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Encyclopedia > United States House Committee on Ways and Means

The Committee on Ways and Means is a committee of the United States House of Representatives. Considered the most powerful of House Committees, members of the Ways and Means Committee cannot serve on any other House Committees, though they can apply for a waiver from their party's congressional leadership. The Committee has jurisdiction over all taxation, tariffs and other revenue-raising measures, as well as a number of other programs including: This is a list of U.S. Congressional committees (standing committees, joint committees and special committees) that are currently operating the United States House of Representatives, the lower house of the United States Congress. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

The U.S. Constitution requires that all bills regarding taxation must originate in the House of Representatives, and House procedure is that all bills regarding taxation must go through this committee. These stipulations make this House committee particularly powerful, especially in comparison with its Senate counterpart, the U.S. Senate Committee on Finance. Social Security in the United States is a social insurance program funded through dedicated payroll taxes called FICA (Federal Insurance Contributions Act). ... Unemployment benefits are payments made by governments to unemployed people. ... President Johnson signing the Medicare amendment. ... In many countries, child support or child maintenance is the ongoing obligation for a periodic payment made by a non-custodial parent to a custodial parent, caregiver or guardian, for the care and support of children of a relationship or marriage that has been terminated. ... Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF, often spoken as TAN-if) is the July 1, 1997, successor to the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program, providing cash assistance to indigent American families with dependent children through the United States Department of Health and Human Services. ... Welfare is financial assistance paid by taxpayers to groups of people who are unable to support themselves, and determined to be able to function more effectively with financial assistance. ... Foster care is a system by which a certified, stand-in parent(s) cares for minor children or young people who have been removed from their biological parents or other custodial adults by state authority. ... For other uses, see Adoption (disambiguation). ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme... The U.S. Senate Committee on Finance (or, less formally, Senate Finance Committee) is a standing committee of the United States Senate. ...


The Ways and Means Committee in the 110th Congress is chaired by Representative Charles Rangel of New York. Charles Bernard Rangel Charles Bernard Rangel (born June 11, American politician. ... “NY” redirects here. ...

Contents

History

The idea of a "Committee of Ways and Means" to handle the financial matters of a legislature is older than the Federal Congress, having been used in the English Parliament and the colonial and State legislatures in America. In the English Parliament between 1641 and 1967, proposals for raising taxation originated in the Committee of Ways and Means, where they were initiated by a Government minister. ... A body now called the English Parliament first arose during the thirteenth century, referred to variously as colloquium and parliamentum. It shared most of the powers typical of representative institutions in medieval and early modern Europe, and was arranged from the fourteenth century in a bicameral manner, with a House...


The Committee was first established during the first Congress, in 1789. However, this initial version was disbanded after only 8 weeks; for the next several years, only ad hoc committees were formed, to write up laws on notions already debated in the whole House. It was first established as a standing committee by resolution adopted December 21, 1795,[1] and first appeared among the list of regular standing committees on January 7, 1802.[2] Upon its original creation, it held power over both taxes and spending, until the spending power was given to the new Appropriations Committee in 1865. December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... --69. ... The Committee on Appropriations, or Appropriations Committee (often referred to as simply Appropriations, as in Hes on Appropriations) is a committee of the United States House of Representatives. ...


The Chairman of Ways and Means is considered one of the most powerful members of Congress. Three future presidents - James Polk, Millard Fillmore, and William McKinley - served as Committee Chairman. Before the official roles of floor leader came about in the late 19th century, the Chairman of Ways and Means was considered the Majority Leader. The Chairman is one of only seven representatives to have office space within the Capitol building itself (the others being Speaker, Majority Leader, Minority Leader, Majority Whip, Minority Whip, and Appropriations Chairman). James Knox Polk (November 2, 1795–June 15, 1849) was an American politician and the eleventh U.S. President, serving from March 4, 1845 to March 4, 1849. ... Not to be confused with Mallard Fillmore. ... For the mountain, see Mount McKinley. ... ... Dennis Hastert of Illinois, the current Speaker of the House (since January 6, 1999) The Speaker of the House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the United States House of Representatives. ... The Majority Leader of the United States House of Representatives acts as the leader of the party that has a majority control of the seats in the house (currently at least 218 of the 435 seats). ... The Minority Leader of the United States House of Representatives serves as floor leader of the opposition party, and is the minority counterpart to the Majority Leader of the United States House of Representatives. ... The Majority Whip is an elected member of the U.S. House of Representatives who assists the Speaker of the House and the Majority Leader to coordinate ideas on and garner support for proposed legislation. ... The Minority Whip is a member of the minority party in the U.S. House of Representatives who assists the Minority Leader in coordinating the party caucus in its responses to legislation and other matters. ... The Committee on Appropriations, or Appropriations Committee (often referred to as simply Appropriations, as in Hes on Appropriations) is a committee of the United States House of Representatives. ...


Role

In recent times, Ways and Means has been one of the most important committees in a policy sense, due to its wide jurisdiction. While it lacks the prospects for reelection help that comes with the Appropriations Committee, it is seen as a valuable post for two reasons. First, since its range is so broad, members with a wide array of policy concerns often seek positions, simply to be able to influence policy decisions. Major issues that have gone through this committee read like a laundry list of important bills, including welfare reform, a Medicare prescription drug benefit, Social Security reform, President George W. Bush's tax cuts, and all trade agreements, including NAFTA and CAFTA. Second, given the wide array of interests that are affected by the committee, a seat makes it very easy to collect campaign contributions. Welfare reform is the name for a policy change in countries with a state-administered social welfare system to reduce dependence on welfare, as demanded by political conservatives. ... A prescription drug is a licensed medicine that is regulated by legislation to require a prescription before it can be obtained. ... This article concerns proposals to change the Social Security system in the United States. ... For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Nafta or NAFTA may refer to: an acronym for the North American Free Trade Agreement an acronym for the New Zealand Australia Free Trade Agreement the town/Tokyo of Nafta, Tunisia This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) is a free trade agreement between the United States and the Central American countries of Guatemala, Honduras, and Canada, and Mexico. ... Campaign finance refers to the means by which money is raised for election campaigns. ...


Current members, 110th Congress

Majority Minority

United States Capitol (2002) // The One Hundred Tenth United States Congress is the current meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, comprised of the Senate and the House of Representatives. ... Charles Bernard Rangel (born June 11, 1930) is an American politician. ... Stark delivers his response to President George W. Bushs 2005 State of the Union address. ... Sander Martin Levin, known as Sandy Levin, (born September 6, 1931) is a Democratic U.S. Representative from the 12th Congressional District (map) in Michigan. ... James Adelbert Bagdhad Jim McDermott (born December 28, 1936 in Chicago, Illinois) is the current U.S. Representative for Washingtons 7th congressional district. ... John Robert Lewis (born February 21, 1940) is an American politician and was an important leader in the American Civil Rights Movement. ... Richard Edmund Neal (born February 14, 1949), American politician, has been a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives since 1989, representing the 2nd District of Massachusetts. ... Representative Michael R. McNulty Michael Robert McNulty (born September 16, 1947) is a politician from the U.S. state of New York, currently representing the states 21st Congressional district (map) in the United States House of Representatives. ... Rep. ... Xavier Becerra Xavier Becerra (born January 26, 1958), American politician, has been a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives since 1993, representing the 31st District of California (map), which is based in Hollywood. ... Rep. ... Earl Pomeroy (born September 2, 1952) is an American lawyer and politician from the U.S. state of North Dakota. ... Stephanie Tubbs Jones (born September 10, 1949) is a Democratic politician who currently serves as a member of the United States House of Representatives, for the 11th District of Ohio. ... C. Michael Mike Thompson (born January 24, 1951), American politician, has been a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives since 1999, representing the 1st District of California (map), which includes Napa, Lake, Mendocino, Humboldt and Del Norte Counties as well as parts of Yolo and Sonoma Counties. ... John B. Larson (born July 22, 1948), American politician, has been a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives since 1999, representing the 1st District of Connecticut. ... Rahm Emanuel (born November 29, 1959) is an American politician. ... Earl Blumenauer (born August 16, 1948) is a Democratic U.S. representative from Oregon, representing the 3rd congressional district. ... Ronald James Kind (born March 16, 1963) is an American politician from the U.S. state of Wisconsin. ... William J. Pascrell, Jr. ... Portrait of Congresswoman Shelley Berkley. ... Joseph Crowley (born March 16, 1962) is a Democratic politician from the U.S. state of New York, currently the representing the states 7th Congressional district (see map) in the United States House of Representatives. ... Christopher Chris Van Hollen, Jr. ... Kendrick Brett Meek (born September 6, 1966) has been a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives since 2003, representing the 17th District of Florida (map). ... Allyson Y. Schwartz (born October 3, 1948) is a Democratic U.S. politician from the state of Pennsylvania, currently representing the states 13th Congressional district (map) in the U.S. House. ... Artur Davis Artur Davis (born October 9, 1967), American politician, has been a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives since 2003, representing the 7th District of Alabama (map). ... Rep. ... Walter William (Wally) Herger, Jr. ... David Lee Camp (born July 9, 1953), is a politician from the U.S. state of Michigan, and has been a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives since 1991. ... James M. Ramstad (born May 6, 1946) is a United States politician from the state of Minnesota. ... Rep. ... Phillip Sheridan English (born June 20, 1956) is a Congressman from the U.S. state of Pennsylvania, since 1995 representing the states 3rd Congressional district (map) in the U.S. House. ... Gerald C. Jerry Weller (b. ... Kenny C. Hulshof (b. ... Ron Lewis (born September 14, 1946), an American politician, has been a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives since 1994, representing the 2nd Congressional District of Kentucky. ... porn director | name =Kevin Brady | image name =Brady2. ... Thomas M. Reynolds (born September 3, 1950) is a politician from the U.S. state of New York, currently representing the states 26th Congressional district (map) in the U.S. House. ... Paul D. Ryan, Jr. ... Eric Ivan Cantor (born June 6, 1963) is an American politician who has been a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives since 2001, representing Virginias 7th congressional district (map). ... John Elmer Linder (born September 9, 1942), American politician, has been a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives since 1993, representing the 7th District of Georgia (map). ... Devin Nunes Devin Nunes (born October 1, 1973), American politician, has been a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives since 2003, representing the 21st District of California (map). ... Patrick Joseph Pat Tiberi (born October 21, 1962 in Columbus, Ohio) is a former four-term member of Ohio House of Representatives who is now a United States Congressman for the 12th District, currently serving his third term in Congress. ... Jonathan Christopher Jon Porter (born May 16, 1955), an American politician, has been a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives since 2003, the first representative elected from the new 3rd Congressional district of Nevada, which includes much of suburban Las Vegas. ...

Subcommittees

There are six subcommittees:

The House Way and Means Subcommittee on Trade is one of the six subcommittees within the House Ways and Means Committee From the House Rules: The jurisdiction of the Subcommittee on Trade shall include bills and matters referred to the Committee on Ways and Means that relate to customs and... Sander Martin Levin, known as Sandy Levin, (born September 6, 1931) is a Democratic U.S. Representative from the 12th Congressional District in Michigan. ... Walter William (Wally) Herger, Jr. ... The House Way and Means Subcommittee on Oversight is is one of the six subcommittees within the House Ways and Means Committee From the House Rules: The jurisdiction of the Subcommittee on Oversight shall include all matters within the scope of the full Committee’s jurisdiction but shall be limited... John Robert Lewis (born February 21, 1940) is an American politician and was an important leader in the American Civil Rights Movement. ... James M. Ramstad (born May 6, 1946) is a United States politician from the state of Minnesota. ... The Subcommittee on Health is a subcommittee of the Committee on Ways and Means in the United States House of Representatives. ... Stark delivers his response to President George W. Bushs 2005 State of the Union address. ... Dave Camp or David Camp may refer to David Camp a Linux software developer working for Novell. ... The Subcommittee on Social Security is a subcommittee of the Committee on Ways and Means in the United States House of Representatives. ... Michael Robert Mike McNulty (born September 16, 1945) is a politician from the U.S. state of New York, currently representing New Yorks 21st congressional district (map) in the United States House of Representatives. ... Rep. ... The Subcommittee on Income Security and Family Support is a subcommittee of the Committee on Ways and Means in the United States House of Representatives. ... James Adelbert Bagdhad Jim McDermott (born December 28, 1936 in Chicago, Illinois) is the current U.S. Representative for Washingtons 7th congressional district. ... Gerald C. Jerry Weller (b. ... The Subcommittee on Select Revenue Measure is a subcommittee of the Committee on Ways and Means in the United States House of Representatives. ... Richard Edmund Neal (born February 14, 1949), American politician, has been a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives since 1989, representing the 2nd District of Massachusetts. ... Phillip Sheridan English (born June 20, 1956) is a Congressman from the U.S. state of Pennsylvania, since 1995 representing the states 3rd Congressional district (map) in the U.S. House. ...

Chairmen

# Chair Party State Start of Service End of Service
1 Thomas Fitzsimons Federalist PA 1789 1789
2 William L. Smith Federalist SC 1794 1797
3 Robert G. Harper Federalist SC 1797 1800
4 Roger Griswold Federalist CT 1800 1801
5 John Randolph Democratic-Republican VA 1801 1805
6 Joseph Clay Democratic-Republican PA 1805 1807
7 George W. Campbell Democratic-Republican TN 1807 1809
8 John W. Eppes Democratic-Republican VA 1809 1811
9 Ezekiel Bacon Democratic-Republican SC 1811 1812
10 Langdon Cheves Democratic-Republican SC 1812 1813
11 John W. Eppes Democratic-Republican VA 1813 1815
12 William Lowndes Democratic-Republican SC 1815 1818
13 Samuel Smith Democratic-Republican MD 1818 1822
14 Louis McLane Democratic-Republican DE 1822 1827
15 John Randolph Democratic VA 1827 1827
16 George McDuffie Democratic SC 1827 1832
17 Gulian C. Verplanck Democratic NY 1832 1833
18 James K. Polk Democratic TN 1833 1835
19 Churchill C. Cambreleng Democratic NY 1835 1839
20 John W. Jones Democratic VA 1839 1841
21 Millard Fillmore Whig NY 1841 1843
22 James I. McKay Democratic NC 1843 1847
23 Samuel F. Vinton Whig OH 1847 1849
24 Thomas H. Bayly Democratic VA 1849 1851
25 George Houston Democratic AL 1851 1855
26 Lewis D. Campbell Republican OH 1855 1857
27 J. Glancy Jones Democratic PA 1857 1858
28 John S. Phelps Democratic MO 1858 1859
29 John Sherman Republican OH 1859 1861
30 Thaddeus Stevens Republican PA 1861 1865
31 Justin Morrill Republican VT 1865 1867
32 Robert C. Schenck Republican OH 1867 1871
33 Samuel Hooper Republican MA 1871 1871
34 Henry L. Dawes Republican MA 1871 1875
35 William R. Morrison Democratic IL 1875 1877
36 Fernando Wood Democratic NY 1877 1881
37 John R. Tucker Democratic VA 1881 1881
38 William D. Kelley Republican PA 1881 1883
39 William R. Morrison Democratic IL 1883 1887
40 Roger Q. Mills Democratic TX 1887 1889
41 William McKinley Republican OH 1889 1891
42 William M. Springer Democratic IL 1891 1893
43 William L. Wilson Democratic WV 1893 1895
44 Nelson Dingley, Jr. Republican ME 1895 1899
45 Sereno E. Payne Republican NY 1899 1911
46 Oscar W. Underwood Democratic AL 1911 1915
47 Claude Kitchin Democratic NC 1915 1919
48 Joseph Fordney Republican MI 1919 1923
49 William R. Green Republican IA 1923 1928
50 Willis C. Hawley Republican OR 1928 1931
51 James W. Collier Democratic MS 1931 1933
52 Robert L. Doughton Democratic NC 1933 1947
53 Harold Knutson Republican MN 1947 1949
54 Robert L. Doughton Democratic NC 1949 1953
55 Daniel A. Reed Republican NY 1953 1955
56 Jere Cooper Democratic TN 1955 1957
57 Wilbur Mills Democratic AR 1957 1975
58 Al Ullman Democratic OR 1975 1981
59 Dan Rostenkowski Democratic IL 1981 1994
60 Sam Gibbons Democratic FL 1994 1995
61 Bill Archer Republican TX 1995 2001
62 Bill Thomas Republican CA 2001 2007
63 Charles Rangel Democratic NY 2007 present

Thomas Fitzsimons (1741-1811) was an American merchant and statesman of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... William Loughton Smith (1758–December 19, 1812) was an American lawyer from Charleston, South Carolina. ... Robert Harper Robert Goodloe Harper (b. ... Roger Griswold (May 21, 1762-October 25, 1812) was member of the US House of Representatives from Connecticut, serving as a Federalist. ... John Randolph of Roanoke, (June 2, 1773 - May 24, 1833) was a Representative and a Senator from Virginia John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray, regent of Scotland. ... Joseph Clay (July 24, 1769–August 27, 1811) was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. ... George W. Campbell George Washington Campbell (February 9, 1769–February 17, 1848) was an American statesman. ... John Wayles Eppes John Wayles Eppes (April 19, 1773 – September 13, 1823) was a United States Representative and a Senator from Virginia. ... Ezekiel Bacon (September 1, 1776 - October 18, 1870) was an early American statesman. ... Langdon Cheves (pronounced chivis), (September 17, 1776–June 25, 1857), was an American politician and a president of the Second Bank of the United States. ... John Wayles Eppes John Wayles Eppes (April 19, 1773 – September 13, 1823) was a United States Representative and a Senator from Virginia. ... For other persons named William Lowndes, see William Lowndes. ... Samuel Smith Samuel Smith (July 27, 1752 - April 22, 1839) was a U.S. Senator and Representative from Maryland, as well as a former mayor of Baltimore, Maryland. ... Louis McLane Louis McLane (May 28, 1786–October 7, 1857) represented the state of Delaware in both the United States House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate and served as the Secretary of the Treasury and later the Secretary of State under President Andrew Jackson. ... Autographed portrait of John Randolph John Randolph (June 2, 1773 - May 24, 1833) was a Representative and a Senator from Virginia, USA. He was born in Cawsons, Virginia, and was known as John Randolph of Roanoke to distinguish him from relatives. ... George McDuffie (1788 - 11 March 1851) was a Governor of South Carolina and a member of the United States Senate. ... Gulian Crommelin Verplanck Gulian Crommelin Verplanck (August 6, 1786 - March 18, 1870) was a New York politician and sometime man of letters. ... James Knox Polk (November 2, 1795–June 15, 1849) was the eleventh President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1845 to March 4, 1849. ... Churchill Caldom Cambreleng (1786 - 1862) was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from New York between 1821 and 1839. ... John Winston Jones (1791 - 1848) was a U.S. political figure. ... Not to be confused with Mallard Fillmore. ... James Iver McKay (1793 - 1853) was a Congressional Representative from North Carolina; born near Elizabethtown, North Carolina, in 1793; pursued classical studies; studied law; was admitted to the bar and practiced; appointed United States attorney for the district of North Carolina on March 6, 1817; served in the State senate... Samuel Finley Vinton (September 25, 1792-May 11, 1862) was a member of the United States House of Representatives from Ohio from March 4, 1823 to March 4, 1837 and again from March 4, 1843 to March 4, 1851. ... Thomas Henry Bayly (December 11, 1810 – June 23, 1856) was a nineteenth century politician, lawyer and judge from Virginia. ... George Smith Houston (January 17, 1811–December 31, 1879) was an American Democratic politician who was the Governor of Alabama from 1874 to 1878. ... Lewis Davis Campbell (August 9, 1811 – November 26, 1882) was a U.S. Representative for Ohio. ... Jehu Glancy Jones (October 7, 1811–March 24, 1878) was a Democrat member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... John Sherman John Sherman (May 10, 1823–October 22, 1900) was a Senator from Ohio and a member of the United States Cabinet. ... Thaddeus Stevens Thaddeus Stevens (April 4, 1792 - August 11, 1868), also known as The Great Commoner, was a United States Representative from Pennsylvania. ... Justin Smith Morrill (April 14, 1810 – December 28, 1898) was a Representative (1855–1867) and a Senator (1867–1898) from Vermont. ... Robert Cumming Schenck (1809-1890) Robert Cumming Schenck (October 4, 1809–March 23, 1890) was a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Samuel Hooper (February 3, 1808 – February 14, 1875) was born in Marblehead, Massachusetts in 1808. ... Henry Laurens Dawes (October 30, 1816 - February 5, 1903) was a United States Senator notable for the Dawes Act. ... William Ralls Morrison (September 14, 1824 - September 29, 1909) was a U.S. Representative from Illinois. ... Fernando Wood (June 14, 1812–February 14, 1881) is famous for being one of the most colorful mayors in the history of New York City. ... For other persons named John Tucker, see John Tucker (disambiguation). ... William D. Kelley (April 12, 1814 - January 9, 1890) was a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. ... William Ralls Morrison (September 14, 1824 - September 29, 1909) was a U.S. Representative from Illinois. ... Roger Quarles Mills (March 30, 1832–September 2, 1911) was an American politician. ... For the mountain, see Mount McKinley. ... William McKendree Springer William McKendree Springer (May 30, 1836 - December 4, 1903) was a United States Representative from Illinois. ... There have been two William L. Wilsons. ... Nelson Dingley, Jr. ... Sereno E. Payne (June 26, 1843 – December 10, 1914) was a New York politician. ... Claude Kitchin(1869 - 1923) He was born in Halifax County, North Carolina in 1869 and William Walton Kitchin was his brother. ... Joseph Warren Fordney (November 5, 1853 – January 8, 1932) was a politician from the U.S. state of Michigan. ... William Raymond Green (November 7, 1856 - June 11, 1947) was a U.S. Representative from Iowa. ... Willis Chatman Hawley (May 5, 1864 - July 24, 1941), American politician, was a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives from Oregon. ... James William Collier (b. ... Robert Lee (Bob) Doughton (1863-1954) was a member of the United States House of Representatives from North Carolina for 42 consecutive years (1911-1953). ... Harold Knutson was born in Skien, Norway in 1880. ... Robert Lee (Bob) Doughton (1863-1954) was a member of the United States House of Representatives from North Carolina for 42 consecutive years (1911-1953). ... Daniel Alden Reed was an American congressman who represented the state of New York. ... Jere Cooper (July 20, 1893–December 18, 1957) was a Democratic United States Representative from Tennessee. ... Wilbur Daigh Mills (May 24, 1909-May 2, 1992), was a powerful Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives from the state of Arkansas. ... Al Ullman (March 9, 1914 - October 11, 1986) (full name: Albert Conrad Ullman), was a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives who represented the 2nd Congressional District of Oregon from 1957 to 1981. ... Daniel David Dan Rostenkowski served in the U.S. Congress as a U.S. Representative for Illinois from 1959 to 1995. ... Sam Melville Gibbons (born January 20, 1920) is a politician from the state of Florida. ... William Reynolds “Bill” Archer, Jr. ... Bill Thomas For other people named William Thomas, see William Thomas. ... Charles Bernard Rangel Charles Bernard Rangel (born June 11, American politician. ...

External links

  • Official Committee web site

Sources

  • H. Doc. 100-244, The Committee on Ways and Means a Bicentennial History 1789-1989
  1. ^ Ways and Means Bicentennial History, Page 38
  2. ^ Ways and Means Bicentennial History, Page 58

 
 

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