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Encyclopedia > United States National Academy of Sciences
President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921
President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921

The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as "advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine." Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x400, 170 KB)President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 Note that Albert Einstein is standing to the left of the President. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x400, 170 KB)President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 Note that Albert Einstein is standing to the left of the President. ... Pro bono is a phrase derived from Latin meaning for the good. The complete phrase is pro bono publico, for the public good. It is used to designate legal or other professional work undertaken voluntarily and without payment, as a public service. ...

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Overview

The Civil War caused a need for a national academy and the Act of Incorporation, signed by President Abraham Lincoln on March 3, 1863, created the National Academy of Sciences and named 50 charter members. The Act states that "the Academy shall, whenever called upon by any department of the Government, investigate, examine, experiment, and report upon any subject of science or art, the actual expense of such investigations, examinations, experiments, and reports to be paid from appropriations which may be made for the purpose, but the Academy shall receive no compensation whatever for any services to the Government of the United States." Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Abraham Lincoln† Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee Strength 2,213,363 1,064,200 Casualties KIA: 110,100 Total dead: 359,500 Wounded: 275,200 KIA: 94,000 Total dead: 258,000 Wounded: 137,000+  The American... A national academy is a body, usually operating with state financial support and approval, that co-ordinates the activities of research in (nearly always) the sciences and (sometimes) other disciplines. ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ...


The National Academy of Sciences as of spring 2003 includes about 1,922 members, 93 members emeritus, 341 foreign associates, and employs about 1,100 staff. The current members annually elect new members for life. Election to membership is one of the highest honors that can be accorded to a scientist and recognizes scientists who have made distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. There are more than 170 members who have won a Nobel Prize. The National Academy of Sciences is an institutional member of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). The ICSU Advisory Committee, which is in the Research Council's Office of International Affairs, facilitates participation of members in international scientific unions and is a liaison for U.S. national committees for the individual scientific unions. Although there is no formal relationship with state and local academies of science, there often is informal dialogue. Sir Edward Appletons medal Photographs of Nobel Prize Medals. ...


The National Academy of Sciences has an annual meeting in Washington, D.C.. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences is the scholarly journal of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academies Press is the publisher for the National Academies, and makes 3500+ publications available for free reading on its website. Nickname: the District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Official website: http://www. ... The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, usually referred to as PNAS, is the official journal of the United States National Academy of Sciences. ... National Academies Press (NAP) has lots of FREE books and is part of the United States National Academy of Sciences. ...

The National Academies' Beckman Conference Center, Irvine, California.

The National Academy of Sciences is part of the United States National Academies, which includes: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1528 KB) Summary Beckman Conference Center, National Academies of Sciences and Engineering (USA), located in Irvine, California. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1528 KB) Summary Beckman Conference Center, National Academies of Sciences and Engineering (USA), located in Irvine, California. ... Official website: http://www. ... The United States National Academies consist of four organizations: the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council. ...

Founded in 1964, the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) in the United States provides engineering leadership in service to the nation. ... The Institute of Medicine, a part of the National Academy of Sciences, is an American organization whose purpose is to provide national advice on issues relating to biomedical science, medicine, and health (National Academy of Sciences, n. ... The National Research Council of the USA is the working arm of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering, carrying out most of the studies done in their names. ...

Joint declaration on global warming

In 2005 the national science academies of the G8 nations (including the U.S. National Academy of Sciences) - and Brazil, China and India, three of the largest emitters of greenhouse gases in the developing world, signed a statement on the global response to climate change. The statement stresses that the scientific understanding of climate change is now sufficiently clear to justify nations taking prompt action [1], and explicitly endorsed the IPCC consensus. The Group of Eight (G8) consists of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and the Russian Federation. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years Climate change refers to the variation in the Earths global climate or regional climates over time. ... IPCC is science authority for the UNFCCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to assess the risk of human-induced climate change. The Panel is open to all...


Awards

The Academy gives a number of different awards: A list of famous prizes, medals and awards including cups, trophies, bowls, badges, state decorations etc. ...

The Gibbs Brothers Medal is awarded by the US National Academy of Sciences for outstanding contributions in the field of naval architecture and marine engineering. It was established by a gift from William Francis Gibbs and Frederic H. Gibbs. ... The State of Maine, 1892, by Antonio Jacobsen Naval architects design barges, boats, and ships for their clients to be for use in commercial, pleasure, military, or other applications. ... Marine Engineers are the officers of a ship which operate and maintain the propulsion and electrical generation systems onboard a ship. ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering concerning aircraft, spacecraft and related topics. ... The National Academy of Sciences Award in Chemical Sciences is warded for innovative research in the chemical sciences that in the broadest sense contributes to a better understanding of the natural sciences and to the benefit of humanity. ...

See also

This article is 200KB or more in size. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with United States National Academy of Sciences. ... The logo of the National Science Foundation The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. ... The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, usually referred to as PNAS, is the official journal of the United States National Academy of Sciences. ... National Academies Press (NAP) has lots of FREE books and is part of the United States National Academy of Sciences. ...

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