new partners like China and Mexico and oil exporting countries while the United States homeland has itself de-industrialized.


Dollarization and fixed exchange rates

Other nations besides the United States use the U.S. dollar as their official currency, a process known as official dollarization. For instance, Panama has been using the dollar alongside the Panamanian balboa as the legal tender since 1904 at a conversion rate of 1:1. Ecuador (2000), El Salvador (2001), and East Timor (2000) all adopted the currency independently. The former members of the U.S.-administered Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, which included Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Marshall Islands, chose not to issue their own currency after becoming independent, having all used the U.S. dollar since 1944. Two British dependencies also use the U.S. dollar: the British Virgin Islands (1959) and Turks and Caicos Islands (1973). Dollarization occurs when the inhabitants of a country use foreign currency in parallel to or instead of the domestic currency. ... For other uses, see balboa. ... National motto: ? Official language English? Capital Saipan Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 78 (United States) 1,779 km² Negligible Population  - Total  - Density 132,929 (1980) N/Akm² GDP  - Total  - GDP/head N/A Currency US Dollar Time zone UTC: ? Independence UN trusteeship administered by the US Internet TLD none? Calling code...


Some other countries link their currency to U.S. dollar at a fixed exchange rate. The local currencies of Bermuda and the Bahamas can be freely exchanged at a 1:1 ratio for USD. Argentina used a fixed 1:1 exchange rate between the Argentine peso and the U.S. dollar from 1991 until 2002. The currencies of Barbados and Belize are similarly convertible at an approximate 2:1 ratio. In Lebanon, one dollar is equal to 1500 Lebanese pound, and is used inter­changeably with local currency as de facto legal tender. The exchange rate between the Hong Kong dollar and the United States dollar has also been linked since 1983 at HK$7.8/USD, and pataca of Macau, pegged to Hong Kong dollar at MOP1.03/HKD, indirectly linked to the U.S. dollar at roughly MOP8/USD. Several oil-producing Gulf Arab countries, including Saudi Arabia, peg their currencies to the dollar, since the dollar is the currency used in the international oil trade. A fixed exchange rate, sometimes (less commonly) called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime wherein a currencys value is matched to the value of another single currency or to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold. ... The Argentine peso (originally established as the nuevo peso argentino or peso convertible) is the currency of Argentina. ... The Lebanese pound (Arabic lira, French livre, ISO 4217: LBP) is the currency unit of Lebanon. ... ISO 4217 Code HKD User(s) Hong Kong Inflation 2. ... A linked exchange rate system is a type of exchange rate regime to link the exchange rate of a currency to another. ... The pataca is the monetary unit of Macau (currency code MOP; Chinese: 澳門圓), made up of 100 avos. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...


The People's Republic of China's renminbi was informally and controversially pegged to the dollar in the mid-1990s at ¥ 8.28/USD. Likewise, Malaysia pegged its ringgit at RM3.8/USD in 1997. On July 21, 2005 both countries removed their pegs and adopted managed floats against a basket of currencies. Kuwait did likewise on May 20, 2007,[26] and Syria did likewise in July 2007.[27] CNY and RMB redirect here. ... ISO 4217 Code MYR User(s) Malaysia Inflation 2. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Belarus, on the other hand, will tie its currency, the Belarusian ruble, with the U.S. dollar in 2008.[28] Belarusian ruble (ISO-code BYR, before 2000 - BYB) is the official currency of Belarus. ...


In some countries, such as Peru and Uruguay, although USD is not officially regarded as a legal tender, it is commonly accepted. In Mexico's border area and major tourist zones, it is accepted as if it were a second legal currency. Many stores in Canada also accept the U.S. dollar. In Cambodia, the USD circulates freely, or even preferred over the Cambodian riel. Amounts of one dollar or more are given in dollars, while the riel serves as a subunit.[29][30][31] After the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan, U.S. dollars are accepted as if it were legal tender. Prices of most big ticket items such as houses and cars are set in U.S. dollars[citation needed]. Riel (Khmer: , Symbol ) is the national currency of Cambodia. ...


Exchange rates

Historical exchange rates

Currency units per U.S. dollar, averaged over the year.[32]
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Euro 0.9387 1.0832 1.1171 1.0578 0.8833 0.8040 0.8033 0.7960 0.7293
Japanese yen 113.73 107.80 121.57 125.22 115.94 108.15 110.11 116.31 117.76
Pound sterling 0.6184 0.6598 0.6946 0.6656 0.6117 0.5456 0.5493 0.5425 0.4995
Renminbi 8.2781 8.2784 8.2770 8.2771 8.2772 8.2768 8.1936 7.9723 7.6058
Canadian dollar 1.4858 1.4855 1.5487 1.5704 1.4008 1.3017 1.2115 1.1340 1.0734
Mexican peso 9.553 9.459 9.337 9.663 10.793 11.290 10.894 10.906 10.928
Source: Last 4 years 2005-2002 2003-2000 1996-1999
Current USD exchange rates
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For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... Yen redirects here. ... GBP redirects here. ... CNY and RMB redirect here. ... C$ redirects here. ... ISO 4217 Code MXN User(s) Mexico Inflation 3. ...

See also

Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Look up fiat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Reserves of foreign exchange and gold in 2006 A pile of 12. ... A 500 gram silver bullion bar Silver, like other precious metals, may be used as an investment. ... Wheres George? is a website that tracks the natural geographic circulation of American paper money. ... The economy of the United States has been the worlds largest national economy since the late 1890s;[1] its gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated as $13. ... The Fraser Institutes proposed symbol/logo for the amero The North American currency union is a controversial proposal in which the three principal countries of North America, namely Canada, the United States and Mexico, would share a common currency. ...

References

  1. ^ RATE-EXCHANGE.org - US Currency / US Dollar
  2. ^ Journals of the Continental Congress --Wednesday, JULY 6, 1785.
  3. ^ The Implementation of Monetary Policy - The Federal Reserve in the International Sphere
  4. ^ List of circulating currencies
  5. ^ FRB: Currency and Coin Services
  6. ^ FT.com / MARKETS / Currencies - Euro notes cash in to overtake dollar
  7. ^ ECB: Latest figures
  8. ^ The Lion Dollar: Introduction
  9. ^ CNN Money Congress tries again for a dollar coin. Written by Gordon T. Anderson. Published April 25, 2005.
  10. ^ Pub. L. No. 109-145, 119 Stat. 2664 (Dec. 22, 2005).
  11. ^ The United States Mint Pressroom
  12. ^ Godless Dollars
  13. ^ Coin Facts reference on Susan B. Anthony dollar coin
  14. ^ CNNMoney.com (2006-11-29). Judge rules paper money unfair to blind. Retrieved on 2008-02-17.
  15. ^ Interactive Investor (2006-08-30). Metals - Gold gains as Iran deadline looms, dollar remains weak. Retrieved on 2007-06-10.
  16. ^ Measuring Worth - Purchasing Power of Money in the United States from 1774 to 2006. Retrieved on 2007-01-28.
  17. ^ Purchasing Power of Money in the United States from 1774 to 2006 from measuringworth.com
  18. ^ China, US should adjust approach to economic growth
  19. ^ ECB: euro exchange rates USD
  20. ^ Jeffrey Frankel. What's Ahead: Decade of the Dollar, the Euro, or the RMB?. Retrieved on November 7, 2007.
  21. ^ Adam S. Posen, "The Rise of the Euro: Currency Is Emerging as Rival to the Dollar," The Ripon Review July 2005
  22. ^ "Dollar hits record low against the euro", CNN, February 28, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-03-02. 
  23. ^ China threatens 'nuclear option' of dollar sales.. Retrieved on September 26, 2007.
  24. ^ Reuters. Euro could replace dollar as top currency - Greenspan. Retrieved on September 17, 2007.
  25. ^ NYBOT, "US Dollar Index", pg.2
  26. ^ "Kuwait pegs dinar to basket of currencies", Forbes, 2007-05-20. Retrieved on 2007-06-06. 
  27. ^ "Syria to Drop Dollar Peg in July", Reuters, 2007-06-04. Retrieved on 2007-09-12. 
  28. ^ "Belarus to link currency to dollar", Associated Press, 2007-08-15. Retrieved on 2007-10-01. 
  29. ^ Chinese University of Hong Kong. Historical Exchange Rate Regime of Asian Countries: Cambodia. Retrieved on 2007-02-21.
  30. ^ Kurt Schuler. Tables of Modern Monetary History: Asia. Retrieved on 2007-02-21. “The US dollar also circulates freely”
  31. ^ frizz restaurant in Cambodia. Cambodia Practical: money, atm, transport, cheap flights. Retrieved on 2007-02-21.
  32. ^ FRB: G.5A Release-- Foreign Exchange Rates, Release Dates

This list of circulating currencies contains the 194 current official or de facto currencies of the 192 United Nations member states, one UN observer state, three partially recognized sovereign states, six unrecognized countries, and 33 dependencies. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Forbes (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... CUHK Science Building, commonly known as the rice cooker The Chinese University of Hong Kong, commonly referred to as CUHK, is the second oldest university in Hong Kong; it is also the only collegiate university in the city. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Images of U.S. currency and coins

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The standard of living in the United States is one of the highest in the world by almost any measure. ... For information on household income, see Household income in the United States. ... For information on the income of individuals, see Personal income in the United States. ... This graph shows the household income of the given percentiles from 1967 to 2003, in 2003 dollars. ... Single family homes such as this are indicative of the American middle class. ... The primary regulator of communications in the United States is the Federal Communications Commission. ... This article adopts the US Department of Transportation definition of passenger vehicle The United States is home to the largest passenger vehicle market of any country,[1] which is a consequence of the fact that it has the largest Gross Domestic Product of any country in the world. ... Current U.S. Route shield Current U.S. Route shield in California The system of United States Numbered Highways (often called U.S. Routes or U.S. Highways) is an integrated system of roads and highways in the United States numbered within a nationwide grid. ... There arergwertwertert[1] Kyle Railroad (KYLE) [2] Missouri and Northern Arkansas Railroad (MNA) [3] Montana Rail Link (MRL) [4] Montreal, Maine and Atlantic Railway (MMA) [5] Nebraska, Kansas and Colorado RailNet (NKCR) New York, Susquehanna and Western Railway (NYSW) [6] Northern Plains Railroad Paducah and Louisville Railway (PAL) [7] Palouse... The United States of America has a large and lucrative tourism industry serving millions of international and domestic tourists. ... This article is about the high culture and popular culture of the United States. ... The first U.S. census, in 1790, recorded four million Americans. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... A monument to the working and supporting classes along Market Street in the heart of San Franciscos Financial District, home to tens of thousands of professional and managerial middle class workers each day. ... For other uses, see American Dream (disambiguation). ... The percentage of households and individuals over the age of 25 with incomes exceeding $100,000 in the US.[1][2] Affluence in the United States refers to an individuals or households state of being in an economically favorable position in contrast to a given reference group. ... A monument to the working and supporting classes along Market Street in the heart of San Franciscos Financial District, home to tens-of-thousands of professional and managerial middle class workers each day. ... Percent below each countrys official poverty line, according to the CIA factbook. ... This graph shows the educational attainment since 1947. ... Violent conforntation between working class union members and law enforecement such as the one between teamsters and Minneapolis police above were commonly frowned upon by professional middle class. ... Strictly speaking, the United States does not have national holidays (i. ... Prisons in the United States are operated by both the federal and state governments as incarceration is a concurrent power under the Constitution of the United States. ... Health care in the United States is provided by many separate legal entities. ... This article is about the high culture and popular culture of the United States. ... The United States is home to a wide array of regional styles and scenes. ... American classical music refers to music written in the United States but in the European classical music tradition. ... American folk music, also known as Americana, is a broad category of music including Native American music, Bluegrass, country music, gospel, old time music, jug bands, Appalachian folk, blues, Tejano and Cajun. ... The first major American popular songwriter, Stephen Foster Even before the birth of recorded music, American popular music had a profound effect on music across the world. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... American cinema has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. ... This article is about television in the United States, specifically its history, art, business and government regulation. ... Hollywood redirects here. ... American literature refers to written or literary work produced in the area of the United States and Colonial America. ... The folklore of the United States, or American folklore, is one of the folk traditions which has evolved on the North American continent since Europeans arrived in the 16th century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early-to mid-19th century. ... The Harlem Renaissance was named after the anthology The New Negro, edited by Alain Locke in 1925. ... Beats redirects here. ... The Rocky Mountains, Landers Peak, 1863 by Albert Bierstadt, one of the Hudson River School painters Visual arts of the United States refers to the history of painting and visual art in the United States. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Closely related to the development of American music in the early 20th century was the emergence of a new, and distinctively American, art form -- modern dance. ... The United States has a history of architecture that includes a wide variety of styles. ... Social issues are matters which directly or indirectly affect many or all members of a society and are considered to be problems, controversies related to moral values, or both. ... Main articles: Adolescent sexuality and Adolescent sexual behavior Adolescent sexuality in the United States relates to the sexuality of American adolescents and its place in American society, both in terms of their feelings, behaviors and development and in terms of the response of the government, educators and interested groups. ... Affirmative action is a policy or a program of giving preferential treatment to certain designated groups allegedly seeking to redress discrimination or bias through active measures, as in education and employment. ... Progress of America, 1875, by Domenico Tojetti American exceptionalism (cf. ... Anti-Americanism, often Anti-American sentiment, is defined as being opposed or hostile to the United States of America, its people, its principles, or its policies. ... Capital punishment is the legal process which ends the life of a felon. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Detroit police inspecting equipment found in a clandestine underground brewery during the prohibition era. ... The Energy policy of the United States is determined by federal, state and local public entities, which address issues of energy production, distribution and consumption. ... 1970s US postage stamp block In the United States today, the organized environmental movement is represented by a wide range of organizations sometimes called non-governmental organizations or NGOs. ... Gun Politics in the United States, incorporating the political aspects of gun politics, and firearms rights, has long been among the most controversial and intractable issues in American politics. ... The human rights record of the United States of America has featured an avowed commitment to the protection of specific personal political, religious and other freedoms. ... - Fence barrier on the international bridge near McAllen, TX . ... Pornography may use any of a variety of media — written and spoken text, photos, movies, etc. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity... Racism in the United States has been a major issue in America since the colonial era. ... International recognition Civil unions and domestic partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated Civil unions legal, same-sex marriage debated See also Same-sex marriage Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      Same-sex marriage, also called gay... This article is about the type of currency, for the U.S. Dollar see United States dollar. ... ISO 4217 Code AUD User(s) Australia 6 countries and territories Kiribati Nauru Tuvalu Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Norfolk Island Inflation 4. ... ISO 4217 Code BSD User(s) The Bahamas Inflation 1. ... The Barbados dollar – currency symbol $ or Bds$ – is the national unit of currency of Barbados. ... ISO 4217 Code BZD User(s) Belize Inflation 3% Source The World Factbook, 2006 est. ... The dollar (ISO 4217 code: BMD; symbol: $) has been the national currency of Bermuda since 1970. ... ISO 4217 Code BND User(s) Brunei, Singapore Inflation 0. ... C$ redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Cayman Islands dollar. ... ISO 4217 Code none User(s) Cook Islands Inflation 2. ... The East Caribbean dollar (currency code XCD) is the currency of eight members of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States. ... ISO 4217 Code FJD User(s) Fiji Inflation 1. ... The dollar (currency code GYD) has been the currency of Guyana since 1966. ... ISO 4217 Code HKD User(s) Hong Kong Inflation 2. ... The dollar (ISO 4217 code: JMD) is the currency of Jamaica. ... The dollar (currency code LRD) has been the currency of Liberia since 1943. ... The Namibian dollar (abbreviated N$ or NAD) is the national currency of Namibia, adopted in 1993. ... ISO 4217 Code NZD User(s) New Zealand, Cook Islands, Niue, Pitcairn Islands, Tokelau Inflation 2. ... The tala is the currency of Samoa. ... ISO 4217 Code SGD User(s) Singapore, Brunei Inflation 1% Source The World Factbook, 2006 est. ... The Solomon Islands Dollar was introduced in 1975 to replace the Australian Dollar after independence. ... The dollar (currency code SRD) has been the currency of Suriname since 2004. ... ISO 4217 Code TWD User(s) Republic of China Inflation 0. ... The dollar (ISO 4217 code: TTD; also TT$) is the currency of Trinidad and Tobago. ... ISO 4217 Code ZWD (initially ZWN) User(s) Zimbabwe Inflation est. ... ISO 4217 Code MYR User(s) Malaysia Inflation 2. ... The dollar has been the currency of Antigua since 1913. ... The dollar was the currency of British Columbia between 1865 and 1871. ... The British North Borneo dollar was the currency of British North Borneo from 1882 to 1953. ... The British West Indies dollar (BWI$) was the currency of the various British West Indies territories from 1935 and, later, of the unitary West Indies Federation. ... The rixdollar was the currency of Ceylon until 1828. ... Six Confederate notes The Confederate States of America dollar was first issued into circulation in April, 1861, when the Confederacy was only two months old, and on the eve of the outbreak of the Civil War. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Continental (currency). ... The Rigsdaler was the unit of currency used in Denmark until 1873 and in Norway until 1816. ... The daler (also written dollar) was the currency of the Danish West Indies between 1849 and 1917. ... The rigsdaler was the currency of the Danish West Indies until 1849. ... The dollar was the currency of Dominica until 1862. ... The rijksdaalder was an 18th century Dutch coin worth 2½ gulden or 50 stuiver. ... The rigsdaler was the currency of Greenland until 1874. ... The dollar was the currency of Grenada until 1840. ... The dollar or dala became the currency of Hawaii in 1879. ... The dollar was a currency issued by Germany for use in its protectorate of Kiautschou, an area around the city of Qingdao. ... The Malaya and British Borneo dollar was the currency of Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak, British North Borneo and Brunei from 1953 to 1967. ... The Malayan dollar was the currency of the British colonies and protectorates in Malaya and Borneo. ... The dollar was the currency of Mauritius until 1877. ... The dollar was the currency of Mongolia between 1921 and 1925. ... The dollar was the currency of Nevis until 1830. ... The dollar was the currency of New Brunswick between 1861 and 1867. ... ISO 4217 Code NFD User(s) Newfoundland Subunit 1/100 1/50 cent pence Symbol $ or NF$ cent pence ¢ p Coins Freq. ... The rigsdaler was the unit of currency used in Norway until 1816 and in Denmark until 1873. ... The speciedaler was a Norwegian coin, initially equivalent to the Danish rigsdaler specie coin of the 18th century. ... The dollar was the currency of Nova Scotia between 1861 and 1871. ... The dollar was the currency of Penang between 1786 and 1826. ... The dollar was the currency of Prince Edward Island between 1871 and 1873. ... The dollar has been the currency of Puerto Rico since 1901. ... The Rhodesian Dollar was the currency used by Rhodesia between 1970 and 1980. ... The dollar was the currency of Saint Kitts until 1830. ... The dollar has been the currency of Saint Lucia since 1920. ... The dollar was the currency of Saint Vincent until 1825. ... Sarawak dollar of 1935 The dollar was the currency of Sarawak from 1858 to 1953. ... The dollar was a currency issued in Sierra Leone between 1791 and 1805. ... ISO 4217 Code SIT User(s) Slovenia Inflation 0. ... The Spanish dollar or peso (literally, weight) is a silver coin that was minted in the Spanish Empire after a Spanish currency reform in 1497. ... The Straits dollar was the currency used in the British colonies and protectorates in Malaya and Borneo, including the Straits Settlements until 1939. ... The dollar was the currency of Sumatra until 1824. ... The Riksdaler was the name of the currency used in Sweden until 1873 when it was replaced with the krona as an effect of the Scandinavian Monetary Union. ... The Old Taiwan Dollar (舊臺幣 or 舊台幣; ISO 4217 code TWN), sometimes called Old Taiwan yuan, was the currency of the Taiwan, Republic of China from 1946 to 1949. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The dollar was the currency of Trinidad until 1814. ... The dollar was the currency of Tobago until 1814. ... The dollar is the currency of Tuvalu. ... This article is about the Chinese currency base unit. ... For other uses, see Birr (disambiguation). ... Eurodollars are deposits denominated in United States dollars at banks outside the United States, and thus are not under the jurisdiction of the Federal Reserve. ... Petrodollars refers to the money that Middle Eastern countries and members of OPEC receive as revenue from Western nations and then put back into those same nations banks. ... The Geary-Khamis dollar, also known as the international dollar is a sophisticated aggregation method for calculating economic comparisons between countries. ... Second Life has its own economy and a currency referred to as Linden Dollars (L$). This economy is independent of the Pricing, where users pay Linden Lab. ... Entropia Universe is a massively multiplayer online virtual universe designed by Swedish software company MindArk. ... For the type of star, see Red dwarf. ... ISO 4217 Code AQD (unofficial) User(s) Antarctica Symbol A Coins None Banknotes A1, A2, A5, A10, A20, A50, A100 Monetary authority Antarctica Overseas Exchange Office Website www. ... Calgary Dollars is a local currency in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. ... The 5 cents and 10 cents denominations of Canadian Tire money Canadian Tire money (CTM) is a loyalty program by Canadian Tire. ... Disney Dollars is a form of corporate scrip used at Disney theme parks, The Disney Store and at certain parts of Castaway Cay, the Disney cruise-lines private island. ... ISO 4217 Code None User(s) Individuals and businesses primarily in the United States and insular areas of the United States such as Puerto Rico. ... The Toronto Dollar, founded in December 1998, is a paper local currency used in Toronto, Ontario. ... $ redirects here. ... The Holey Dollar of P.E.I. Back in the 1700s, the Spanish government minted a large silver coin which through wide circulation became known as the Spanish dollar. ... Examples of German and Austrian Thalers compared to a US quarter piece (bottom center) The Thaler (or Taler) was a silver coin used throughout Europe for almost four hundred years. ... Trade Dollars were coins issued by various countries for use in foreign trade. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... North American redirects here. ... C$ redirects here. ... ISO 4217 Code DKK User(s) Denmark, Greenland, Faroe Islands 1 Inflation 1. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... ISO 4217 Code MXN User(s) Mexico Inflation 3. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... ISO 4217 Code BZD User(s) Belize Inflation 3% Source The World Factbook, 2006 est. ... The colón (named after Christopher Columbus, known as Cristóbal Colón in Spanish) is the currency of Costa Rica. ... ISO 4217 Code GTQ User(s) Guatemala Inflation 6. ... The lempira (IPA: , ISO 4217 code: HNL) is the currency of Honduras. ... ISO 4217 Code NIO User(s) Nicaragua Inflation 9. ... For other uses, see balboa. ... West Indies redirects here. ... The Aruban florin is the official currency of Aruba. ... ISO 4217 Code BSD User(s) The Bahamas Inflation 1. ... The Barbados dollar – currency symbol $ or Bds$ – is the national unit of currency of Barbados. ... The dollar (ISO 4217 code: BMD; symbol: $) has been the national currency of Bermuda since 1970. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Cayman Islands dollar. ... ISO 4217 Code CUP User(s) Cuba Inflation 5% Source The World Factbook, 2006 est. ... The Cuban convertible peso (ISO 4217 code: CUC) is one of two official currencies in Cuba. ... ISO 4217 Code DOP User(s) Dominican Republic Inflation 8. ... The East Caribbean dollar (currency code XCD) is the currency of eight members of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... St. ... Anthem For Sweden - The Land of The Incredible Biffs Capital (and largest city) Gustavia Official languages Swedish Government  -  Prime Minister of Sweden Nick XII Bonaparte  -  Prefect Per af Biffsläkt  -  President of the Territorial Council none yet; however Henning is the mayor of Saint-Barthelemy Overseas Collectivity of Sweden   -  Swedish... The gourde is the currency of Haiti. ... The dollar (ISO 4217 code: JMD) is the currency of Jamaica. ... The gulden is the unit of currency in the Netherlands Antilles. ... The dollar (ISO 4217 code: TTD; also TT$) is the currency of Trinidad and Tobago. ... The United States Virgin Islands is a group of islands in the Caribbean that is a dependency of the United States. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Argentine peso (originally established as the nuevo peso argentino or peso convertible) is the currency of Argentina. ... The boliviano (ISO 4217 code: BOB) is the currency of Bolivia. ... ISO 4217 Code BRL User(s) Brazil Inflation 3. ... Chilean notes currently in circulation: 1,000; 2,000; 5,000; 10,000; 20,000 pesos The peso is the currency of Chile. ... ISO 4217 Code COP User(s) Colombia Inflation 4. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... ISO 4217 Code FKP User(s) Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Inflation 3. ... The dollar (currency code GYD) has been the currency of Guyana since 1966. ... The guaraní (plural: guaraníes; ISO 4217 code PYG) is the national currency unit of Paraguay. ... ISO 4217 Code PEN User(s) Peru Inflation 2. ... The dollar (currency code SRD) has been the currency of Suriname since 2004. ... The peso uruguayo (ISO 4217 code: UYU) is the official currency of Uruguay. ... ISO 4217 Code VEB User(s) Venezuela Inflation 16% Source The World Factbook, 2005 est. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... ISO 4217 Code AUD User(s) Australia 6 countries and territories Kiribati Nauru Tuvalu Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Norfolk Island Inflation 4. ... ISO 4217 Code XPF User(s) New Caledonia, French Polynesia, and Wallis and Futuna Inflation 2. ... ISO 4217 Code none User(s) Cook Islands Inflation 2. ... ISO 4217 Code FJD User(s) Fiji Inflation 1. ... ISO 4217 Code NZD User(s) New Zealand, Cook Islands, Niue, Pitcairn Islands, Tokelau Inflation 2. ... Kina (currency code PGK) is the currency of Papua New Guinea. ... The tala is the currency of Samoa. ... The Solomon Islands Dollar was introduced in 1975 to replace the Australian Dollar after independence. ... The paanga (or Tongan dollar) is the currency of the Kingdom of Tonga. ... ISO 4217 code: VUV Symbol: none 1/100th unit: none Introduced in: ? Exchange Rates September 2005 USD exchange: 111 EUR exchange: 139 GBP exchange: 205 The vatu (ISO 4217: VUV, sometimes Vt) is the official currency of Vanuatu. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The afghani is the official currency used in Afghanistan. ... ISO 4217 Code KZT User(s) Kazakhstan Inflation 8. ... Five Kyrgyzstani Som Note (1997) 100 Kyrgystani Som Notes (2002) The Kyrgyzstani Som (sometimes transliterated Sum or Soum) is the currency of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan in Central Asia. ... ISO 4217 Code MNT User(s) Mongolia Inflation 9. ... ISO 4217 Code RUB User(s) Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia Inflation 7% Source Rosstat, 2007 Subunit 1/100 kopek (копейка) Symbol руб kopek (копейка) к Plural The language(s) of this currency is of the Slavic languages. ... The Somoni (Tajik: ) is the currency of Tajikistan. ... The manat is the currency unit of Turkmenistan. ... The som (so‘m in Uzbek) is the currency of Uzbekistan in Central Asia. ... CNY and RMB redirect here. ... ISO 4217 Code HKD User(s) Hong Kong Inflation 2. ... Yen redirects here. ... The pataca is the monetary unit of Macau (currency code MOP; Chinese: 澳門圓), made up of 100 avos. ... 5000 KPW issued in 2002 The won is the currency of North Korea. ... ISO 4217 Code TWD User(s) Republic of China Inflation 0. ... ISO 4217 Code KRW User(s) Republic of Korea Inflation 2. ... ISO 4217 Code BND User(s) Brunei, Singapore Inflation 0. ... Riel (Khmer: , Symbol ) is the national currency of Cambodia. ... ISO 4217 Code IDR User(s) Indonesia Inflation 6. ... Kip is the currency of Laos. ... ISO 4217 Code MYR User(s) Malaysia Inflation 2. ... ISO 4217 Code MMK User(s) Myanmar Inflation 21. ... ISO 4217 Code PHP User(s) Philippines Inflation 2. ... ISO 4217 Code SGD User(s) Singapore, Brunei Inflation 1% Source The World Factbook, 2006 est. ... ISO 4217 Code THB User(s) Thailand Inflation 4. ... ISO 4217 Code VND User(s) Vietnam Inflation 7. ... ISO 4217 Code BDT User(s) Bangladesh Inflation 7% Source The World Factbook, 2005 est. ... The ngultrum (BTN) is the currency of Bhutan, subdivided into 100 chertrums. ... “INR” redirects here. ... ISO 4217 Code MVR User(s) Maldives Inflation 6% Source The World Factbook, 2005 est. ... ISO 4217 Code NPR User(s) Nepal Inflation 7. ... PKR redirects here. ... ISO 4217 Code LKR User(s) Sri Lanka Inflation rate 11. ... ISO 4217 Code AMD User(s) Armenia and the self proclaimed Nagorno Karabakh Republic Inflation -0. ... ISO 4217 Code AZN User(s) Azerbaijan except Nagorno-Karabakh Inflation 11. ... ISO 4217 Code BHD User(s) Bahrain Inflation 2. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... Georgian 1 lari Georgian 2 lari Georgian 5 lari Georgian 10 lari Georgian 50 lari Georgian 100 lari The lari (Georgian: ლარი ; ISO 4217:GEL) is the national currency of Georgia. ... ISO 4217 Code IRR User(s) Iran Inflation 15. ... ISO 4217 Code IQD User(s) Iraq Inflation rate 33% Source The World Factbook, 2005 est. ... ISO 4217 Code ILS User(s) Israel, The West Bank, Gaza Strip Inflation -0. ... The Jordanian dinar (ISO 4217 code JOD) is the official currency of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the first official one in the State of Palestine. ... ISO 4217 Code KWD User(s) Kuwait Inflation 3. ... The Lebanese pound (Arabic lira, French livre, ISO 4217: LBP) is the currency unit of Lebanon. ... ISO 4217 Code OMR User(s) Oman Inflation 1. ... ISO 4217 Code QAR User(s) Qatar Inflation 7. ... ISO 4217 Code SAR User(s) Saudi Arabia Inflation 1. ... ISO 4217 Code SYP User(s) Syria Subunit 1/100 piastre Symbol S£ [] Coins 1, 2, 5, 10, 25 pounds Banknotes 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000 pounds Central bank Central Bank of Syria Website www. ... TRY banknotes and coins The Turkish new lira is the current currency of Turkey and of the de facto state Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. ... ISO 4217 Code AED User(s) United Arab Emirates Inflation 4. ... 1000 Yemeni Rial The rial or riyal is the currency of Yemen. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
United States dollar coin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1760 words)
Dollar coins have found little popular acceptance in modern circulation in the United States, despite several attempts since 1971 to phase in a coin in place of the one-dollar bill.
Original silver dollars from this period are highly prized by coin collectors and are exceptionally valuable, especially the 1804 silver dollar, which is one of the rarest and most famous coins in the world.
Susan B. Anthony dollar coins were sometimes referred to as "Carter quarters." This was a snide reference to both the deterioration of the value of the dollar during Jimmy Carter's term and the Anthony dollar's strong physical resemblance to the quarter, often causing it to be mistakenly spent as such.
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