FACTOID # 18: Alaska spends more money per capita on elementary and secondary education than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > United States Intelligence Community
Logo used on the Intelligence Community web site. The Intelligence Community has no official seal.
Logo used on the Intelligence Community web site. The Intelligence Community has no official seal.

The United States Intelligence Community is a cooperative federation of sixteen separate United States government agencies and organizations that work together to conduct intelligence activities considered necessary for the conduct of foreign relations and the protection of the national security of the United States. The Intelligence Community is led by the Director of National Intelligence. Among their varied responsibilities, the members of the Community collect and produce foreign and domestic intelligence, contribute to military planning, and perform espionage. The Intelligence Community was established by Executive Order 12333, signed on December 4, 1981 by President Ronald Reagan. US Intelligence Community Logo. ... US Intelligence Community Logo. ... The term is used to describe the interaction taking place among governments, when striving to establish mutual contacts, another word for diplomacy. ... Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ... The Director of National Intelligence (DNI) is the United States government official subject to the authority, direction and control of the President of the United States who is responsible under the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 for: Serving as the principal adviser to the President of the... Intelligence (abbreviated or ) is the process and the result of gathering information and analyzing it to answer questions or obtain advance warnings needed to plan for the future. ... Pretorian Guards, Roman Soldiers Military has two broad meanings. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... An executive order is an edict issued by a member of the executive branch of a government, usually the head of that branch. ... Executive Order 12333 extends the powers and responsibilities of US intelligence agencies and directs the leaders of other US federal agencies to co-operate fully with CIA requests for information. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ...

Contents

Purpose

Executive Order 12333 charged the Intelligence Community with six primary objectives: Executive Order 12333 extends the powers and responsibilities of US intelligence agencies and directs the leaders of other US federal agencies to co-operate fully with CIA requests for information. ...

  • Collection of information needed by the President, the National Security Council, the Secretaries of State and Defense, and other Executive Branch officials for the performance of their duties and responsibilities;
  • Production and dissemination of intelligence;
  • Collection of information concerning, and the conduct of activities to protect against, intelligence activities directed against the U.S., international terrorist and/or narcotics activities, and other hostile activities directed against the U.S. by foreign powers, organizations, persons and their agents;
  • Special activities (defined as activities conducted in support of national foreign policy objectives abroad which are planned and executed so that the role of the United States Government is not apparent or acknowledged publicly, and functions in support of such activities, but which are not intended to influence United States political processes, public opinion, policies, or media and do not include diplomatic activities or the collection and production of intelligence or related support functions);
  • Administrative and support activities within the US and abroad necessary for the performance of authorized activities; and
  • Such other intelligence activities as the President may direct from time to time.

The National Security Council (NSC) of the United States is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for considering national security and foreign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... The United States Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) is the head of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and military matters. ... Intelligence (abbreviated or ) is the process and the result of gathering information and analyzing it to answer questions or obtain advance warnings needed to plan for the future. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... The term narcotic, derived from the Greek word for stupor, originally referred to a variety of substances that induced sleep (such state is narcosis). ... For the American magazine, see Foreign Policy. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... Public Opinion is a book on media and democracy by Walter Lippmann. ... This article is about negotiations. ...

Organization

Intelligence Community members

The Intelligence Community consists of sixteen members (also called elements). The Central Intelligence Agency is an independent agency of the federal government. The other fifteen elements are offices or bureaus within executive branch departments. The Community is led by the Director of National Intelligence whose Office is not listed by the Community as a member. Independent agencies of the United States government are those that exist outside of the departments of the executive branch. ... The Director of National Intelligence (DNI) is the United States government official subject to the authority, direction and control of the President of the United States who is responsible under the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 for: Serving as the principal adviser to the President of the...

Independent agencies of the United States government are those that exist outside of the departments of the executive branch. ... “CIA” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Counterintelligence Field Activity (CIFA) is a US Department of Defense (DoD) agency whose size and budget are classified. ... The Air Force Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Agency (AF ISR) (F.K.A. the Air Intelligence Agency (AIA)) is an agency of the United States Air Force, with headquarters at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas, and was activated 1 October 1993. ... The Army intelligence logo. ... The Defense Intelligence Agency, or DIA, is a major producer and manager of military intelligence for the United States Department of Defense. ... The Marine Corps Intelligence Activity (MCIA) is the military intelligence arm of the United States Marine Corps. ... The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) is an agency of the United States Government with the primary mission of collection, analysis, and distribution of geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) in support of national security. ... The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) is one of the 16 intelligence agencies in the U.S. It designs, builds and operates the reconnaissance satellites of the United States government. ... “NSA” redirects here. ... The Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) was established in the United States Navy in 1882. ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... “DHS” redirects here. ... Coast Guard intelligence is the Intelligence branch of the United States Coast Guard. ... The Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building in Washington, D.C. “Justice Department” redirects here. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... The DEAs enforcement activities may take agents anywhere from distant countries to suburban U.S. homes. ... Department of State redirects here. ... The Bureau of Intelligence and Research (or INR) is a small bureau in the U.S. State Department tasked with analyzing information for the State Department. ... The U.S. Treasury building today. ...

Intelligence Community programs

U.S. Intelligence Community activities are performed under two separate programs: the National Intelligence Program and the Military Intelligence Program.

  • The National Intelligence Program (NIP), formerly known as the National Foreign Intelligence Program as defined by the National Security Act of 1947 (as amended), "refers to all programs, projects, and activities of the intelligence community, as well as any other programs of the intelligence community designated jointly by the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) and the head of a United States department or agency or by the President. Such term does not include programs, projects, or activities of the military departments to acquire intelligence solely for the planning and conduct of tactical military operations by United States Armed Forces." Under the law, the DNI is responsible for directing and overseeing the NIP, though his ability to do so is limited (see the Organization structure and leadership section).
  • The Military Intelligence Program (MIP) refers to the programs, projects, or activities of the military departments to acquire intelligence solely for the planning and conduct of tactical military operations by United States Armed Forces. The MIP is directed and controlled by the Secretary of Defense. In 2005, the Department of Defense combined the Joint Military Intelligence Program and the Tactical Intelligence and Related Activities program to form the MIP.
  • Since the definitions of the NIP and MIP overlap when they address military intelligence, assignment of Department of Defense intelligence activities to the NIP and MIP sometimes proves problematic.

The Director of National Intelligence (DNI) is the United States government official subject to the authority, direction and control of the President of the United States who is responsible under the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 for: Serving as the principal adviser to the President of the... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ... Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. ...

Organizational structure and leadership

The overall organization of the Intelligence Community is primarily governed by the National Security Act of 1947, as amended, and Executive Order 12333. The statutory organizational relationships were substantially revised with the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 amendments to the National Security Act of 1947. President Truman signs the National Security Act Amendment of 1949 with guests in the Oval Office. ... Executive Order 12333 extends the powers and responsibilities of US intelligence agencies and directs the leaders of other US federal agencies to co-operate fully with CIA requests for information. ... The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 is an Act of Congress. ... President Truman signs the National Security Act Amendment of 1949 with guests in the Oval Office. ...


Though the Intelligence Community characterizes itself as a "federation" of its member elements, its overall structure is better characterized as a confederation due to its lack of a well-defined, unified leadership and governance structure. Under the law, the head of the Intelligence Community is the Director of National Intelligence (DNI). The DNI exerts leadership of the Intelligence Community primarily through the statutory authorities under which he: The Director of National Intelligence (DNI) is the United States government official subject to the authority, direction and control of the President of the United States who is responsible under the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 for: Serving as the principal adviser to the President of the...

  • Controls the National Intelligence Program budget;
  • Establishes objectives, priorities, and guidance for the Intelligence Community; and
  • Manages and directs the tasking of, collection, analysis, production, and dissemination of national intelligence by elements of the Intelligence Community.

However, the DNI has no authority to direct and control any element of the Community except his own staff, the Office of the DNI. Neither does the DNI have the authority to hire or fire personnel in the Intelligence Community except those in his own staff. The member elements in the executive branch are directed and controlled by their respective department heads, who are all cabinet-level officials who report to the President. By law, only the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency reports to the DNI. Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (D/CIA) serves as the head of the Central Intelligence Agency, which is part of the United States Intelligence Community. ...


In the light of major intelligence failures in recent years that called into the question how well Intelligence Community ensures US national and homeland security, particularly those identified by the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (the 9/11 Commission), and the Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction (the WMD Intelligence Commission), the authorities and powers of the DNI and the overall organizational structure of the Intelligence Community have become subject of intense debate in the United States. The Commissions seal The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, also known as the 9/11 Commission, was set up in late 2002 to prepare a full and complete account of the circumstances surrounding the September 11, 2001 attacks including preparedness for and the immediate response... The Commissions seal The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, also known as the 9/11 Commission, was set up in late 2002 to prepare a full and complete account of the circumstances surrounding the September 11, 2001 attacks, including preparedness for and the immediate response... The Iraq Intelligence Commission is a panel created by executive order 13328 of U.S. President George W. Bush to investigate United States intelligence, specifically in regards to the 2003 invasion of Iraq and Iraqs weapons of mass destruction. ... The Iraq Intelligence Commission is a panel created by executive order 13328 of U.S. President George W. Bush to investigate United States intelligence, specifically in regards to the 2003 invasion of Iraq and Iraqs weapons of mass destruction. ...


Interagency cooperation

Previously, interagency cooperation and the flow of information among the member agencies was hindered by policies that sought to limit the pooling of information out of privacy and security concerns. Attempts to modernize and facilitate interagency cooperation within the Intelligence Community include technological, structural, procedural, and cultural dimensions. Examples include the Intellipedia wiki of encyclopedic security-related information; the creation of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, National Intelligence Centers, Program Manager-Information Sharing Environment, and Information Sharing Council; legal and policy frameworks set by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, information sharing Executive Orders 13354 and 13388, and the 2005 National Intelligence Strategy. Intellipedia/ODNI Logo Intellipedia is a series of three wikis that runs on JWICS, SIPRNet, and Intelink-U. They are used by the 16 agencies that comprise the United States intelligence community. ... Look up Wiki in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Seal of the United States Office Director of National Intelligence, an independent agency of the US government that is charged by law to assist the Director of National Intelligence carryout its duties. ... Official NCTC seal The National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC) is a United States government agency that was created by Executive Order 13354 and the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004. ... The Information Sharing Council (ISC) was established by Executive Order 13388, designed to be consistent with section 1016 of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (IRTPA). ... The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 is an Act of Congress. ...


Budget

The U.S. government spent $43.5 billion on intelligence in 2007, according to the first official disclosure under a new law implementing recommendations of the Sept. 11 commission. Director of National Intelligence Micheal McConnell released the newly declassified figure Tuesday. In a statement, the DNI said there would be no additional disclosures of classified budget information beyond the overall spending figure because "such disclosures could harm national security." How the money is divided among the 16 intelligence agencies and exactly what it is spent on is classified. It includes salaries for about 100,000 people, multibillion dollar secret satellite programs, aircraft, weapons, electronic sensors, intelligence analysts, spies, computers and software. Much of the intelligence budget -- about 70 percent-- goes to contractors for the procurement of technology and services including analysis, according to a May 2007 chart from the DNI's office. Intelligence spending has increased by a third over 10 years ago, in inflation adjusted dollars, according to the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments.


Legislative oversight

The Intelligence Community is overseen by a number of U.S. Congressional committees. Primary jurisdiction over the Community is assigned to the U.S. House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence and the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, though the U.S. House Committee on Armed Services and U.S. Senate Committee on Armed Services draft bills to annually authorize the budgets of Department of Defense intelligence activities, and Appropriations Committees of both chambers annually draft bills to appropriate the budgets of the Intelligence Community. The U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs took a leading role in formulating the intelligence reform legislation in the 108th Congress. The U.S. House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence is a committee of the United States House of Representatives, currently chaired by Peter Hoekstra. ... The United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence is dedicated to overseeing the American Intelligence Community—the agencies and bureaus of the U.S. federal government who provide information and analysis for leaders of the executive and legislative branches. ... The U.S. House Committee on Armed Services, commonly known as the House Armed Services Committee, is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives, the lower house of Congress. ... The Committee on Armed Services is a committee of the United States Senate empowered with legislative oversight of the nations military, including the Department of Defense, military research and development, nuclear energy (as pertaining to national security), benefits for members of the military, the Selective Service System and other...


References

The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 is an Act of Congress. ... President Truman signs the National Security Act Amendment of 1949 with guests in the Oval Office. ... Seal of the United States Office Director of National Intelligence, an independent agency of the US government that is charged by law to assist the Director of National Intelligence carryout its duties. ...

External links


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m