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Encyclopedia > United States Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Protection Agency
EPA
Environmental Protection Agency logo
Environmental Protection Agency logo
Agency overview
Formed December 2, 1970
Employees 17,964 (2005) [3]
Annual Budget $7.3 billion (2007) [4]
Agency Executives Stephen L. Johnson, Administrator
 
Marcus Peacock, Deputy Administrator
Website
www.epa.gov

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or sometimes USEPA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States charged with protecting human health and with safeguarding the natural environment: air, water, and land. The EPA began operation on December 2, 1970, when it was established by President Richard Nixon. It is led by its Administrator, who is appointed by the President of the United States. The EPA is not a Cabinet agency, but the Administrator is normally given cabinet rank. The current Administrator (as of 2007) is Stephen L. Johnson, and the current Deputy Administrator is Marcus Peacock. The agency has approximately 18,000 full-time employees.[5] EPA may stand for: Environmental Protection Agency of several countries: United States Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Protection Agency (Ireland) Environmental Protection Agency (Queensland) The Environment Protection Authority (New South Wales, Australia), now merged into the New South Wales Department of Environment and Climate Change. ... EPA redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Stephen L. Johnson Stephen L. Johnson (born March 21, 1951 in Washington D.C) is an American career civil servant. ... The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency is the head of the United States federal governments Environmental Protection Agency, and is thus responsible for enforcing the nations Clean Air and Clean Water Acts, as well as numerous other environmental statutes. ... Marcus C. Peacock at the World Energy Forum 2006 Marcus C. Peacock (born March 21, 1960) is the current Deputy Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the United States. ... This is an incomplete list of federal agencies, which are either departmental agencies within the executive branch of the United States government or are Independent Agencies of the United States Government (including regulatory agencies and government corporations). ... This article describes the government of the United States. ... This article is about the natural environment. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nixon redirects here. ... The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency is the head of the United States federal governments Environmental Protection Agency, and is thus responsible for enforcing the nations Clean Air and Clean Water Acts, as well as numerous other environmental statutes. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Cabinet meets in the Cabinet Room on May 16, 2001. ... Stephen L. Johnson Stephen L. Johnson (born March 21, 1951 in Washington D.C) is an American career civil servant. ... Marcus C. Peacock at the World Energy Forum 2006 Marcus C. Peacock (born March 21, 1960) is the current Deputy Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the United States. ...

Contents

Overview

EPA headquarters in Washington, D.C.
EPA headquarters in Washington, D.C.

EPA comprises 17,000 people in headquarters program offices, 10 regional offices, and 27 laboratories across the country. More than half of its staff are engineers, scientists, and environmental protection specialists; other groups include legal, public affairs, financial, and computer specialists. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 542 pixelsFull resolution (1389 × 941 pixel, file size: 294 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 542 pixelsFull resolution (1389 × 941 pixel, file size: 294 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


The agency conducts environmental assessment, research, and education. It has the primary responsibility for setting and enforcing national standards under a variety of environmental laws, in consultation with state, tribal, and local governments. It delegates some permitting, monitoring, and enforcement responsibility to U.S. states and Native American tribes. EPA enforcement powers include fines, sanctions, and other measures. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... Sanctions are usually monetary fines, levied against a party to a legal action or his attorney, for violating rules of procedure, or for abusing the judicial process. ...


The agency also works with industries and all levels of government in a wide variety of voluntary pollution prevention programs and energy conservation efforts.


History

On July 9, 1970, Richard Nixon transmitted Reorganization Plan No. 3 to the United States Congress by executive order, creating the EPA as a single, independent, agency from a number of smaller arms of different federal agencies. Prior to the establishment of the EPA, the federal government was not structured to make a coordinated attack on the pollutants which harm human health and degrade the environment. The EPA was assigned the task of repairing the damage already done to the natural environment and to establish new criteria to guide Americans in making a cleaner, safer America. Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nixon redirects here. ... Reorganization Plan No. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... An executive order is an edict issued by a member of the executive branch of a government, usually the head of that branch. ...


Programs

Energy Star

Main article: Energy Star

In 1992 the EPA launched the Energy Star program, a voluntary program that fosters energy efficiency; in 2006 EPA launched WaterSense to similarly foster water efficiency. EPA also administers the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) (which is much older than the agency) and registers all pesticides legally sold in the United States. It is also responsible for reviewing projects of other federal agencies' Environmental Impact Statements under NEPA. The ENERGY STAR logo is placed on energy-efficient products ENERGY STAR is a United States government program to promote energy efficient consumer products. ...


Fuel economy testing and results

American automobile manufacturers are required to use EPA fuel economy test results to advertise the gas mileage of their vehicles, and the manufacturers are disallowed from providing results from alternate sources. The fuel economy is calculated using the emissions data collected during two of the vehicle's Clean Air Act certification tests, by measuring the total volume of carbon captured from the exhaust during the test. This calculated fuel economy is then adjusted downward by 10% city and 22% highway to compensate for changes in driving conditions since 1972. “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ... Fuel efficiency, sometimes also referred to as fuel economy and commonly gas mileage in the United States, is a numeric measure often used to describe the amount of fuel consumed with regard to the distance travelled in a transportation vehicle, such as an automobile. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Clean Air Act. ...


The current testing system was developed in 1972, and is a simulation of rush-hour Los Angeles of that era. Prior to 1984, the EPA did not adjust the fuel economy downward, and instead used the exact fuel economy figures calculated from the test. In December 2006, the EPA finalized new test methods to improve fuel economy and emission estimates, which would take effect with model year 2008 vehicles [6], setting the precedent of a 12 year review cycle on the test procedures. Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ...


As of the 2000s, most motor vehicle users report significantly lower real-world fuel economy than the EPA rating; this problem is most evident in hybrid vehicles. This is mainly because of drastic changes in typical driving habits and conditions which have occurred in the decades since the tests were implemented. For example, the average speed of the 1972 "highway" test is a mere 48 mph, with a top speed of 60 mph. It is expected that when the 2008 test methods are implemented, city estimates for non-hybrid cars will drop by 10-20%, city estimates for hybrid cars will drop by 20-30%, and highway estimates for all cars will drop by 5-15%[7]. The new methods include factors such as high speeds, aggressive accelerations, air conditioning use and driving in cold temperatures. For other types of Hybrid Transportation, see Hybrid (disambiguation)#Transportation. ...


In February 2005, the organization launched a program called "Your MPG" that allows drivers to add real-world fuel economy statistics into a database on the EPA's fuel economy website and compare them with others and the original EPA test results.


Air quality and air pollution

The Air Quality Modeling Group (AQMG) is in the EPA's Office of Air and Radiation (OAR) and provides leadership and direction on the full range of air quality models, air pollution dispersion models[1][2] and other mathematical simulation techniques used in assessing pollution control strategies and the impacts of air pollution sources. The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a standardized index of the air quality in a given location, given in parts per billion. ... Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. ... Atmospheric dispersion models are computer programs that use mathematical algorithms to simulate how pollutants in the ambient atmosphere disperse and, in some cases, how they react in the atmosphere. ...


The AQMG serves as the focal point on air pollution modeling techniques for other EPA headquarters staff, EPA regional Offices, and State and local environmental agencies. It coordinates with the EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) on the development of new models and techniques, as well as wider issues of atmospheric research. Finally, the AQMG conducts modeling analyses to support the policy and regulatory decisions of the EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS). Atmospheric dispersion modeling is performed with computer programs that use mathematical equations and algorithms to simulate how pollutants in the ambient atmosphere disperse in the atmosphere. ...


The AQMG is located in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.


Oil Pollution Prevention

SPCC - Spill Prevention Containment and Counter Measures. Secondary Containment mandated at oil storage facilities. Oil release containment at oil development sites.


Libraries

In 2004, the Agency began a strategic planning exercise to develop plans for a more virtual approach to library services. The effort was curtailed in July 2005 when the Agency proposed a $2.5 million cut in its 2007 budget for libraries. Based on the proposed 2007 budget, the EPA posted a notice to the Federal Register, September 20, 2006 that EPA Headquarters Library would close its doors to walk-in patrons and visitors on October 1, 2006.[3] The Federal Register contains most routine publications and public notices of United States government agencies. ...


The EPA has also closed three of its regional libraries and reduced hours in others, [4] using the same FY 2007 proposed budget numbers.


Controversies

DDT ban

In 1972 the EPA banned DDT because of its "unreasonable adverse effects on man and the environment."[5] Studies in the intervening years have demonstrated that while its acute effects on humans and primates are mild at worst, DDT and its degradants have a very heavy impact on aquatic life and the avian populations which feed on them.[6] For other uses: see DDT (disambiguation). ...


Mercury emissions

In March 2005, nine states, California, New York, New Jersey, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Maine, Connecticut, New Mexico and Vermont, sued the EPA. The EPA's inspector general had determined that the EPA's regulation of mercury emissions did not follow the Clean Air Act, and that the regulations were influenced by top political appointees.[7][8] The EPA had suppressed a study it commissioned by Harvard University which contradicted its position on mercury controls[9]. The suit alleges that the EPA's rule allowing exemption from "maximum available control technology" was illegal, and additionally charged that the EPA's system of pollution credit trading allows power plants to forego reducing mercury emissions.[10] Several states also began to enact their own mercury emission regulations. In one of the most stringent examples, Illinois' proposed rule would reduce mercury emissions from power plants by an average of 90% by 2009, with no trading allowed.[11] This article is about the element. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Harvard redirects here. ...


9/11 air ratings

See EPA 9/11 pollution controversy The EPA 9/11 pollution controversy was a result of a report released by the Office of the Inspector General of the Environmental Protection Agency in August of 2003 which claimed that the White House put pressure on the EPA to delete cautionary information about the air quality in New...


Global Warming

In June 2005, a memo revealed Philip Cooney, former chief of staff for the White House Council on Environmental Quality, and former lobbyist for the American Petroleum Institute, had personally edited documents, summarizing government research on climate change, before their release.[12] Philip Cooney is the former chief of staff for President George W. Bushs Council on Environmental Quality and a former energy industry lobbyist. ... The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) is a division of the White House that coordinates federal environmental efforts in the United States and works closely with agencies and other White House offices in the development of environmental and energy policies and initiatives. ... Lobbying is the practice of private advocacy with the goal of influencing a governing body, in order to ensure that an individuals or organizations point of view is represented in the government. ... The American Petroleum Institute, commonly referred to as API, is the main U.S. trade association for the oil and natural gas industry, representing about 400 corporate members involved in all aspects of the industry. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ...


Cooney resigned two days after the memo was published in The New York Times. Cooney said he had been planning to resign for over two years, implying the timing of his resignation was just a coincidence. Specifically, he said he had planned to resign to "spend time with his family."[13] One week after resigning he took a job at Exxon Mobil in their public affairs department. [14] The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Exxon Mobil Corporation or ExxonMobil (NYSE: XOM), headquartered in Irving, Texas, is an oil producer and distributor formed on November 30, 1999, by the merger of Exxon and Mobil. ...


Greenhouse gas emissions

The Supreme Court ruled on April 2, 2007 in Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency that the EPA has the authority to regulate the emission of greenhouse gases in automobile emissions, stating that "greenhouse gases fit well within the Clean Air Act capacious definition of air pollutant." The court also stated that the EPA must regulate in this area unless it is able to provide a scientific reason for not doing so.[15] Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Holding Greenhouse gases are air pollutants, and the EPA may regulate their emission Court membership Chief Justice: John Roberts Associate Justices: John Paul Stevens, Antonin Scalia, Anthony Kennedy, David Souter, Clarence Thomas, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Stephen Breyer, Samuel Alito Case opinions Majority by: Stevens Joined by: Kennedy, Souter, Ginsburg, Breyer... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Fuel economy

In July 2005, an EPA report showing that auto companies were using loopholes to produce less fuel-efficient cars was delayed. The report was supposed to be released the day before a controversial energy bill was passed and would have provided backup for those opposed to it, but at the last minute the EPA delayed its release.[16]


Very fine airborne particulates

Tiny particles, under 2.5 micrometres, are attributed to health and mortality concerns so some health advocates want EPA to regulate it. The science may be in its infancy although many conferences have discussed the trails of this airborne matter in the air. Foreign governments like Australia and most EU states have addressed this issue.


The EPA first established standards in 1997, and strengthened them in 2006. As with other standards, regulation and enforcement of the PM2.5 standards is the responsibility of the state governments, through State Implementation Plans. [8] A State Implementation Plan (SIP) is a United States state plan for complying with the federal Clean Air Act, administered by the Environmental Protection Agency. ...


Review of air quality standards

Since its inception the EPA has begun to rely less and less on its scientists and more on nonscience personnel. EPA has recently changed their policies regarding limits for ground-level ozone, particulates, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and lead. New policies will minimize scientist interaction in this process and rely more on policy makers who have minimal scientific knowledge. This new policy has been criticized by Democrats.[17]


EPA offices

  • Office of Administration and Resources Management
  • Office of Air and Radiation
  • Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance
  • Office of the Chief Financial Officer
  • Office of General Counsel
  • Office of Inspector General
  • Office of International Affairs
  • Office of Environmental Information
  • Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances
  • Office of Research and Development
  • Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response
  • Office of Water

Each EPA regional office is responsible within its states for implementing the Agency's programs, except those programs that have been specifically delegated to states.

Each regional office also implements programs on Indian Tribal lands, except those programs delegated to Tribal authorities. Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[2] Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Des Moines Largest city Des Moines Largest metro area Des Moines metropolitan area Area  Ranked 26th  - Total 56,272 sq mi (145,743 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 199 miles (320 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Idaho (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ...


List of EPA administrators

1970–1973 William D. Ruckelshaus
1973–1977 Russell E. Train
1977–1981 Douglas M. Costle
1981–1983 Anne M. Gorsuch (Burford)
1983–1985 William D. Ruckelshaus
1985–1989 Lee M. Thomas
1989–1993 William K. Reilly
1993–2001 Carol M. Browner
2001–2003 Christine Todd Whitman
2003–2005 Michael O. Leavitt
2005— Stephen L. Johnson

William Doyle Ruckelshaus (born July 24, 1932) is an attorney and civil servant in the United States. ... Russell Errol Train (born June 4, 1920) was the second EPA Agency Administrator, from September 1973 to January 1977. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... Anne Gorsuch (21 April 1942–18 July 2004) was the first female Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, serving under President Ronald Reagan. ... Lee Muller Thomas (born June 13, 1944) was head of the United States Environmental Protection Agency from 1985 to 1989 under President Ronald Reagan. ... William K. Reilly has been a director of DuPont since 1993. ... Carol M. Browner served as Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency during the Clinton Administration and was charged with leading the federal governments efforts in safeguarding the environment. ... Christine Todd Christie Whitman (born September 26, 1946) is an American Republican politician and author, who served as the 50th Governor of New Jersey and was the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency in the administration of President George W. Bush. ... Michael O. Leavitt Michael Okerlund Leavitt (born February 11, 1951 in Cedar City, Utah) is an American, and is currently the Secretary of Health and Human Services. ... Stephen L. Johnson Stephen L. Johnson (born March 21, 1951 in Washington D.C) is an American career civil servant. ...

Related legislation

The legislation here is general environmental protection legislation, and may also apply to other units of the government, including the Department of the Interior and the Department of Agriculture. The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a Cabinet department of the United States government that manages and conserves most federally owned land. ... USDA redirects here. ...


Air

This first act about air quality was put into affect in 1955. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control Act is an amendment to the Clean Air Act. ... The National Environmental Policy Act (or, NEPA) was signed into law on January 1, 1970 by US President Richard Nixon. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Clean Air Act. ... The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) is a United States law, passed in 1976, that regulates the introduction of new chemicals. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Clean Air Act. ...

Water

This act gave authority to Surgeon General to make programs to reduce or eliminate water pollution in rivers, underground rivers, and other waterways. ... The National Environmental Policy Act (or, NEPA) was signed into law on January 1, 1970 by US President Richard Nixon. ... This act gave authority to Surgeon General to make programs to reduce or eliminate water pollution in rivers, underground rivers, and other waterways. ... The Safe Drinking Water Act was an act passed by Congress on December 16, 1974. ... The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) is a United States law, passed in 1976, that regulates the introduction of new chemicals. ... The Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. Â§ 1251, et seq. ...

Land

President Lyndon Johnson signs the Wilderness Act of 1964 in the White House Rose Garden. ... The National Environmental Policy Act (or, NEPA) was signed into law on January 1, 1970 by US President Richard Nixon. ... President Lyndon Johnson signs the Wilderness Act of 1964 in the White House Rose Garden. ... It is the purpose of this Act to - establish a nationwide program to protect society and the environment from the adverse effects of surface coal mining operations; assure that the rights of surface landowners and other persons with a legal interest in the land or appurtenances thereto are fully protected... President Lyndon Johnson signs the Wilderness Act of 1964 in the White House Rose Garden. ...

Endangered species

The Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 prohibits, with certain exceptions, the take of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas, and the importation of marine mammals and marine mammal products into the U.S. Congress defines take as “harass, hunt, capture... The Endangered Species Act (, et seq. ...

Hazardous waste

The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), enacted in 1976, is a Federal law of the United States contained in 42 U.S.C. §§6901-6992k. ... The National Environmental Policy Act (or, NEPA) was signed into law on January 1, 1970 by US President Richard Nixon. ... The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), enacted in 1976, is a Federal law of the United States contained in 42 U.S.C. §§6901-6992k. ... Checking the status of a cleanup site CERCLA is an acronym for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 9601 to 9675 (commonly known as the Superfund), which was enacted by the United States Congress on December 11, 1980 in response to the Love Canal... On January 11, 2002, President George W. Bush signed the Small Business Liability Relief and Brownfields Revitalization Act (Pub . ...

EPA in Popular Culture

The EPA has numerously been depicted in popular culture. For example, EPA sleazebag Walter Peck was an important figure in the hit Ghostbusters. In The Simpsons Movie, the head of the EPA was the villain. For other uses, see Ghostbusters (disambiguation). ... The Simpsons Movie is a 2007 animated comedy film based on the animated television series The Simpsons, directed by David Silverman, and scheduled to be released worldwide by July 27, 2007. ...


See also

Acid mine drainage (AMD), or acid rock drainage (ARD), refers to the outflow of acidic water from (usually) abandoned metal mines or coal mines. ... Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. ... American Heritage Rivers are designated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency to receive special attention (coordinating efforts of multiple governmental entities) to further three objectives: natural resource and environmental protection, economic revitalization, and historic and cultural preservation. ... The AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, was first published by the U.S. Public Health Service in 1968. ... Atmospheric dispersion modeling is performed with computer programs that use mathematical equations and algorithms to simulate how pollutants in the ambient atmosphere disperse in the atmosphere. ... BioWatch is a United States Federal Government program to detect the release of pathogens into the air as part of a terrorist attack on major American cities. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... This page has a list of waste management topics. ... The following page contains a list of different forms of waste treatment Anaerobic digestion ArrowBio Composting Gasification Incineration In-vessel composting Landfill Mechanical biological treatment Mechanical heat treatment Plasma Pyrolysis Recycling Sewage treatment Tunnel composting UASB Windrow composting Categories: | ... Lists of Superfund sites in the United States designated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) environmental law. ... Holding Greenhouse gases are air pollutants, and the EPA may regulate their emission Court membership Chief Justice: John Roberts Associate Justices: John Paul Stevens, Antonin Scalia, Anthony Kennedy, David Souter, Clarence Thomas, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Stephen Breyer, Samuel Alito Case opinions Majority by: Stevens Joined by: Kennedy, Souter, Ginsburg, Breyer... The Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics and Training is part of the Environmental Protection Agency. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... The U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board, also know as the Chemical Safety Board or CSB, is a U.S. federal agency charged with investigating industrial chemical accidents. ... The wise use movement is a loose affiliation of activists inspired by the work of Ron Arnold. ...

References

  1. ^ Turner, D.B. (1994). Workbook of atmospheric dispersion estimates: an introduction to dispersion modeling, 2nd Edition, CRC Press. ISBN 1-56670-023-X.  www.crcpress.com
  2. ^ Beychok, M.R. (2005). Fundamentals Of Stack Gas Dispersion, 4th Edition, author-published. ISBN 0-9644588-0-2.  www.air-dispersion.com
  3. ^ "Notification of Closure of the EPA Headquarters Library" (pdf), September 20, 2006
  4. ^ Letter to Appropriations Committee, Interior and Related Agencies Subcommittee, June 29, 2006 (pdf), from leaders of 16 local EPA unions
  5. ^ EPA Press Release, New DDT Report Confirms Data Supporting 1972 Ban, Finds Situation Improving, August 11, 1975.
  6. ^ Environmental Health Criteria #83 "DDT and derivatives: environmental aspects," World Health Organization, 1989.
  7. ^ Proposed Mercury Rules Bear Industry Mark, Washington Post, January 31, 2004
  8. ^ EPA Inspector Finds Mercury Proposal Tainted, Washington Post, February 4, 2005
  9. ^ New EPA Mercury Rule Omits Conflicting Data, Washington Post, March 22, 2005
  10. ^ States Sue EPA Over Mercury Emissions, LA Times, March 30, 2005
  11. ^ Governor Blagojevich and Illinois EPA Propose Aggressive Mercury Controls For Illinois Power Plants, Environmental Progress, Spring 2006, page 12
  12. ^ U.S. Official Edited Warming, Emission Link - Report, Reuters, June 8, 2005
  13. ^ White House Official Resigns After Climate Documents Flap, Agence France Presse, June 12, 2005
  14. ^ Ex-White House environment official joins Exxon, Reuters, June 15, 2005
  15. ^ Justices Say E.P.A. Has Power to Act on Harmful Gases, New York Times, April 2, 2007
  16. ^ E.P.A. Holds Back Report on Car Fuel Efficiency, New York Times, July 28, 2005
  17. ^ [C&E News, December 18, 2006, page 15][1]

Fundamentals Of Stack Gas Dispersion is a book devoted to the basic fundamentals of air pollution dispersion modeling of continuous, buoyant pollution plumes from stationary point sources. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...

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