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Encyclopedia > United States Department of Homeland Security
United States
Department of Homeland Security
Motto: "Preserving our Freedoms"
Motto: "Preserving our Freedoms"
Agency overview
Formed November 25, 2002
Headquarters Nebraska Avenue Complex
Employees 208,000 (2007)
Annual Budget United States Dollar $44.9 Billion(2007)
Agency Executives Michael Chertoff, Secretary
 
Paul A. Schneider (Acting), Deputy Secretary

The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS), commonly known in the United States as "Homeland Security", is a Cabinet department of the U.S. federal government with the responsibility of protecting the territory of the U.S. from terrorist attacks and responding to natural disasters. DHS is an acronym that can refer to: The Department of Homeland Security in the United States The Department of Health Services in California or Los Angeles The Department of Highway Safety in Florida The Oregon Department of Human Services in the State of Oregon An abbreviation for the dirham... Image File history File links US_Department_of_Homeland_Security_Seal. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... USD redirects here. ... [[Category:Articles needing additional references from August 2007]] Michael Chertoff (born November 28, 1953) is the current United States Secretary of Homeland Security. ... The United States Secretary of Homeland Security is the head of the United States Department of Homeland Security, the body concerned with protecting the American homeland and the safety of American citizens. ... In law, when someone is said to be acting in a position it can mean one of three things. ... Department of Homeland Security Deputy Secretary Michael P. Jackson The Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security is the chief operating officer of the United States Department of Homeland Security, responsible for the day-to-day operations of a department with 208,000 employees and an annual budget of $48. ... The Cabinet meets in the Cabinet Room on May 16, 2001. ... United States Government redirects here. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Mount Pinatubo eruption, 1991 A natural disaster is according to or provided by nature. ...


Whereas the Department of Defense is charged with military actions abroad, the Department of Homeland Security works in the civilian sphere to protect the United States within, at, and outside its borders. Its goal is to prepare for, prevent, and respond to domestic emergencies, particularly terrorism. On March 1, 2003, the DHS absorbed the now defunct United States Immigration and Naturalization Service and assumed its duties. In doing so, it divided the enforcement and services functions into two separate and new agencies -- U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement and U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) was a part of the United States Department of Justice which used to handle legal and illegal immigration and naturalization. ... Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is the largest and primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and is responsible for identifying, investigating, and dismantling vulnerabilities regarding the nations border, economic, transportation, and infrastructure security. ... U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) is a part of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and performs some of the functions formerly carried out by the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service, which was part of the Department of Justice. ...


With over 200,000 employees, DHS is the third largest Cabinet department in the U.S. federal government, after the Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs. Homeland security policy is coordinated at the White House by the Homeland Security Council. Other agencies with significant homeland security responsibilities include the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Justice, and the Department of Energy. The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... The United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is a government-run military veteran benefit system with Cabinet-level status. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... The Homeland Security Council (HSC) is an entity within the Executive Office of the President of the United States and was created by Homeland Security Presidential Directive 1 (HSPD-1) on October 29, 2001. ... The United States Department of Health and Human Services, often abbreviated HHS, is a Cabinet department of the United States government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. ... Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building, Washington, D.C. For animal rights group, see Justice Department (JD) The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ...

Contents

Establishment

In response to the September 11, 2001 attacks, President George W. Bush announced the establishment of the Office of Homeland Security (OHS) to coordinate "homeland security" efforts. The office was headed by former Pennsylvania Governor Tom Ridge, who assumed the title of Assistant to the President for Homeland Security. The name is reminiscent of the British WW2-era Ministry of Home Security. The official announcement stated: A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Thomas Joseph Ridge (born August 27, 1945 near Pittsburgh, USA) is an American politician who served as a member of the United States House of Representatives (1983–1995), Governor of Pennsylvania (1995–2001), Assistant to the President for Homeland Security (2001–2003), and the first United States Secretary of Homeland...

The mission of the Office will be to develop and coordinate the implementation of a comprehensive national strategy to secure the United States from terrorist threats or attacks. The Office will coordinate the executive branch's efforts to detect, prepare for, prevent, protect against, respond to, and recover from terrorist attacks within the United States.[1]

Ridge began his duties as OHS director on October 8, 2001. Terrorist redirects here. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...

The Homeland Security Advisory System scale
The Homeland Security Advisory System scale

On March 12, 2002, the Homeland Security Advisory System, a color-coded terrorism risk advisory scale, was created as the result of a Presidential Directive to provide a "comprehensive and effective means to disseminate information regarding the risk of terrorist acts to Federal, State, and local authorities and to the American people." Many procedures at government facilities are tied in to the alert level; for example a facility may search all entering vehicles when the alert is above a certain level. Since January 2003, it has been administered in coordination with DHS; it has also been the target of frequent jokes and ridicule on the part of the administration's detractors about its ineffectiveness. After resigning, Tom Ridge stated that he didn't always agree with the threat level adjustments pushed by other government agencies.[2] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... HSAS redirects here. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... HSAS redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with National Security Directive. ...


In January 2003, the office was merged into the Department of Homeland Security and the White House Homeland Security Council, both of which were created by the Homeland Security Act of 2002. The Homeland Security Council, similar in nature to the National Security Council, retains a policy coordination and advisory role and is led by the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security.[1]


Creation of DHS

The department was established on November 25, 2002, by the Homeland Security Act of 2002. It was intended to consolidate U.S. executive branch organizations related to "homeland security" into a single Cabinet agency. is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Homeland Security Act (HSA) of 2002, Pub. ... For the United States Cabinet department, see United States Department of Homeland Security. ... The Cabinet meets in the Cabinet Room on May 16, 2001. ...


Prior to the signing of the bill, controversy about its adoption centered on whether the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Central Intelligence Agency should be incorporated in part or in whole (neither were included). The bill itself was also controversial for the presence of unrelated "riders", as well as for eliminating certain union-friendly civil service and labor protections for department employees (which would provide expedited ability to reassign or dismiss an employee for security reasons, incompetence, or insubordination). Congress ultimately passed the Homeland Security Act of 2002 without the union-friendly measures and President Bush signed the bill into law on November 25, 2002. It was the largest U.S. government reorganization in 50 years (since the United States Department of Defense was created). F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... CIA redirects here. ... In legislative practice, a rider is an additional provision annexed to a bill under the consideration of a legislature, having little connection with the subject matter of the bill. ... The Roman civil service in action. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ...


Tom Ridge was named secretary on January 24, 2003 and began naming his chief deputies. DHS officially began operations on January 24, 2003, but most of the department's component agencies were not transferred into the new Department until March 1.[1] Thomas Joseph Ridge (born August 27, 1945 near Pittsburgh, USA) is an American politician who served as a member of the United States House of Representatives (1983–1995), Governor of Pennsylvania (1995–2001), Assistant to the President for Homeland Security (2001–2003), and the first United States Secretary of Homeland... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

President George W. Bush signs the Homeland Security Appropriations Act of 2004.
President George W. Bush signs the Homeland Security Appropriations Act of 2004.

After establishing the basic structure of DHS and working to integrate its components and get the department functioning, Ridge announced his resignation on November 30, 2004, following the re-election of President Bush. Bush initially nominated former New York City Police Department commissioner Bernard Kerik as his successor, but on December 10, Kerik withdrew his nomination, citing personal reasons and saying it "would not be in the best interests" of the country for him to pursue the post. On January 11, 2005, President Bush nominated federal judge Michael Chertoff to succeed Ridge. Chertoff was confirmed on February 15, 2005, by a vote of 98–0 in the U.S. Senate. He was sworn in the same day.[1] Caption: President George W. Bush signs the Homeland Security Appropriations Act of 2004 (PL 108-90) at the Department of Homeland Security in Washington, D.C., Wednesday, Oct. ... Caption: President George W. Bush signs the Homeland Security Appropriations Act of 2004 (PL 108-90) at the Department of Homeland Security in Washington, D.C., Wednesday, Oct. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... NYPD redirects here. ... Bernard Bailey Bernie Kerik, CBE, (born September 4, 1955 in Newark, New Jersey) was an American law-enforcement officer. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... [[Category:Articles needing additional references from August 2007]] Michael Chertoff (born November 28, 1953) is the current United States Secretary of Homeland Security. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States...


In 2006, a federal court injunction blocked many aspects of the department's new personnel system (named "MaxHR") related to employee pay and discipline. DHS announced in early 2007 that it was retooling its pay and performance system and retiring the name "MaxHR".[1]


Headquarters

Since its inception, the Department has had its temporary headquarters in Washington, D.C.'s "Nebraska Avenue Complex", a former naval facility. The 38 acre site has 32 buildings comprising of 566,000 square feet of administrative space.[3] In early 2007, the Department submitted a $4.1 billion plan to Congress to consolidate its 60-plus Washington-area offices into a single headquarters complex at the St. Elizabeths Hospital campus in Southeast Washington. The earliest DHS would begin moving to St. Elizabeths is 2012.[4] St. ...


The move is being championed by District of Columbia officials because of the positive economic impact it will have on historically depressed Southeast Washington, which is also the venue for the new Washington Nationals baseball stadium, scheduled to open in 2008. The move has been criticized by historic preservationists, who claim the revitalization plans will destroy dozens of historic buildings on the campus.[5] Community activists have criticized the plans because the facility will remain walled off and have little interaction with the surrounding area.[6] Major league affiliations National League (1969–present) East Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 42 Name Washington Nationals (2005–present) Montreal Expos (1969-2004) Other nicknames The Nats Ballpark Nationals Ballpark (2008–present) RFK Stadium 2005-2007 Hiram Bithorn Stadium[3] (San Juan) (2003-2004) Olympic Stadium (Montreal) (1977... Nationals Ballpark (or Nationals Park) is the new ballpark for the Washington Nationals of Major League Baseball. ... Demolition of the former Penn Station concourse raised public awareness about preservation Historic preservation is the act of maintaining and repairing existing historic materials and the retention of a propertys form as it has evolved over time. ...


Ready.gov

Ready.gov program logo

Soon after the formation of Department of Homeland Security, the Martin Agency of Richmond, Virginia provided pro bono work to create "Ready.gov", a readiness website. The site and materials were conceived in March 2002 and launched in February 2003, just before the launch of the Iraq War.[7][8][9] One of the first announcements that garnered widespread public attention to this campaign was one by Tom Ridge in which he stated that in the case of a chemical attack, citizens should use duct tape and plastic sheeting to build a homemade bunker, or "sheltering in place" to protect themselves.[10][11] As a result, the sales of duct tape skyrocketed and DHS was criticized for being too alarmist.[12] The site was promoted with banner ads containing automatic audio components on commercial web sites. Image File history File links Ready_gov. ... Image File history File links Ready_gov. ... The Martin Agency is a fully integrated, national advertising agency founded in 1965 by David N. Martin with offices in Richmond, VA and New York City. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... Pro bono publico (often shortened to pro bono) is a phrase derived from Latin meaning for the public good. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Alarmism is the production of needless warnings. ... A web banner or banner ad is a form of advertising on the World Wide Web. ...


National Incident Management System

On March 1, 2004, the National Incident Management System (NIMS) was created. The stated purpose was to provide a consistent incident management approach for federal, state, local, and tribal governments. Under Homeland Security Presidential Directive-5, all federal departments were required to adopt the NIMS and to use it in their individual domestic incident management and emergency prevention, preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation program and activities. is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


National Response Framework

In December 2004 the National Response Plan (NRP) was created, in an attempt to align Federal coordination structures, capabilities, and resources into a unified, all-discipline, and all-hazards approach to domestic incident management. The NRP was built on the template of the NIMS. The National Response Plan is the Department of Homeland Securitys plan to handle terrorist attacks, natural disasters or other large-scale emergency. ...


On January 22, 2008, the National Response Framework was published in the Federal Register as an updated replacement of the NRP, effective on March 22, 2008. The Federal Register contains most routine publications and public notices of United States government agencies. ...


Criticism

See also: Criticism of government response to Hurricane Katrina

The criticism of the government response to Hurricane Katrina primarily consisted of condemnations of mismanagement and lack of preparation in the relief effort in response to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath. ...

Computer security management

Security-Enhanced Linux (SELinux) has been an interest of the United States National Security Agency since 2001. In an undated paper, NSA authors had hoped that operating systems would be the answer to a problem they described: "Public awareness of the need for security in computing systems is growing as critical services are becoming increasingly dependent on interconnected computing systems. National infrastructure components such as the electric power, telecommunication and transportation systems can no longer function without networks of computers."[13] Threats to computer security have outpaced the Department of Homeland Security's ability to manage such an environment. According to F-Secure, "As much malware [was] produced in 2007 as in the previous 20 years altogether."[14] This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... Security-Enhanced Linux (SELinux) is a version of the Linux kernel and utilities, which contains support for mandatory access controls based on the principle of least privilege. ... The National Security Agency/Central Security Service (NSA/CSS) is the U.S. governments cryptologic organization. ... An operating system (OS) is a software that manages computer resources and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... The user interface for F-Secure Anti Virus 2006. ...


Excess, waste, and ineffectiveness

The Department of Homeland Security has been dogged by persistent criticism over excessive bureaucracy, waste, and ineffectiveness. In 2003, the department came under fire after the media revealed that Laura Callahan, Deputy Chief Information Officer at DHS with responsibilities for sensitive national security databases, had obtained her advanced computer science degrees through a diploma mill in a small town in Wyoming. The department was blamed for up to $2 billion of waste and fraud after audits by the Government Accountability Office revealed widespread misuse of government credit cards by DHS employees, with purchases including beer brewing kits, $70,000 of plastic dog booties that were later deemed unusable, boats purchased at double the retail price (many of which later could not be found), and iPods ostensibly for use in "data storage".[15][16][17] This article is about the sociological concept. ... Laura Callahan is a former senior director at the United States Department of Homeland Security who was forced to resign after an investigation revealed that she and numerous other federal employees had obtained high-ranking government jobs through use of fabricated academic degrees received from diploma mills. ... The Chief Information Officer or CIO is a job title for the head of the information technology group within an organization. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... A diploma mill (also known as a degree mill) is an organization that awards academic degrees and diplomas with substandard or no academic study, and without recognition by official accrediting bodies. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... General Accounting Office headquarters, Washington, D.C. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is the non-partisan audit, evaluation, and investigative arm of Congress, and an agency in the Legislative Branch of the United States Government. ... iPod is a brand of portable media players designed and marketed by Apple Inc. ...


Data Mining (ADVISE)

The Associated Press reported on September 5, 2007 that DHS had scrapped an anti-terrorism data mining tool called ADVISE (Analysis, Dissemination, Visualization, Insight and Semantic Enhancement) after the agency's internal Inspector General found that pilot testing of the system had been performed using data on real people without required privacy safeguards in place.[18][19] The system, in development at Lawrence Livermore and Pacific Northwest national laboratories since 2003, has cost the agency $42 million to date. Controversy over the program is not new; in March 2007, the Government Accountability Office stated that "the ADVISE tool could misidentify or erroneously associate an individual with undesirable activity such as fraud, crime or terrorism". Homeland Security's Inspector General later said that ADVISE was poorly planned, time-consuming for analysts to use, and lacked adequate justifications.[20] The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Data mining is the principle of sorting through large amounts of data and picking out relevant information. ... ADVISE (Analysis, Dissemination, Visualization, Insight, and Semantic Enhancement) is a research and development program within the United States Department of Homeland Security Threat and Vulnerability Testing and Assessment (TTVA) portfolio. ... Inspector General is a fact finding officer whose responsibility is to investigate charges of corruption, fraud, waste and abuse and other complaints regarding government officials. ... A pilot experiment is a precursor to a full-scale study. ... Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to control the flow of information about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively. ... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area, facing NW. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory, managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a limited liability consortium comprised of Bechtel National, the University of... General Accounting Office headquarters, Washington, D.C. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is the non-partisan audit, evaluation, and investigative arm of Congress, and an agency in the Legislative Branch of the United States Government. ...


Employee morale

In July 2006, the Office of Personnel Management conducted a survey of federal employees in all 36 federal agencies on job satisfaction and how they felt their respective agency was headed. DHS was last or near to last in every category including; Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS,[2] Veep, or VP) is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... [[Category:Articles needing additional references from August 2007]] Michael Chertoff (born November 28, 1953) is the current United States Secretary of Homeland Security. ... The United States Secretary of Homeland Security is the head of the United States Department of Homeland Security, the body concerned with protecting the American homeland and the safety of American citizens. ... Clarence Saxby Chambliss (born November 10, 1943) is the senior United States Senator from Georgia. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), an agency of the United States Department of Homeland Security, is charged with regulating and facilitating international trade, collecting import duties, and enforcing U.S. trade laws. ... // Any federal criminal or non-criminal investigator or detective in the 1811, 1801, 2501 or similar job series as so titled according to the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) handbook. ... -1...

  • 33rd on the talent management index
  • 35th on the leadership and knowledge management index
  • 36th on the job satisfaction index
  • 36th on the results-oriented performance culture index

The low scores were attributed to major concerns about basic supervision, management and leadership within the agency. Examples from the survey reveal most concerns are about promotion and pay increase based on merit, dealing with poor performance, rewarding creativity and innovation, leadership generating high levels of motivation in the workforce, recognition for doing a good job, lack of satisfaction with various component policies and procedures and lack of information about what is going on with the organization.[21][22]


See also

The Container Security Initiative is the most topical AFF ever. ... Jake Joseph Brahm (born 1986) is an American grocery store clerk, and blogger. ... The National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC) is a highly classified government biodefense research laboratory created by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and located at the governments sprawling biodefense campus at Fort Detrick in Frederick, MD, USA. Created quietly a few months after the 2001... The National Security and Homeland Security Presidential Directive (National Security Presidential Directive NSPD-51/Homeland Security Presidential Directive HSPD-20), signed by United States President George W. Bush on May 4, 2007, is a Presidential Directive which specifies the procedures for continuity of the federal government in the event of... The United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT) is part of the National Cyber Security Division of the United Statess Department of Homeland Security. ... US-VISIT (United States Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology) is a U.S. immigration and border management system. ... TSA emblem The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is a U.S. government agency that was created as part of the Aviation and Transportation Security Act passed by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President George W. Bush on November 19, 2001. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e "National Strategy For Homeland Security". pdf file. DHS. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
  2. ^ Remarks by Governor Ridge Announcing Homeland Security Advisory System
  3. ^ Statement of Secretary Tom Ridge. DHS. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
  4. ^ Losey, Stephen. "Homeland Security plans move to hospital compound", Federal Times, 2007-3-19. Retrieved on 2007-10-31. 
  5. ^ Most Endangered Places. 5/2007. National Trust. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
  6. ^ Holley, Joel. "Tussle Over St. Elizabeths", Washington Post, 2007-6-17, p. C01. Retrieved on 2007-10-31. 
  7. ^ Forbes, Daniel. "$226 Million in Govt Ads Helped Pave the Way for War", Antiwar.com, 2004-5-28. Retrieved on 2007-10-31. 
  8. ^ Homeland Security: Ready.Gov. 12/29/2003. Outdoor Advertising Association of America. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
  9. ^ CNN Live at daybreak. Aired February 20, 2003. CNN. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
  10. ^ Homeland Security Frequently Asked Questions. ready.gov. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
  11. ^ Clean Air. ready.gov. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
  12. ^ Are You Ready.gov?. February 21st, 2003. lies.com. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
  13. ^ SELinux Documentation. Retrieved on 2007-12-11. and Loscocco, Peter A., Stephen D. Smalley, Patrick A. Muckelbauer, Ruth C. Taylor, S. Jeff Turner, John F. Farrell. The Inevitability of Failure: The Flawed Assumption of Security in Modern Computing Environments. U.S. National Security Agency. Retrieved on 2007-12-11.
  14. ^ F-Secure Corporation (December 4, 2007). "F-Secure Reports Amount of Malware Grew by 100% during 2007". Press release. Retrieved on 2007-12-11.
  15. ^ Lipton, Eric. "Homeland Security Department Is Accused of Credit Card Misuse", The New York Times, 2006-7-19. Retrieved on 2007-10-31. 
  16. ^ Jakes Jordan, Lara. "Credit Card Fraud at DHS", Homeland Security Weekly, 2006-7-19. Retrieved on 2007-10-31. 
  17. ^ "Government’s Katrina credit cards criticized", Associated Press, 2005-9-15. Retrieved on 2007-10-31. 
  18. ^ ADVISE Could Support Intelligence Analysis More Effectively. pdf file. DHS. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
  19. ^ Singel, Ryan. "Homeland Data Tool Needs Privacy Help, Report Says", Wired, 2007-3-20. Retrieved on 2007-10-31. 
  20. ^ Sniffen, Michael J.. "DHS Ends Criticized Data-Mining Program", The Associated Press, Washington Post, 2007-9-5. Retrieved on 2007-10-31. 
  21. ^ "Homeland Security employees rank last in job satisfaction survey", ABC Inc., WLS-TV Chicago, 2007-2-8. Retrieved on 2007-10-31. 
  22. ^ Conroy, Bill. "DHS memo reveals agency personnel are treated like "human capital"", narco news, 2007-1-31. Retrieved on 2007-10-31. 

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United States Department of Homeland Security: Information from Answers.com (1860 words)
The United States Department of Homeland Security ('DHS), commonly known as Homeland Security, is a Cabinet department of the Federal Government of the United States with the responsibility of protecting the territory of the United States from terrorist attack and responding to natural disasters.
Homeland security policy is coordinated at the White House by the Homeland Security Council, with Frances Townsend as the Homeland Security Advisor.
The department was established on November 25, 2002, by the Homeland Security Act of 2002.
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