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Encyclopedia > United States Customs Service

The United States Customs Service (now part of U.S. Customs and Border Protection or "CBP") was the portion of the US Federal Government dedicated to keeping illegal products outside of US borders. It also regulated what could leave the United States and was partially responsible for who could enter the United States. US Customs is responsible for controlling the borders of the United States U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), part of the United States Department of Homeland Security, is charged with preventing terrorists and terrorist weapons from entering the United States. ... ... Illegal, or unlawful, is either prohibitted or not authorized by law. ... Border has several different, but related meanings: // Generic borders A border can consist of a margin around the edge of something, such as a lawn, garden, photograph, or sheet of paper. ...


Operations were divided into two separate sections - the first of which was the Office of Field Operations (OFO) which handled duties and tax penalties along with helping to prevent contraband from entering the United States. It was primarily made up of Inspectors that served as the "front-line" of Customs by monitoring and policing all international ports of entry into the United States, (land, sea or air); by screening incoming and outgoing international shipments of cargo; as well as inspecting informal entries of dutiable goods by individuals through personal transport or shipment through international postal carriers (government and private). Inspectors also handled operations regarding smuggling of contraband into the United States and control the exportation of controlled or strategic resources from the United States. Other OFO personnel included Import Specialists, Intelligence Officers, and other contracted personnel responsible for record keeping, handling protest and tax penalty arbitration along with other record support functions. This article is in need of attention. ... Contraband consists of items of which possession may be illegal, depending on the variety and the country or the age or sex of the possessor. ... Intelligence Officers are staff that specialise in the gathering, fusion and analysis of information and intelligence sources in order to provide advise to the Government or organisation that they work for. ... Demonstrators march in the street while protesting the World Bank and International Monetary Fund on April 16, 2005. ...


Import Specialists provided the backbone of OFO by providing expertise concerning proper classification of goods for the purpose of charging duties. The primary resource for determining duty classifications is the two volume Harmonized Tarrif Schedule for the US or HTSUS, which is updated annually. Import Specialists were divided into Commodity Teams (CTs) which are assigned specific types of goods to specialize in. For example: one team may be assigned vehicles, vehicle components and ball bearings and another may be assigned clothing, textiles and toys. Each CT is assigned a more senior Import Specialist whose job it is to train Import Specialists that are new to a particular Commodity Team. These individuals are usually defacto experts in the analysis of goods that they are assigned and are often called upon to physically inspect goods entering (or petitioning to enter) the United States. They are primarily enagaged in activities concerning Formal Entries which are handled by Customs Brokerage Houses, but they also provide assistance in Informal Entries. The Harmonized Tarrif Schedule for the United States is the primary resource for determining duty classifications of the United States. ... The Harmonized Tarrif Schedule for the United States is the primary resource for determining duty classifications of the United States. ...


The other half of the United States Customs and Border Protection Service was the Office of Investigation or "OI." The Office of Investigation consisted of specialized sections of Special Agents that are divided by common crimes regarding international affairs. Primary sections included Financial Crimes, Narcotics, Strategic, and Computer Forensics. The Office of Investigation also included an Internal Affairs section that monitored and investigated allegations of misconduct and criminal activity within both the Office of Investigation and the Office of Field Operations. As part of the reorganization associated with the creation of the Department of Homeland Security, the Office of Investigation was transferred to U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement on March 1, 2003. Special Agent is the United States governments title for a detective or investigator of the Series 0081 in the Office of Personnel Management or OPM handbook. ... The term narcotic, derived from the Greek word for stupor, originally referred to a variety of substances that induced sleep (such state is narcosis). ... A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal. ... Computer forensics is the process of investigating data storage devices and/or data processing equipment typically a home computer, laptop, server, office workstation, or removable media such as compact discs, to determine if the equipment has been used for illegal, unauthorized, or unusual activities. ... The internal affairs (United States terminology) division of a law enforcement agency investigates incidents and plausible suspicions of lawbreaking and professional misconduct attributed to officers on the force. ... The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a Cabinet department of the federal government of the United States that is concerned with protecting the American homeland and the safety of American citizens. ... Pilatus PC-12 aircraft of the ICE The United States Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), the largest investigative arm of the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS), is responsible for identifying and shutting down vulnerabilities in the nations border, economic, transportation and infrastructure security. ...

Contents


Commissioner

Robert C. Bonner was the 17th Commissioner of U.S. Customs and is now the first Commissioner of Customs and Border Protection. He was appointed by President George W. Bush and has served since 2001. He is scheduled to resign his commission at the end of November. The previous 16 Commissioners of Customs, their dates of service, and which president appointed them, in descending order. Robert C. Bonner Robert C. Bonner, born in Wichita, Kansas on January 29, 1942, is currently Commissioner of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection service. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States. ...

  • Raymond W. Kelly, 1998-2001, William J. Clinton
  • George J. Weise, 1993-1997, William J.Clinton
  • Carol B. Hallett, 1989-1993, George H.W. Bush
  • William Von Raab, 1981-1989, Ronald W. Reagan
  • Robert E. Chasen, 1977-1980, Jimmy Carter
  • Vernon Darrell Acree, 1972-1977, Gerald R. Ford, Richard M. Nixon
  • Myles Joseph Ambrose, 1969-1972, Richard M. Nixon
  • Lester D. Johnson, 1965-1969, Lyndon B. Johnson
  • Philip Nichols, Jr., 1961-1964, Lyndon B. Johnson, John F. Kennedy
  • Ralph Kelly, 1954-1961, Dwight D. Eisenhower
  • Frank Dow, 1949-1953 Acting, 1947-1949, Harry S. Truman
  • William Roy Johnson, 1940-1947, Harry S. Truman, Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • Basil Harris, 1939-1940, Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • James Henry Moyle, 1933-1939, Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • Francis Xavier A. Eble, 1929-1933, Herbert Hoover
  • Ernest W. Camp, 1927-1929, Calvin Coolidge

History of the United States Customs Service

Responding to the urgent need for revenue following the American Revolutionary War, the First Congress passed and President George Washington signed the Tariff Act of July 4, 1789, which authorized the collection of duties on imported goods. Four weeks later, on July 31, the fifth act of Congress established the United States Customs Service and its ports of entry. US Customs Service, late 1800s File links The following pages link to this file: United States Customs Service U.S. Customs and Border Protection Categories: United States government images ... Combatants American Revolutionaries, France, allies British Empire, allies Commanders George Washington Comte de Rochambeau Nathanael Greene William Howe Henry Clinton Charles Cornwallis Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties {{{casualties1}}} {{{casualties2}}} The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence was the military side of the American Revolution. ... A congress is a gathering of people, especially a gathering for a political purpose. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799) was the successful Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and later became the first President of the United States, an office to which he was elected twice. ... July 4 is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 180 days remaining. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining, as the final day of July. ...


For over 100 years after its birth, the U.S. Customs Service was the primary source of funds for the entire government, and paid for the nation's early growth and infrastructure. Purchases include the Louisiana and Oregon territories; Florida and Alaska; funding the National Road and the Transcontinental Railroad; builing many of the nation's lighthouses; the U.S. Military and Naval academies, and Washington D.C. State nickname: Pelican State Official languages English and French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans at last official government census, but probably Baton Rouge since Hurricane Katrina Governor Kathleen Blanco (D) Senators Mary Landrieu (D) David Vitter (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 31st 134,382 km² 16 Population  - Total... State nickname: Beaver State Official languages None Capital Salem Largest city Portland Governor Ted Kulongoski (D) Senators Ron Wyden (D) Gordon Smith (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 9th 255,026 km² 2. ... State nickname: Sunshine State Official languages English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Governor Jeb Bush (R) Senators Bill Nelson (D) Mel Martinez (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 22nd 170,451 km² 17. ... State nickname: The Last Frontier, The Land of the Midnight Sun Official languages English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Governor Frank Murkowski (R) Senators Ted Stevens (R) Lisa Murkowski (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 1st 663,267 mi² / 1,717,854 km² 13. ... Mile markers can still be found along the National Road; this one is located in Columbus, Ohio. ... A transcontinental railroad is a railway that crosses a continent, typically from sea to sea. Terminals are at or connected to different Oceans. ... The Peggys Point lighthouse in Nova Scotia, Canada An aid for navigation and pilotage at sea, a lighthouse is a tower building or framework sending out light from a system of lamps and lenses or, in older times, from a fire. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United...


With the passage of the Homeland Security Act, the US Customs Service passed from under jurisdiction of the Treasury Department to the Department of Homeland Security. The Homeland Security Act (HSA) of 2002, introduced in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks, created the Department of Homeland Security in the largest government reorganization in 50 years, since the Department of Defense was created. ... The United States Department of the Treasury is a Cabinet department, a treasury, of the United States government established by an Act of U.S. Congress in 1789 to manage the revenue of the United States government. ... The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a Cabinet department of the federal government of the United States that is concerned with protecting the American homeland and the safety of American citizens. ...


On March 1, 2003, part of the U.S. Customs Service, along with the Inspections Program of the Immigration and Naturalization Service and the Border Patrol of the Immigration and Naturalization Service combined to form U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP). The Federal Protective Service (FPS), the Federal Air Marshals, along with the investigative arms from both the U.S. Customs Service and the Immigration and Naturalization Service combined to form U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). The Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) was a part of the United States Department of Justice which used to handle legal and illegal immigration and naturalization. ... CBP/USBP Insignia The United States Border Patrol (USBP), a Federal police force, is the mobile uniformed law enforcement arm of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), a bureau of the Department of Homeland Security. ... The Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) was a part of the United States Department of Justice which used to handle legal and illegal immigration and naturalization. ... US Customs is responsible for controlling the borders of the United States U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), part of the United States Department of Homeland Security, is charged with preventing terrorists and terrorist weapons from entering the United States. ... Federal Protective Service is a title used in a number of countries In the United States the FPS is responsible for the security of Federal buildings. ... The Federal Air Marshal Service is a U.S. federal agency. ... Pilatus PC-12 aircraft of the ICE The United States Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), the largest investigative arm of the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS), is responsible for identifying and shutting down vulnerabilities in the nations border, economic, transportation and infrastructure security. ...


Examples of illegal items

  • All Cuban products without a specific license for their importation, such as Cuban Cigars.
  • Illicit Drugs
  • Unscreened Fruits and Meats
  • Excessive quantities of textiles
  • Undeclared liquor over allowable limits
  • Tobacco products over allowable limits
  • Undeclared monies or monetary instruments over $10,000

Four cigars of different brands (from top: H. Upmann, Montecristo, Macanudo, Romeo y Julieta) A cigar, airtight storage tube, and guillotine-style cutter A cigar is a tightly rolled bundle of dried and fermented tobacco, one end of which is ignited so that its smoke may be drawn into the... These lollipops, above, were found to contain heroin when inspected by the US Drug Enforcement Administration In jurisdictions where legislation restricts or prohibits the sale of certain popular drugs, it is common for an illegal drugs trade to develop. ... Fruit stall in Barcelona, Catalonia. ... Meat is animal tissue (mainly muscle) used as food. ... It has been suggested that Textile manufacturing be merged into this article or section. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
U.S. Customs Service Counterrorism Efforts at Home and Abroad (4646 words)
As you know, since September 11th of 2001, the United States government has been engaged in a very concerted effort, both within the United States and overseas with friends and allies, to counter the threat of terrorism that is truly a threat to all of us.
Where there is no description and where Customs was not provided with the data 24 hours before the lading of the cargo container, the loading of that container, U.S. Customs will begin denying permits to unload in the United States, and that will start on February 2nd and thereafter.
The U.S. Customs Service actions on February 2nd will be the first step in a process of ratcheting up the denials of unloading permits to ensure compliance over the course of the next several weeks thereafter.
BEFORE THE (4043 words)
Customs must realize that there are certain segments of rail traffic that are extremely competitive with truck transportation, and a 24-hour period for notification would essentially destroy that traffic.
Customs’ Strawman proposal for rail service destined to and departing from the United States requires a set of information to be provided to Customs prior to arrival of goods at the border.
Customs needs to recognize that, unlike transportation by vessel, which by its nature takes days between the port of origin and the port of destination, there are some situations where shipments by rail need to be expedited.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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