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Encyclopedia > United States Congress
United States Congress

President George W. Bush delivers his State of the Union address to the nation and a joint session of Congress in the House Chamber at the U.S. Capitol Tuesday, Jan. ...

Type Bicameral
Houses Senate
House of Representatives
President of the Senate
President pro tempore
Dick Cheney, (R)
since January 20, 2001
Robert C. Byrd, (D)
since January 4, 2007
Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D)
since January 4, 2007
Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner
Political groups Democratic Party
Republican Party
Last elections November 7, 2006
Meeting place United States Capitol

The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, consisting of two houses, the Senate and the House of Representatives. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election. In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... The President of the Senate is the title often given to the presiding officer, or chairman, of a senate. ... Robert C. Byrd of West Virginia the current President pro tempore of the United States Senate. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... GOP redirects here. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Robert C. Byrd Robert Carlyle Byrd (born November 20, 1917) is a West Virginia Democrat serving in the United States Senate. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer—or speaker—of the United States House of Representatives. ... Nancy Patricia DAlesandro Pelosi (born March 26, 1940) is currently the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... A Delegate to Congress is a non-voting member of the United States House of Representatives who is elected from a U.S. territory or from the District of Columbia. ... The Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico is a nonvoting representative of the United States House of Representatives elected by Puerto Ricans every 4 years. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... GOP redirects here. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Capitol is the capitol building that serves as the location for the United States Congress, the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. ... This article is about bicameralism in government. ... A Legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to create, amend and ratify laws. ... This article is about the federal government of the United States. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Direct election is a term describing a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons or political party that they desire to see elected. ...


Each of the 435 members of the House of Representatives represents a district and serves a two-year term. "House" seats are apportioned among the states by population. The 100 Senators serve staggered six-year terms. Each state has two senators, regardless of population. Every two years, approximately one-third of the Senate is elected. A congressional district is an electoral constituency that elects a single member of a congress. ... US Congressional apportionment for states in 2000 The membership of the United States House of Representatives changes each decade following the decennial United States Census. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of...


The United States Constitution vests all legislative power in the Congress. The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process (legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers); however, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers. The Senate is empowered to approve treaties and Presidential appointments. Revenue-raising bills must originate in the House of Representatives, which also has the sole power of impeachment, while the Senate has the sole power to try impeachment cases. Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... Look up Congress in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton in 1999, Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist presiding. ...


The Congress meets in the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C. The United States Capitol is the capitol building that serves as the location for the United States Congress, the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


The term Congress actually refers to a particular meeting of the national legislature, reckoned according to the terms of representatives. Therefore, a "Congress" covers two years. The current 110th Congress first convened on January 4, 2007. The One Hundred Tenth United States Congress is the current meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

Contents

History

United States

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the United States
US Capitol in daylight, taken by Kmccoy 2004-05-04. ... US Capitol in daylight, taken by Kmccoy 2004-05-04. ... The United States Capitol is the capitol building that serves as the location for the United States Congress, the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. ... Image File history File links US-GreatSeal-Obverse. ... Politics of the United States takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of the United States is head of state, head of government, and of a two-party legislative and electoral system. ...



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The Congress of the United States has its roots from the First Continental Congress, a meeting of representatives of twelve of Great Britain's thirteen North American colonies, in the autumn of 1774.[1] On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, referring to the new nation as the "United States of America". This article is about the federal government of the United States. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer—or speaker—of the United States House of Representatives. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Party leaders of the United States House of Representatives are elected by their... Congressional districts for representation in the United States House of Representatives are determined after each census. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Robert C. Byrd of West Virginia the current President pro tempore of the United States Senate. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Senate Majority and Minority Leaders (also called Senate Floor Leaders) are two... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... The Cabinet meets in the Cabinet Room on May 16, 2001. ... This is an incomplete list of federal agencies, which are either departmental agencies within the executive branch of the United States government or are Independent Agencies of the United States Government (including regulatory agencies and government corporations). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The United States federal courts are the system of courts organized under the... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... The United States courts of appeals (or circuit courts) are the mid-level appellate courts of the United States federal court system. ... Map of the boundaries of the United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      The United States has a federal government, with elected officials at federal (national), state and... For the current presidential election see: United States presidential election, 2008 United States presidential election determines who serves as president and vice president of the United States for a four-year term, starting at midday on Inauguration Day, which is January 20 of the year after the election. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Midterm elections are elections in the United States in which members of Congress, state legislatures, and... Political parties in the United States lists political parties in the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... GOP redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Third parties in the United States are political parties other than the two... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Current party control of Governors offices (2006). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      In the United States of America, a state legislature is a generic term referring to the... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      All United States states are required to possess a legislative branch. ... In the U.S., a state court has jurisdiction over disputes which occur in a state. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Local government in the United States (sometimes referred to as municipal government) is generally structured... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... George W. Bush delivered his annual State of the Union address to a joint session of Congress on January 28, 2003, in the House chamber. ... The First Continental Congress was a body of representatives appointed by the legislatures of twelve North American colonies of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1774. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1776 (disambiguation). ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence depicts the five-man drafting committee presenting the first draft of the Declaration of Independence to the Second Continental Congress. ... U.S. Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence is a document in which the Thirteen Colonies declared themselves independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain and explained their justifications for doing so. ...


Under the Articles of Confederation, which came in to effect in 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body with equal representation among the states in which each state had a veto over most decisions. With no executive or judicial branch, and minimal authority given to the Congress, this government was weak compared to the states. That Congress had authority over foreign affairs and military matters, but not to collect taxes, regulate interstate commerce, or enforce laws.[2] States remained sovereign and were thus free to ignore any legislation passed by Congress.[3] This system of government led to economic troubles in the states and dispute among the states.[2] The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, commonly known as the Articles of Confederation, was the first governing document, or constitution, of the United States of America. ... The Congress of the Confederation or the United States in Congress Assembled was a body of representatives appointed by the legislatures of the United States from March 1, 1781 to March 4, 1789. ... For unicameral alphabets, see the article letter case. For The unicameral, see Nebraska Legislature. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Article I, Section 8, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution empowers the United States Congress To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes. The Commerce Clause has been the subject of intense constitutional and political disagreement centering on the extent to...


The ineffectiveness of the federal government under the Articles of Confederation led the Congress to summon the Convention of 1787. Originally intended to revise the Articles of Confederation, it ended up writing a completely new constitution. Virginia delegate James Madison called for a bicameral Congress in his Virginia Plan: the lower house elected directly by the people, and the upper house elected by the lower house. The smaller states, however, favored a unicameral Congress with equal representation for all states; William Paterson countered Madison's proposals with the New Jersey Plan. Eventually, a compromise was reached: the House of Representatives was to provide representation proportional by population, whereas the Senate would provide equal representation by states. In order to preserve further the authority of the states, it was provided that state legislatures, rather than the people, would elect senators. Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other persons named James Madison, see James Madison (disambiguation). ... This article is about bicameralism in government. ... The Virginia Plan (also known as the Randolph Plan, after its sponsor, or Large-State Plan) was a proposal by Virginia delegates, drafted by James Madison while he waited for a quorum to assemble at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787. ... William Paterson William Paterson (December 24, 1745–September 9, 1806) was a New Jersey statesman, a signer of the United States Constitution, and an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. ... The New Jersey Plan was a proposal for the structure of the United States Government proposed by William Paterson on June 15, 1787. ... The Connecticut Compromise, also known as the Great Compromise, was an essential agreement between large and small states reached during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution. ... In politics, representation describes how residents of a country are empowered in the government. ... In politics, representation describes how residents of a country are empowered in the government. ...


The Constitution gave more powers to the federal government, such as regulating interstate commerce, managing foreign affairs and the military, and establishing a national currency. These were seen as essential for the success of the new nation, but the states retained sovereignty over other affairs.[4] To protect against abuse of power at the federal level, the Constitution mandated separation of powers, with responsibilities divided among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. Furthermore, the legislative body would be bicameral, so there would be checks and balances.[5] The Constitution was ratified by the end of 1788, and its full implementation was set for March 4, 1789. “Sovereign” redirects here. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separation of powers is a term coined by French political Enlightenment thinker Baron de Montesquieu[1][2], is a model for the governance of democratic states. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... The doctrine and practice of dispersing political power and creating mutual accountability between political entities such as the courts, the president or prime minister, the legislature, and the citizens. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The post Civil War Gilded Age was marked by Republican dominance of the Congress. The Progressive Era saw the Seventeenth Amendment (ratified in 1913), which provided for the direct election of senators. The early twentieth century witnessed the rise of strong party leadership in both houses of the Congress. In the House of Representatives, the office of Speaker became extremely powerful. Leaders in the Senate were somewhat less powerful; individual senators still retained much of their influence. After the revolt against Speaker Joe Cannon in 1910, the seniority system emerged. Members became powerful chairmen through years of seniority regardless of the leadership. Committee chairmen remained particularly strong in both houses until the reforms of the 1970s and 1990s. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... <math> </math></math> The Breakers, a gilded-age mansion in Newport, Rhode Island. ... The Republican Party of the United States was established in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ... In the United States, the Progressive Era was a period of reform which lasted from the 1890s to the 1920s. ... Amendment XVII in the National Archives Amendment XVII (the Seventeenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution was passed by the Senate on June 12, 1911 and by the House on May 13, 1912. ... The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer—or speaker—of the United States House of Representatives. ... Joseph Cannon at the 1904 Republican Convention Joseph Gurney Cannon (May 7, 1836 – November 12, 1926) was a United States politician from Illinois and leader of the Republican party; historians consider him one of the most powerful Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, serving from 1903 through 1911. ... A Congressional committee is a legislative sub-organization in the United States Congress that handles a specific duty (rather than the general duties of Congress). ...


Franklin Delano Roosevelt's election as President in 1932 marked a shift in power towards the presidency. Numerous New Deal initiatives were proposed from the White House and sent to Congress for approval, rather than legislation originating in Congress.[6] After the Watergate scandal and other abuses of power by the Nixon administration, Congress began to reassert its power to oversee the executive branch and develop legislation.[6] Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... This article is about the policy program of US President Franklin D Roosevelt. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Watergate redirects here. ... Nixon redirects here. ...


During the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933–45), the Democratic Party controlled both houses of Congress. The Republicans won control of both houses in the 1946 elections, only to lose them in 1948; with Dwight D. Eisenhower's election to the presidency in 1952, the Republicans again won both houses. However, after the Democrats again won back control in the elections of 1954, it was the majority party in both houses of Congress for most of the next forty years; the Republicans were only able to win control of the Senate for a six-year period, 1981–87. The Republicans won a majority position, in both houses of Congress, in the elections of 1994. The Republicans controlled both houses until 2006, except in the Senate for most of 2001 and 2002, when the Democrats had the majority after Jim Jeffords left the Republican Party to become an independent and caucus with the Democrats. In 2006, the Democratic Party regained control of the House of Representatives, and the results of the Senate elections yielded a Senate makeup of 49 Republicans, 49 Democrats, and two independents. In the 110th Congress (2007–08), the Democratic voting bloc has a 51 to 49 majority in the Senate because the two senators who ran and were elected as independents, Joseph Lieberman of Connecticut and Bernie Sanders of Vermont, align themselves with the Democratic Party. FDR redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... For other persons named Jim Jeffords, see Jim Jeffords (disambiguation). ... The One Hundred Tenth United States Congress is the current meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. ... Joseph Isadore Lieberman (born February 24, 1942) is a Jewish-American Democratic politician and a current U.S. senator from Connecticut. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... Bernard Bernie Sanders (born September 8, 1941) is the current big willy floppah junior United States Senator from big blob of brown poo Vermont. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Powers

Article I of the Constitution sets forth most of the powers of Congress, which include numerous explicit powers enumerated in Section 8. Constitutional amendments have granted Congress additional powers. Congress also has implied powers derived from the necessary-and-proper clause of the Constitution. Wikisource has original text related to this article: Article One of the United States Constitution Article One of the United States Constitution describes the powers of the legislative branch of the United States government, known as Congress, which includes the House of Representatives and the Senate. ... Amend redirects here. ... Implied powers are those powers authorized by a legal document which, while not explicitly stated, are deemed to be implied by powers expressly stated. ... The necessary and proper clause (also known as the elastic clause, the basket clause, the coefficient clause, and the sweeping clause [1]) refers to a provision, in Article One of the United States Constitution at section eight, clause 18, which addresses implied powers of Congress. ...


Congress has authority over financial and budgetary matters, through the enumerated power to "lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States." (power of the purse) The Sixteenth Amendment extended power of taxation to include income taxes.[7] The Constitution also gives Congress power over appropriating funds, with all government spending required to be included in congressional appropriations. This power is an important way for Congress to keep the executive branch in check.[7] Other powers granted to Congress include the authority to borrow money on the credit of the United States, regulate commerce with foreign nations and among the states, and coin money. The power of the purse is the ability of a government or other organization to manipulate the actions of another group by withholding funding. ... Amendment XVI in the National Archives Amendment XVI (the Sixteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution was ratified on February 3, 1913. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income... Article I, Section 8, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution, known as the Commerce Clause, states that Congress has the exclusive authority to manage trade activities between the states and with foreign nations and Indian tribes. ...


The Constitution also gives Congress an important role in national defense, including the exclusive power to declare war, to raise and maintain the armed forces, and to make rules for the military. Congress also has the power to establish post offices and post roads, issue patents and copyrights, fix standards of weights and measures, establish courts inferior to the Supreme Court, and "To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof." Congress also has the power to admit new states to the Union (Article Four). Any activity or effort performed to protect a nation against attack or other threats. ... The United States Armed Forces are the military services of the United States. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with copywriting. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... Article Four of the United States Constitution relates to the states. ...


One of the foremost non-legislative functions of the Congress is the power to investigate and to oversee the executive branch. This is called congressional oversight. This power is usually delegated to United States congressional committeesstanding committee, select and special committee, select committees, or joint committee composed of members of both houses. Congress also has the exclusive power of removal, allowing impeachment and removal of the President. Congress, in addition to its lawmaking duties, has oversight authority over the Executive Branch. ... A Congressional committee is a legislative sub-organization in the United States Congress that handles a specific duty (rather than the general duties of Congress). ... In the United States Congress, standing committees are permanent legislative panels established by the United States House of Representatives and United States Senate rules. ... A select or special committee of the United States Congress is a Congressional committee appointed to perform a special function that is beyond the authority or capacity of a standing committee. ... A Joint Committee of the Parliament of the United Kingdom is a Select Committee consisting of members of both the House of Commons and the House of Lords. ... The impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton in 1999, Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist presiding. ... Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ...


Enumerated powers

Among the enumerated powers given Congress in Article I Section 8, are:

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States; FairTax Flat tax Tax protester arguments Constitutional Statutory Conspiracy Taxation by country Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Part of the Taxation series        Taxation in the United States is a complex system which may involve payment to at least four different levels of government and many... In economics, a duty is a kind of tax, often associated with customs, a payment due to the revenue of a state, levied by force of law. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        For other uses of this word, see tariff (disambiguation). ...        Look up Excise tax in the United States in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes;
  • To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States;
  • To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries;
  • To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years;
  • To provide and maintain a navy;
  • To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces;
  • To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions;
  • To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the states respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;
  • To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten miles (16 km) square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other needful buildings.

Other congressional powers have been granted, or confirmed, by constitutional amendments. The Thirteenth (1865), Fourteenth (1868), and Fifteenth Amendments (1870) gave Congress authority to enact legislation in order to enforce rights of African Americans, including voting rights, due process, and equal protection under the law.[8] The history of the United States national debt, relative to gross domestic product, since 1791. ... A regulation is a legal restriction promulgated by government administrative agencies through rulemaking supported by a threat of sanction or a fine. ... The United States flag The Seal of the United States The Immigration and Naturalization Act sets forth the legal requirements for acquiring and losing citizenship of the United States. ... The United States Constitution (Article 1, Section 8, Clause 4), authorizes Congress to enact uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States. ... Seal of the U.S. Mint Denver United States mint building The United States Mint primarily produces circulating coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce. ... The former Weights and Measures office in Middlesex, England. ... For other uses, see Counterfeit (disambiguation). ... Small-town post office and town hall in Lockhart, Alabama A post office is a facility (in most countries, a government one) where the public can purchase postage stamps for mailing correspondence or merchandise, and also drop off or pick up packages or other special-delivery items. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The United States federal courts are the system of courts organized under the... This article is about maritime piracy. ... The terms international waters or trans-boundary waters apply where any of the following types of bodies of water (or their drainage basins) transcend international boundaries: oceans, large marine ecosystems, enclosed or semi-enclosed regional seas and estuaries, rivers, lakes, groundwater systems (aquifers), and wetlands [1]. Oceans and seas, waters... International law deals with the relationships between states, or between persons or entities in different states. ... For the Patrick OBrian novel, see The Letter of Marque. ... Prize is a term used in admiralty law to refer to equipment, vehicles, and vessels captured as a result of armed conflict. ... The United States Armed Forces are the military services of the United States. ... USN redirects here. ... Insurrection could refer to: * in a general sense, it means Rebellion * it is also a title of a Star Trek film, see Star Trek: Insurrection ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ... For the fortification of food, see Food fortification. ... Magazine is the name for a item or place within which ammunition is stored. ... This article is about armaments factories. ... Small shipyard in Klaksvík (Faroe Islands), reparing fishing vessels Fish ladder and shipyard in Grave, the Netherlands Construction hall of Schichau Seebeck Shipyard, Bremerhaven Gdynia Shipyard Shipyards and dockyards are places which repair and build ships. ... Amend redirects here. ... Amendment XIII in the National Archives The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution officially abolished, and continues to prohibit slavery and, with limited exceptions (those convicted of a crime), prohibits involuntary servitude. ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... Amendment XV in the National Archives 1870 celebration of the 15th amendment as a guarantee of African American rights 1867 drawing depicting the first vote by African Americans Amendment XV (the Fifteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution provides that governments in the United States may not prevent a citizen... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... Voting rights refers to the right of a person to vote in an election. ... In United States law, adopted from English Law, due process (more fully due process of law) is the principle that the government must respect all of a persons legal rights instead of just some or most of those legal rights when the government deprives a person of life, liberty... The Equal Protection Clause is a part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, providing that no state shall make or enforce any law which shall. ...


Implied powers

Congress also has implied powers derived from the necessary-and-proper clause of the Constitution which permits Congress "To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof." The Supreme Court has interpreted the necessary-and-proper clause broadly, to recognize the Congress has all the power and delegates it rather than being burdened with a separation of powers. Implied powers are those powers authorized by a legal document which, while not explicitly stated, are deemed to be implied by powers expressly stated. ... The necessary and proper clause (also known as the elastic clause, the basket clause, the coefficient clause, and the sweeping clause [1]) refers to a provision, in Article One of the United States Constitution at section eight, clause 18, which addresses implied powers of Congress. ...


Checks and balances

The Constitution provides checks and balances among the three branches of the federal government. The authors of the Constitution expected the greater power to lie with Congress and it has been theorized that that is one reason they are described in Article One.[9] The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separation of powers is a term coined by French political Enlightenment thinker Baron de Montesquieu[1][2], is a model for the governance of democratic states. ... This article is about the federal government of the United States. ...


The influence of Congress on the presidency has varied from one period to another; the degree of power depending largely on the leadership of the Congress, political influence by the president, or other members of congress and the boldness of the president's initiatives. Under the first half-dozen presidents, power seems to have been evenly divided between the president and Congress, in part because early presidents largely restricted their vetoes to bills that were unconstitutional.


The impeachment of Andrew Johnson made the presidency much less powerful than Congress. During the late nineteenth century, President Grover Cleveland aggressively attempted to restore the executive branch's power, vetoing over 400 bills during his first term. The twentieth and twenty-first centuries have seen the rise of the power of the Presidency under Theodore Roosevelt (1901–09), Woodrow Wilson (1913–21), Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933–45), Richard Nixon (1969–74), Ronald Reagan (1981–89), and George W. Bush (2001–) (see Imperial Presidency).[10] In recent years, Congress has restricted the powers of the President with laws such as the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 and the War Powers Resolution; nevertheless, the Presidency remains considerably more powerful than during the nineteenth century.[10] Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ... For other persons of the same name, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837–June 24, 1908), was the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... FDR redirects here. ... Nixon redirects here. ... Reagan redirects here. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The Imperial Presidency is a term used from the 1960s and made popular by the historian Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. ... The Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 is a U.S. federal law passed by the United States Congress specifying that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. ... Jean valcine has a huge wang. ...


The Constitution concentrates removal powers in the Congress by empowering and obligating the House of Representatives to impeach federal officials (both executive and judicial) for "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors." The Senate is constitutionally empowered and obligated to try all impeachments. A simple majority in the House is required to impeach an official; however, a two-thirds majority in the Senate is required for conviction. A convicted official is automatically removed from office; in addition, the Senate may stipulate that the defendant be banned from holding office in the future. Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ... A defendant or defender is any party who is required to answer the complaint of a plaintiff or pursuer in a civil lawsuit before a court, or any party who has been formally charged or accused of violating a criminal statute. ...


Impeachment proceedings may not inflict more than this; however, the party may face criminal penalties in a normal court of law. In the history of the United States, the House of Representatives has impeached sixteen officials, of whom seven were convicted. (Another resigned before the Senate could complete the trial). Only two Presidents of the United States have ever been impeached: Andrew Johnson in 1868 and Bill Clinton in 1999. Both trials ended in acquittal; in Johnson's case, the Senate fell one vote short of the two-thirds majority required for conviction. In 1974, Richard Nixon resigned from office after impeachment proceedings in the House Judiciary Committee indicated he would eventually be removed from office. For other persons of the same name, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... In legal parlance, a trial is an event in which parties to a dispute present information (in the form of evidence) in a formal setting, usually a court, before a judge, jury, or other designated finder of fact, in order to achieve a resolution to their dispute. ... In criminal law, an acquittal is the legal result of a verdict of not guilty, or some similar end of the proceeding that terminates it with prejudice without a verdict of guilty being entered against the accused. ... In law, a conviction is the verdict which results when a court of law finds a defendant guilty of committing a crime. ... Nixon redirects here. ... U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary, or (more commonly) the House Judiciary Committee, is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives. ...


The Constitution entrusts certain powers to the Senate alone. The President may only nominate for appointment Cabinet officials, judges, and other high officers with the "by and with the advice and consent" of the Senate. The Senate confirms most presidential nominees, but rejections are not uncommon. Furthermore, treaties negotiated by the President must be ratified by a two-thirds majority vote in the Senate to take effect. The House of Representatives has no formal role in either the ratification of treaties or the appointment of federal officials, other than filling vacancies in the office of Vice-President. Cabinet meeting on May 16, 2001. ... An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual working space with it) in an organisation or government and participates in the exercise of authority (either his own or that of his superior and/or employer, public or legally private). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Page 1 of Amendment XXV in the National Archives Page 2 of the amendment Amendment XXV (the Twenty-fifth Amendment) of the United States Constitution clarifies an ambiguous provision of the Constitution regarding succession to the Presidency, and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the...


In 1803, the Supreme Court established judicial review of federal legislation in Marbury v. Madison, holding, however, that Congress could not grant unconstitutional power to the Court itself. The Constitution does not explicitly state that the courts may exercise judicial review; however, the notion that courts could declare laws unconstitutional was envisioned by the founding fathers. Alexander Hamilton, for example, mentioned and expounded upon the doctrine in Federalist No. 78. Originalists on the Supreme Court have argued that if the constitution doesn't say something explicitly it is unconstitutional to infer what it should, might or could have said.[11] Judicial review is the power of a court to review the actions of public sector bodies in terms of their legality or constitutionality. ... Holding Section 13 of the Judiciary Act of 1789 is unconstitutional to the extent it purports to enlarge the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court beyond that permitted by the Constitution. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into constitutionality. ... Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... Alexander Hamilton (November 20, 1755 or 1757 - July 12, 1804) was the first Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, political economist,] financier, and political theorist. ... Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ...


Investigations are conducted to gather information on the need for future legislation, to test the effectiveness of laws already passed, and to inquire into the qualifications and performance of members and officials of the other branches. Committees may hold hearings, and, if necessary, compel individuals to testify by issuing subpoenas. Witnesses who refuse to testify may be cited for contempt of Congress, and those who testify falsely may be charged with perjury. Most committee hearings are open to the public (the House and Senate intelligence committees are the exception); important hearings are widely reported in the mass media. A subpoena is a command to appear at a certain time and place to give testimony upon a certain matter. ... Contempt of Congress is the act of obstructing the work of the United States Congress or one of its committees. ... Perjury is the act of lying or making verifiably false statements on a material matter under oath or affirmation in a court of law or in any of various sworn statements in writing. ... The U.S. House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence is a committee of the United States House of Representatives, currently chaired by Peter Hoekstra. ... The United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence is dedicated to overseeing the United States Intelligence Community—the agencies and bureaus of the U.S. federal government who provide information and analysis for leaders of the executive and legislative branches. ... Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ...


Legislative procedure

The House Financial Services committee meets. Committee members sit in the tiers of raised chairs, while those testifying and audience members sit below.
The House Financial Services committee meets. Committee members sit in the tiers of raised chairs, while those testifying and audience members sit below.

Image File history File links United States House of Representatives Committee on Financial Services. ... Image File history File links United States House of Representatives Committee on Financial Services. ...

Term

The House of Representatives elects a Speaker to preside over debates. The President pro tempore of the Senate, by contrast, holds office continuously; normally, a new President pro tempore is only elected if the previous one retires, or if there is a change in the majority party.


A term of Congress is divided into two "sessions," one for each year; Congress has occasionally also been called into an extra, (or special) session. (The Constitution requires Congress to meet at least once each year.) A new session commences on January 3 (or another date, if Congress so chooses) each year. Before the Twentieth Amendment, Congress met from the first Monday in December to April or May in the first session of their term (the "long session"); and from December to March 4 in the second "short session". (The new Congress would then meet for some days, for the inauguration, swearing in new members, and organization.) A parliamentary session is a period of time where the legislature in a parliamentary government is sitting. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Page 1 of Amendment XX in the National Archives Page 2 of the amendment Amendment XX (the Twentieth Amendment) of the United States Constitution, also called The Lame Duck Amendment, or the Norris Amendment, establishes some details of presidential succession and of the beginning and ending of the terms of... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Constitution forbids either house from meeting any place outside the Capitol, or from adjourning for more than three days, without the consent of the other house. The provision was intended to prevent one house from thwarting legislative business simply by refusing to meet. To avoid obtaining consent during long recesses, the House or Senate may sometimes hold pro forma meetings, sometimes only minutes long, every three days. The consent of both bodies is required for Congress's final adjournment, or adjournment sine die, at the end of each congressional session. If the two houses cannot agree on a date, the Constitution permits the President to settle the dispute. Many companies report pro forma earnings, in addition to normal earnings calculated under the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), in their quarterly and yearly financial reports. ... Adjournment sine die (from the Latin, without day) occurs when an organized bodys existence terminates. ...


Joint sessions

Joint Sessions of the United States Congress occur on special occasions that require a concurrent resolution from both House and Senate. These sessions include the counting of electoral votes following a Presidential election and the President's State of the Union address. Other meetings of both House and Senate are called Joint Meetings of Congress, held after unanimous consent agreements to recess and meet. Meetings of Congress for Presidential Inaugurations may also be Joint Sessions, if both House and Senate are in session at the time, otherwise they are formal joint gatherings. Joint Sessions of the United States Congress are the gathering together of both House and Senate which occur on special occasions such as the State of the Union Address and Presidential Inauguration. ... The United States Electoral College is the electoral college which chooses the President and Vice President of the United States at the conclusion of each Presidential election. ... An inauguration is a ceremony of formal investiture whereby an individual assumes an office or position of authority or power. ...


At some time during the first two months of each session, the President customarily delivers the State of the Union Address, a speech in which he assesses the situation of the country and outlines his legislative proposals for the congressional session. The speech is modeled on the Speech from the Throne given by the British monarch, and is mandated by the Constitution of the United States—though it is not necessarily required to be delivered each year or in the customary manner. Thomas Jefferson discontinued the original practice of delivering the speech in person before both houses of Congress, deeming it too monarchical. Instead, Jefferson and his successors sent a written message to Congress each year. In 1913, President Woodrow Wilson reestablished the practice of personally attending to deliver the speech; few Presidents have deviated from this custom since. State of the Union redirects here. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... Queen Elizabeth II reads Canadas Speech from the Throne in 1977 The Speech from the Throne (or Throne Speech) is an event in certain monarchies in which the monarch (or a representative) reads a prepared speech to a complete session of parliament, outlining the governments agenda for the... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ...


Joint Sessions and Joint Meetings are traditionally presided over by the Speaker of the House except for the joint session to count electoral votes for President, when the Constitution requires the President of the Senate (the Vice President of the United States) to preside. The term Speaker is usually the title given to the presiding officer of a countrys lower house of parliament or congress (ie: the House of Commons or House of Representatives). ...


Bills and resolutions

A proposal may be introduced in Congress as a bill, a joint resolution, a concurrent resolution, or a simple resolution. Most legislative proposals are introduced as bills, but some are introduced as joint resolutions. There is little practical difference between the two, except that joint resolutions may include preambles but bills may not. Joint resolutions are the normal method used to propose a constitutional amendment or to declare war. On the other hand, concurrent resolutions (passed by both houses) and simple resolutions (passed by only one house) do not have the force of law. Instead, they serve to express the opinion of Congress, or to regulate procedure. A bill is a proposed new law introduced within a legislature that has not been ratified, adopted, or received assent. ... A joint resolution is a legislative measure of the United States of America, designated as S.J.Res (for the Senate version) and H.J.Res (for the House version), which requires the approval of both chambers of the United States Congress. ... In the United States a concurrent resolution is a legislative measure, designated S. Con. ... A resolution is a written motion adopted by a deliberative body. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Parliamentary procedure is the name given to the set of rules governing the decision-making process used by a deliberative assembly. ...


Members of Congress often introduce legislation at the behest of lobbyists. Lobbyists advocate the passage (or rejection) of bills affecting the interest of a particular group (such as a corporation or a labor union). In many cases, the lobbyists write legislation and submit it to a member for introduction. Congressional lobbyists are legally required to be registered in a central database, and are employed by political organizations, corporations, state governments, foreign governments, and numerous other groups. In 2005, there are almost 35,000 registered Congressional lobbyists, representing a doubling since 2000.[12] Some of the most prominent lobbyists are ex-members of Congress, others are family members of sitting members. As an example, Harry Reid, Dennis Hastert, former Representative Tom DeLay, and Roy Blunt all have immediate family members who are (or were) lobbyists.[13] This article is about the political effort. ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... This article is about computing. ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... A state government (provincial government in Canada) is the government of a subnational entity in states with federal forms of government, which shares political power with the federal government or national government. ... Harry Mason Reid (born December 2, 1939) is the senior United States Senator from Nevada and a member of the Democratic Party. ... John Dennis Denny Hastert (born January 2, 1942) is an American politician. ... Thomas Dale DeLay (born April 8, 1947) is a former member of the United States House of Representatives from Sugar Land, Texas. ... Roy D. Blunt (born January 10, 1950) is a Republican politician from Missouri, currently representing that states 7th Congressional District in the United States House of Representatives. ...


Bills (and other proposals) may be introduced by any member of either house. However, the Constitution provides that: "All bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives." As a result, the Senate does not have the power to initiate bills imposing taxes. Furthermore, the House of Representatives holds that the Senate does not have the power to originate appropriation bills, or bills authorizing the expenditure of federal funds. Historically, the Senate has disputed the interpretation advocated by the House. However, whenever the Senate originates an appropriations bill, the House simply refuses to consider it, thereby settling the dispute in practice. Nevertheless, while the Senate cannot originate revenue and appropriation bills, it does retain the power to amend or reject them. Taxes redirects here. ... An appropriation bill or supply bill is a legislative motion (bill) which authorizes the government to spend money. ... suck my doodle ... This article is about the federal government of the United States. ... For the tax agency in Ireland of the same name, see Revenue Commissioners. ...


Each bill goes through several stages in each house. The first stage involves consideration by a committee. Most legislation is considered by standing committees, each of which has jurisdiction over a particular subject matter, such as Agriculture or Appropriations. The House has twenty standing committees; the Senate has sixteen. In some cases, bills may be sent to select committees, which tend to have more narrow jurisdictions than standing committees. Each standing and select committee is led by a chair (who belongs to the majority party) and a ranking member (who belongs to the minority party). Committees are permitted to hold hearings and collect evidence when considering bills. They may also amend the bill, but the full house holds the power to accept or reject committee amendments. After considering and debating a measure, the committee votes on whether it wishes to report the measure to the full house. A standing committee is a subunit of a political or deliberative body established in a permanent fashion to aid the parent assembly in accomplishing its duties. ... A select or special committee of the United States Congress is a Congressional committee appointed to perform a special function that is beyond the authority or capacity of a standing committee. ... A chairperson is the political correct term for the presiding officer of a meeting, organization, committee, or other deliberative body. ... ... The Minority Party (Minoritetspartiet) is a political party in Denmark without parliamentary representation. ... Congressional hearings are the principal formal method by which committees collect and analyze information in the early stages of legislative policymaking. ...


A decision not to report a bill amounts to a rejection of the proposal. Both houses provide for procedures under which the committee can be bypassed or overruled, but they are rarely used. If reported by the committee, the bill reaches the floor of the full house. The house may debate and amend the bill; the precise procedures used by the House of Representatives and the Senate differ. A final vote on the bill follows.


Once a bill is approved by one house, it is sent to the other, which may pass, reject, or amend it. In order for the bill to become law, both houses must agree to identical versions of the bill. If the second house amends the bill, then the differences between the two versions must be reconciled in a conference committee, an ad hoc committee that includes both senators and representatives. In many cases, conference committees have introduced substantial changes to bills and added unrequested spending, significantly departing from both the House and Senate versions. President Ronald Reagan once quipped, "If an orange and an apple went into conference consultations, it might come out a pear."[14] If both houses agree to the version reported by the conference committee, the bill passes; otherwise, it fails. A conference committee in the United States Congress and bicamerial state legislature is a committee appointed by the members of the upper and lower house to resolve disagreements on a bill passed in different versions of each House. ... Reagan redirects here. ...


After passage by both houses, a bill is submitted to the President. The President may choose to sign the bill, thereby making it law. The President may also choose to veto the bill, returning it to Congress with his objections. In such a case, the bill only becomes law if each house of Congress votes to override the veto with a two-thirds majority. Finally, the President may choose to take no action, neither signing nor vetoing the bill. In such a case, the Constitution states that the bill automatically becomes law after ten days (excluding Sundays). However, if Congress adjourns (ends a legislative session) during the ten day period, then the bill does not become law. Thus, the President may veto legislation passed at the end of a congressional session simply by ignoring it; the maneuver is known as a pocket veto, and cannot be overridden by the adjourned Congress. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A pocket veto is a legislative maneuver in American federal lawmaking. ...


Every Act of Congress or joint resolution begins with an enacting formula or resolving formula stipulated by law. These are: An enacting formula is a short phrase that introduces the main provisions of a law enacted by some legislatures. ...

  • Act of Congress: "Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled."
  • Joint resolution: "Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled."

Quorum and vote

The Constitution specifies that a majority of members constitutes a quorum to do business in each house. The rules of each house provide that a quorum is assumed to be present unless a quorum call demonstrates the contrary. Representatives and senators rarely force the presence of a quorum by demanding quorum calls; thus, in most cases, debates continue even if a majority is not present. Look up quorum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Both houses use voice voting to decide most matters; members shout out "aye" or "no," and the presiding officer announces the result. The Constitution, however, requires a recorded vote on the demand of one-fifth of the members present. If the result of the voice vote is unclear, or if the matter is controversial, a recorded vote usually ensues. The Senate uses roll call votes; a clerk calls out the names of all the senators, each senator stating "aye" or "no" when his or her name is announced. The House reserves roll call votes for the most formal matters; normally, members vote by electronic device. In the case of a tie, the motion in question fails. In the Senate, the Vice President may (if present) cast the tiebreaking vote. In the United States Congress, a recorded vote is a vote in which the names of those voting for and against a motion may be recorded. ... For other senses of this term, see roll call (disambiguation). ...


Committees

It is neither expected nor possible that a member of Congress be an expert on all matters and subject areas that come before Congress.[15] Congressional committees provide invaluable informational services to Congress by investigating and reporting back in regard to specialized subject matter. A Congressional committee is a legislative sub-organization in the United States Congress that handles a specific duty (rather than the general duties of Congress). ... A Congressional committee is a legislative sub-organization in the United States Congress that handles a specific duty (rather than the general duties of Congress). ...


While this investigatory function is indispensable to Congress, procedures such as the House discharge petition process (the process of bringing a bill onto the floor without a committee report or mandatory consent from its leadership) are so difficult to implement that committee jurisdiction over particular subject matter of bills has expanded into semi-autonomous power. Of the 73 discharge petitions submitted to the full House from 1995 through 2007, only one was successful in securing an definitive yea-or-nay vote for a bill on the floor of the House of Representatives.[16] Not without reason have congressional committees been called independent fiefdoms.


In 1931 a reform movement did temporarily reduce the number of signatures required on discharge petitions in the U.S. House of Representatives from a constitutional majority of 218 down to 145, i.e. from one-half to one-third of the House membership. This reform was abolished in a 1935 counterattack led by the intra-House oligarchy.[17] Thus the era of the Great Depression marks the last across-the-board change, albeit a short-lived one, in the autonomy of House standing committees.[18] On strategy for an enduring reform in the system of semi-autonomous committees see the citation.[19]


In the course of committee work, members will often develop personal expertise on the matters under the jurisdiction of their respective committee(s). Such expertise, or claims thereof, are invariably cited during disputes over whether the parent body should bow to obdurate committee negatives.


Congress divides its legislative, oversight, and internal administrative tasks among approximately 200 committees and subcommittees. Within assigned areas, these functional sub-units gather information, compare and evaluate legislative alternatives, identify policy problems and propose solutions, select, determine, and report measures for full chamber consideration, monitor executive branch performance (oversight), and investigate allegations of wrongdoing.[20] A Congressional subcommittee in the United States Congress is a subdivision of a standing committee that considers specified matters and reports back to the full committee. ...


Decision on which areas individual members choose to specialize may be influenced by their constituency and regional issues of importance to them, as well as prior background and experience of the member.[21] Senators will also try to differentiate themselves from the other senator from the same state, so that areas of specialization do not overlap.[22]


Constituent services

A major aspect of the job for a Senator and a Congressman consists of services to his or her constituency. Members receive thousands of letters, phone calls, and e-mails, with some expressing opinion on an issue, or displeasure with a member's position or vote. Other constituents request help with problems, or ask questions. Members of Congress want to leave a positive impression on the constituent, rather than leave them disgruntled. Thus, their offices will be responsive, and go out of their way to help steer the citizen through the intricacies of the bureaucracy. Here the Congressman and his staffers perform the function of an Ombudsman, at the Federal level. This unofficial job has become increasingly time consuming, and has significantly reduced the time that Congressmen have for the preparation or inspection of bills.[23] A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures, goals or loyalty. ... For the Canadian television series, see Ombudsman (TV series). ...


It is noteworthy that an incumbent member of Congress has considerably more clout than most official ombudsmen at the state level, and in other countries, given the appointive and relatively diminutive character of such offices. As Morris Fiorina notes, the involvement of the legislative branch in the ombudsman process carries one major advantage: members of Congress exercise "control over what bureaucrats value most – higher budgets and new program authorizations."[24] This kind of leverage over the bureaucracy is a potent tool that appointed ombudsmen lack.


Accordingly, to improve on today's 435 de facto ombudsmen -- constituent services by overworked Congressmen -- congressional reforms have been proposed that would approximate the legislative leverage now exercised by Congressmen, but in an office where the intra-bureaucratic troubleshooting duties are full time.[25] Along these lines, some Congressmen themselves have suggested that each congressional district should elect a second U.S. Representative to handle constituent services.[26]


Privileges

Under the Constitution, members of both houses enjoy the privilege of being free from arrest in all cases, except for treason, felony, and breach of the peace. This immunity applies to members during sessions and when traveling to and from sessions.[27] The term "arrest" has been interpreted broadly, and includes any detention or delay in the course of law enforcement, including court summons and subpoenas. The rules of the House strictly guard this privilege; a member may not waive the privilege on his or her own, but must seek the permission of the whole house to do so. Senate rules, on the other hand, are less strict, and permit individual senators to waive the privilege as they see fit. This article is about permission granted by law or other rules. ... For other uses, see Arrest (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ... For the record label, see Felony Records The term felony is a term used in common law systems for very serious crimes, whereas misdemeanors are considered to be less serious offenses. ... Breach of the peace is a legal term used in constitutional law in English-speaking countries, and in a wider public order sense in Britain. ... Immunity, also known as transactional immunity, confers a status on a person or body that places them beyond the law and makes that person or body free from otherwise legal obligations such as, for example, liability for torts or damages or prosecution under criminal law for criminal acts. ... For the band, see The Police. ... A summons is a legal document issued by a court (a judicial summons) or by an administrative agency of government (an administrative summons) for various purposes. ...


The Constitution also guarantees absolute freedom of debate in both houses, providing, "for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place." Hence, a member of Congress may not be sued for slander because of remarks made in either house. However, each house has its own rules restricting offensive speeches, and may punish members who transgress them. In English and American law, and systems based on them, libel and slander are two forms of defamation (or defamation of character), which is the tort or delict of making a false statement of fact that injures someones reputation. ...


Obstructing the work of Congress is a crime under federal law, and is known as contempt of Congress. Each house of Congress has the power to cite individuals for contempt, but may not impose any punishment. Instead, after a house issues a contempt citation, the judicial system pursues the matter like a normal criminal case. If convicted in court, an individual found guilty of contempt of Congress may be imprisoned for up to one year. Federal law is the body of law created by the federal government of a nation. ... Contempt of Congress is the act of obstructing the work of the United States Congress or one of its committees. ...


From 1789 to 1815, members of Congress received only a per diem (daily payment) of $6 while in session. Members began receiving an annual salary in 1815, when they were paid $1,500 per year.[28][29] As of 2006 rank and file Members of Congress received a yearly salary of $165,200.[29] Congressional leaders are paid $183,500 per year. The Speaker of the House of Representatives earns $212,100 per annum. The salary of the President pro tempore for 2006 is $183,500, equal to that of the Majority Leader and Minority Leader of both Houses of Congress.[30] 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert C. Byrd of West Virginia the current President pro tempore of the United States Senate. ...


Members elected since 1984 are covered by the Federal Employees' Retirement System (FERS). Those elected prior to 1984 were covered by the Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS). In 1984 all members were given the option of remaining with CSRS or switching for FERS. As it is for all other federal employees, congressional retirement is funded through taxes and the participants' contributions. Members of Congress under FERS contribute 1.3% of their salary into the FERS retirement plan and pay 6.2% of their salary in Social Security taxes. The amount of a Congressperson's pension depends on the years of service and the average of the highest 3 years of his or her salary. By law, the starting amount of a Member's retirement annuity may not exceed 80% of his or her final salary. In 2006, the average annual pension for retired senators and representatives under CSRS was $60,972, while those who retired under FERS, or in combination with CSRS, was $35,952.[31]


Another privilege is the use of the Library of Congress. One of the Library's missions is to serve the Congress and its staff. To do this, the Congressional Research Service provides detailed, up-to-date and non-partisan research for senators, representatives, and their staff to help them carry out their official duties. The franking privilege allows members of Congress to send official mail to constituents at government expense. Though, they are not permitted to send election materials, borderline material is often sent, especially in the run-up to an election by those in close races.[32][33] Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... The Congressional Research Service is the public policy research arm of the United States Congress. ... The franking privilege is a perk which grants an elected official the right to send mail through the postal system for free, often simply by signing his or her name where the postage stamp would normally be placed. ... For other uses, see Mail (disambiguation). ...


A legislator in either house is a "member of Congress", though usually only a representative, and is called a congressman, congresswoman, or congressperson. A Congressman or Congresswoman (generically, Congressperson) is a politician who is a member of a Congress. ... A Congressman or Congresswoman (generically, Congressperson) is a politician who is a member of a Congress. ... A Congressman or Congresswoman (generically, Congressperson) is a politician who is a member of a Congress. ...


Comparison with parliamentary systems

Many of the world's democracies and republics operate not within a congressional model of government, but rather a parliamentary system. The most significant difference between a parliamentary government and the U.S. Congress is that a parliament typically encompasses the entire governmental regime, containing legislative, executive, and judicial branches within its structure (the executive organs are often referred to as "The Government"), as well as the monarch, if one exists. The U.S. Congress exercises only legislative powers, and is but one of three co-equal and independent branches of the larger federal government. A presidential system, or a congressional system, is a system of government of a republic where the executive branch is elected separately from the legislative. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ...


In a parliament, the executive branch of the government is chosen from or by the representative branch. This generally comprises the prime minister and the governing cabinet. Congressional leaders merely administrate the daily business of Congress itself, while it is in session, and not the functioning of the national government as a whole. So, while in structure the Speaker of the House of Representatives resembles a prime minister, in substance and practice he or she only moderates the functioning of the U.S. Congress, while the wholly separate executive branch of government administrates the daily functioning of the federal government. In the U.S. Congress, legislation originates within the legislative branch, whereas in a parliamentary system, legislation is drafted by the government in power and then sent to parliament for debate and ratification.[34] A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... This article is about the governmental body. ... The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer—or speaker—of the United States House of Representatives. ...


Members of the U.S. Congress are generally elected from one of two parties, but its members are free to vote their own conscience or that of their constituents. Many members can and do cross party lines frequently. In a parliamentary system, members may be compelled to vote with their party's bloc, and those who vote against are often cast out of their respective parliamentary parties and become less influential independents. Theoretically, the lack of superpowerful political parties allows U.S. members to more faithfully represent their constituents than members of parliament can—a member is ultimately responsible to their constituents alone, not to their party.[35] Conversely, this system also allows for greater influence from lobbyists, as the parties do not have strong whips as in parliaments. A caucus is most generally defined as being a meeting of supporters or members of a political party or movement. ...


See also

This is a list page for the individual sessions of the United States Congress: // 18th Century First United States Congress (1789–1791) Second United States Congress (1791–1793) Third United States Congress (1793–1795) Fourth United States Congress (1795–1797) Fifth United States Congress (1797–1799) Sixth United States Congress... The following table lists the party divisions for each United States Congress: U.S. Senate: Party Divisions Office of the House Clerk: Party Divisions of the House of Representatives Categories: | | ... Percent of members of the House of Representatives from each party in the 110th US Congress by state For maps of congressional districts, see List of United States Congressional districts. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of members in the 110th United States Congress. ... Congressional hearings are the principal formal method by which committees collect and analyze information in the early stages of legislative policymaking. ... The Congress of the United States has demographics that are different from America as a whole in a number of ways. ... This is the list of every Congressional Member Organizations (caucuses) of the United States Congress listed by the U.S. House Committee on House Administration, showing the years each caucus was active. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      The United States has a federal government, with elected officials at federal (national), state and... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with President of the United States oath of office. ... There are a number of term limits to offices in the United States. ... Rotation in office was a feature of the American political system of the nineteenth century. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Kramnick, Isaac (ed); Thomas Paine (1982). Common Sense. Penguin Classics, p. 21. 
  2. ^ a b English (2003), pp. 5–6
  3. ^ Collier (1986), p. 5
  4. ^ English (2003), p. 7
  5. ^ English (2003), p. 8
  6. ^ a b English (2003), p. 14
  7. ^ a b Davidson (2006), p. 18
  8. ^ Davidson (2006), p. 19
  9. ^ "The very structure of the Constitution gives us profound insights about what the founders thought was important... the Founders thought that the Legislative Branch was going to be the great branch of government." --Hon. John Charles Thomas [1]
  10. ^ a b Greene, Richard. "Kings in the White House", BBC News, BBC, 2005-01-19. Retrieved on 2007-10-07. 
  11. ^ Constitutional Interpretation the Old Fashioned Way. Center For Individual Freedom. Retrieved on 2007-09-15.
  12. ^ Kammer, Jerry. Close ties make Rep. Lewis, lobbyist Lowery a potent pair. San Diego Union Tribune, December 23, 2005. Retrieved on August 26, 2007
  13. ^ Lobbyists:
  14. ^ "The 7-step towards formalisation of Indo-US nuke Bill", Yahoo! News India, ANI, 2006-11-17. Retrieved on 2007-08-04. "If an orange and an apple went into conference consultations, it might come out a pear" 
  15. ^ English (2003), pp. 46–47
  16. ^ The one successful discharge petition from the 104th Congress, session 1 through the 110th Congress, session 1 – 1995 through 2007 – was in behalf of HR 2356 (campaign finance reform) which secured 218 signatures on 1/24/2002. Source on discharge petitions since 1997: Beginning with the 105th Congress, the House Clerk lists discharge petitions per Congress at its website,
  17. ^ Cannon's Precedents, vol. 7, sect. 1007, gives a short history of the discharge rules from early times to 1935. In 1910 the House established the first known discharge rule since the Civil War. In 1924 the House passed the rule requiring Congressmen’s signatures on discharge petitions, and the required number of signatories was 150. [Congressional Record, 68 Congress 1, pp. 944-1143]. In 1925 the House increased the signature requirement to 218. [CR, 69 Congress 1, pp. 383-91]. But in 1931 the House reduced the signature requirement to 145 and rewrote the rule. [CR, 72 Congress 1, pp. 10-83]. Finally in 1935 the Democrats reversed their 1931 policy — they had been disconcerted by the discharge of several bills that the House leadership and FDR opposed — and by a vote of 245 to 166 they raised the signature requirement to 218. [CR, 74 Congress 1, pp. 13-20]. Today's rule is identical to that of 1935.
  18. ^ The "21-day rule" applied to the Rules Committee alone; this rule was in force during 1949-1951, and 1965-1967, and it allowed the chairman of the legislative committee involved to bypass the Rules Committee and report a bill directly to the House floor, provided that three weeks had passed without a rule being reported for floor debate on the bill. [See James A. Robinson, The House Rules Committee (New York: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1963), pp. 70, 87; Congressional Record, 81 Congress 1, p. 10; CR, 89 Congress 1, p. 21; CR, 92 Congress 1, p. H69; Congressional Quarterly Almanac, 1967, pp. 180-81; CQ Weekly Report 29 (29 January 1971): 257-58].
  19. ^ Robert Struble, Jr., Treatise on Twelve Lights, chapter seven, subsection on "Committee Autonomy"
  20. ^ Committee Types and Roles, Congressional Research Service, April 1, 2003
  21. ^ English, p. 46
  22. ^ Schiller, Wendy J. (2000). Partners and Rivals: Representation in U.S. Senate Delegations. Princeton University Press. 
  23. ^ Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report 35 (3 September 1977): 1855. English, op. cit., pp. 48-49, notes that members will also regularly appear at local events in their home district, and will maintain offices in the home congressional district or state. Davidson (2006) reports that, on average, each Senator spends 80 days each year in their home state, while Congressmen spend 120 days in their home district.
  24. ^ Morris P. Fiorina, "The Case of the Vanishing Marginals: The Bureaucracy Did It," American Political Science Review 71 (March 1977): 179-80.
  25. ^ Struble, supra, chapter seven, subsection on "Ombudsman Functions"
  26. ^ Charles L. Clapp, The Congressman, His Work as He Sees It (Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1963), p. 55; cf. pp. 50-55, 64-66, 75-84.
  27. ^ Davidson (2006), p. 17
  28. ^ Senate Salaries since 1789. United States Senate. Retrieved on 2007-08-13.
  29. ^ a b Salaries of Members of Congress (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved on 2007-08-12.
  30. ^ Salaries of Legislative, Executive, and Judicial Officials (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved on 2007-08-12.
  31. ^ Retirement Benefits for Members of Congress (PDF). Congressional Research Service, February 9, 2007.
  32. ^ English (2003), pp. 24–25
  33. ^ Simpson, G. R.. "Surprise! Top Frankers Also Have the Stiffest Challenges", Roll Call, October 22, 1992. 
  34. ^ Davidson (2006), p. 6
  35. ^ English (2003), p. 19

In 1983, John Charles Thomas became the first Black and, at 32, the youngest person ever appointed to the Supreme Court of Virginia. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The San Diego Union-Tribune is a daily newspaper published in San Diego, California by the Copley Press. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... CBS News logo, used from Sept. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Congressional Research Service is the public policy research arm of the United States Congress. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A congressional district is an electoral constituency that elects a single member of a congress. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Congressional Research Service is the public policy research arm of the United States Congress. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Congressional Research Service is the public policy research arm of the United States Congress. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Congressional Research Service is the public policy research arm of the United States Congress. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

References

  • Bacon, Donald C.; Davidson, Roger H.; Keller, Morton, editors (1995). Encyclopedia of the United States Congress. Simon & Schuster. 
  • Collier, Christopher and Collier, James Lincoln (1986). Decision in Philadelphia: The Constitutional Convention of 1787. Ballantine Books. 
  • Davidson, Roger H., and Walter J. Oleszek (2006). Congress and Its Members, 10th edition, Congressional Quarterly (CQ) Press.  (Legislative procedure, informal practices, and other information)
  • English, Ross M. (2003). The United States Congress. Manchester University Press. 
  • Herrnson, Paul S. (2004). Congressional Elections: Campaigning at Home and in Washington. CQ Press. 
  • Oleszek, Walter J. (2004). Congressional Procedures and the Policy Process. CQ Press. 
  • Polsby, Nelson W. (2004). How Congress Evolves: Social Bases of Institutional Change. Oxford University Press. 
  • Price, David E. (2000). The Congressional Experience. Westview Press. 
  • Struble, Robert, Jr. (2007). chapter seven, Treatise on Twelve Lights. TeLL. 
  • Zelizer, Julian E. (2004). The American Congress: The Building of Democracy. Houghton Mifflin. 

Other references and further reading

  • Baker, Ross K. (2000). House and Senate, 3rd ed. New York: W. W. Norton. (Procedural, historical, and other information about both houses)
  • Barone, Michael and Richard E. Cohen. The Almanac of American Politics, 2006 (2005), elaborate detail on every district and member; 1920 pages
  • Berg-Andersson, Richard E. (2001). Explanation of the types of Sessions of Congress (Term of Congress)
  • Berman, Daniel M. (1964). In Congress Assembled: The Legislative Process in the National Government. London: The Macmillan Company. (Legislative procedure)
  • Bianco, William T. (2000) Congress on Display, Congress at Work, University of Michigan Press.
  • Hamilton, Lee H. (2004) How Congress Works and Why You Should Care, Indiana University Press.
  • Herrick, Rebekah. (2001). "Gender effects on job satisfaction in the House of Representatives." Women and Politics, 23 (4), 85–98.
  • Hunt, Richard. (1998). "Using the Records of Congress in the Classroom," OAH Magazine of History, 12 (Summer): 34–37.
  • Imbornoni, Ann-Marie, David Johnson, and Elissa Haney. (2005). "Famous Firsts by American Women." Infoplease.
  • Lee, Frances and Bruce Oppenheimer. (1999). Sizing Up the Senate: The Unequal Consequences of Equal Representation. University of Chicago Press: Chicago. (Equal representation in the Senate)
  • Rimmerman, Craig A. (1990). "Teaching Legislative Politics and Policy Making." Political Science Teacher, 3 (Winter): 16–18.
  • Ritchie, Donald A. (1997). "What Makes a Successful Congressional Investigation." OAH Magazine of History, 11 (Spring): 6–8. (Congressional investigations and committee hearings)
  • Story, Joseph. (1891). Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States. (2 vols). Boston: Brown & Little. (History, constitution, and general legislative procedure)
  • Tarr, David R. and Ann O'Connor. Congress A to Z (CQ Congressional Quarterly) (4th 2003) 605pp
  • Wilson, Woodrow. (1885). Congressional Government. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
  • Some information in this article has been provided by the Senate Historical Office.

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These are incomplete tables of congressional delegations from Massachusetts to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... These are incomplete tables of congressional delegations from Massachusetts to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Massachusetts ratified the Constitution on February 26, 1788. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from Michigan to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... This is a list of members of the United States House of Representatives, past and present, from the state of Michigan. ... Michigan was admitted to the Union on January 26, 1837. ... // These are tables of congressional delegations from Minnesota to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Gil Gutknecht - Website - Minnesota 1st Mark Kennedy - Website - Minnesota 6th John Kline - Website - Minnesota 2nd Betty McCollum - Website - Minnesota 4th James L. Oberstar - Website - Minnesota 8th Collin C. Peterson - Website - Minnesota 7th Jim Ramstad - Website - Minnesota 3rd Martin Olav Sabo - Website - Minnesota 5th[1] Notes ^ House of Representatives List of... Minnesota was admitted to the Union on May 11, 1858. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from Mississippi to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... // 1st District 2nd District 3rd District POOP NAGELS ARE COOL! 5th District 6th District 7th District 8th District At Large ... Mississippi was admitted to the Union on December 10, 1817. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from Missouri to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Todd Akin - Website - Missouri 2nd Russ Carnahan - Website - Missouri 3rd William Lacy Clay Jr. ... Missouri was admitted to the Union on August 10, 1821. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from Montana to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Dennis Rehberg - Website - Montana At Large Categories: | ... Montana was admitted to the Union on November 8, 1889. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from Nebraska to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Below is the list of United States Representatives from Nebraska: // 1st District The 1st Nebraska Congressional District 2nd District The 2nd Nebraska Congressional District 3rd District The 3rd Nebraska Congressional District 4th District 5th District 6th District Category: ... Nebraska was admitted to the Union on March 1, 1867. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from Nevada to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Shelley Berkley - Website - Nevada 1st Jim Gibbons - Website - Nevada 2nd Jon Porter - Website - Nevada 3rd[1] Notes ^ House of Representatives List of Members ... Nevada was admitted to the Union on October 31, 1864. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from New Hampshire to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Charles Bass - Website - New Hampshire 2nd Jeb Bradley - Website - New Hampshire 1st[1] Notes ^ House of Representatives List of Members Categories: | ... New Hampshire ratified the Constitution on June 21, 1788. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from New Jersey to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Robert E. Andrews - Website - New Jersey 1st Michael Ferguson - Website - New Jersey 7th Rodney Frelinghuysen - Website - New Jersey 11th Scott Garrett - Website - New Jersey 5th Rush Holt - Website - New Jersey 12th Frank LoBiondo - Website - New Jersey 2nd Frank Pallone Jr. ... New Jersey ratified the Constitution on December 18, 1787. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from New Mexico to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Steve Pearce - Website - New Mexico 2nd Tom Udall - Website - New Mexico 3rd Heather Wilson - Website - New Mexico 1st[1] Notes ^ House of Representatives List of Members Categories: | ... New Mexico was admitted to the Union on January 6, 1912. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from New York to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Gary Ackerman - Website - New York 5th Timothy Bishop - Website - New York 1st Sherwood L. Boehlert - Website - New York 24th Joseph Crowley - Website - New York 7th Eliot Engel - Website - New York 17th Vito Fossella - Website - New York 13th Maurice Hinchey - Website - New York 22nd Steve Israel - Website - New York 2nd Sue... The state of New York ratified the Constitution on July 26, 1788, thereby becoming the eleventh state. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from North Carolina to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Members of the United States House of Representatives from the state of North Carolina: Charles Laban Abernethy Evan Shelby Alexander Hugh Quincy Alexander Nathaniel Alexander Sydenham Benoni Alexander Willis Alston Ike Franklin Andrews Robert Franklin Armfield Archibald Hunter Arrington John Baptista Ashe Thomas Samuel Ashe William Shepperd Ashe John Wilbur... United States Senate House of Representatives Congress District 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 1st* (1789-1791) John Baptista Ashe John Steele Hugh Williamson Timothy Bloodworth John Sevier 2nd* (1791-1793) William Barry Grove Nathaniel Macon 3rd* (1793-1795) William J. Dawson Matthew... These are tables of congressional delegations from North Dakota to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... This is a complete list of Members of and Delegates to the United States House of Representatives from North Dakota. ... North Dakota was admitted to the Union on November 2, 1889. ... // These are complete tables of congressional delegations from Ohio to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Ohio was admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803. ... Ohio was admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from Oklahoma to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Dan Boren - Website - Oklahoma 2nd Tom Cole - Website - Oklahoma 4th Ernest J. Istook Jr. ... Oklahoma was admitted to the Union on November 16, 1907. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from Oregon to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Peter DeFazio - Website - Oregon 4th Darlene Hooley - Website - Oregon 5th Greg Walden - Website - Oregon 2nd David Wu - Website - Oregon 1st[1] Notes ^ House of Representatives List of Members ... This is a List of United States Senators from Oregon, in the United States of America. ... Map of Pennsylvania, depicting its congressional districts since the 108th Congress. ... 1st district: Robert Brady 2nd district: Chaka Fattah 3rd district: Phil English 4th district: Jason Altmire 5th district: John E. Peterson 6th district: Jim Gerlach 7th district: Joe Sestak 8th district: Patrick Murphy 9th district: Bill Shuster 10th district: Chris Carney 11th district: Paul E. Kanjorski 12th district: John Murtha... Pennsylvania ratified the Constitution on December 12, 1787. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from Rhode Island to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Patrick Kennedy - Website - Rhode Island 1st Jim Langevin - Website - Rhode Island 2nd[1] Notes ^ House of Representatives List of Members Categories: | ... Rhode Island ratified the Constitution on May 29, 1790. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from South Carolina to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... J. Gresham Barrett - Website - South Carolina 3rd Henry E. Brown, Jr. ... South Carolina ratified the Constitution on May 23, 1788. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from South Dakota to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... This is a complete list as of 2006 of the people who have represented South Dakota in the United States House of Representatives, since statehood in 1889. ... The following is a list of United States Senators from South Dakota. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from Tennessee to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Marsha Blackburn - Website - Tennessee 7th Jim Cooper - Website - Tennessee 5th Lincoln Davis - Website - Tennessee 4th John J. Duncan Jr. ... Tennessee was admitted to the Union on June 1, 1796. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from Texas to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Joe Barton - Website - Texas 6th Henry Bonilla - Website - Texas 23rd Kevin Brady - Website - Texas 8th Michael Burgess - Website - Texas 26th John Carter - Website - Texas 31st K. Michael Conaway - Website - Texas 11th Henry Cuellar - Website - Texas 28th John Culberson - Website - Texas 7th Tom DeLay - Website - Texas 22nd Lloyd Doggett - Website - Texas... Texas was admitted to the Union on December 29 1845. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from Utah to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Current list: Rob Bishop - Website - Utah 1st Chris Cannon - Website - Utah 3rd Jim Matheson - Website - Utah 2nd Previous Members and Delegates Notes Source: House of Representatives List of Members Categories: | | ... Utah was admitted to the Union on January 4, 1896. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from Vermont to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Bernie Sanders - Website - Vermont At Large[1] Notes ^ House of Representatives List of Members Categories: | ... Vermont was admitted to the Union on March 4, 1791. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from Virginia to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... This is an incomplete list of United States Representatives from Virginia since 1787 Sources House of Representatives List of Members Category: ... Virginia ratified the Constitution on June 25 1788. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from Washington to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Brian Baird - Website - Washington 3rd Norman D. Dicks - Website - Washington 6th Doc Hastings - Website - Washington 4th Jay Inslee - Website - Washington 1st Rick Larsen - Website - Washington 2nd Jim McDermott - Website - Washington 7th Cathy McMorris - Website - Washington 5th David G. Reichert - Website - Washington 8th Adam Smith - Website - Washington 9th[1] Notes ^ House... Washington was admitted to the Union on November 11, 1889. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from West Virginia to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Shelley Moore Capito - Website - West Virginia 2nd Alan B. Mollohan - Website - West Virginia 1st Nick Rahall - Website - West Virginia 3rd[1] Notes ^ House of Representatives List of Members Categories: | ... West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 19, 1863. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from Wisconsin to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Tammy Baldwin - Website - Wisconsin 2nd Mark Green - Website - Wisconsin 8th Ron Kind - Website - Wisconsin 3rd Gwen Moore - Website - Wisconsin 4th David R. Obey - Website - Wisconsin 7th Thomas Petri - Website - Wisconsin 6th Paul Ryan - Website - Wisconsin 1st F. James Sensenbrenner - Website - Wisconsin 5th[1] Notes ^ House of Representatives List of Members... Wisconsin was admitted to the Union on May 29, 1848. ... These are tables of members from Wyoming of the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Wyoming was admitted to the Union on June 10, 1890. ... Delegates of American Samoa to the United States Congress are politicians elected to the United States House of Representatives by the unincorporated territory of American Samoa. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from the District of Columbia to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from Guam to the United States House of Representatives. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from Puerto Rico to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from United States Virgin Islands to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... From 1861 to 1890, Dakota Territory (what is now the two states of North Dakota and South Dakota) sent a single non-voting Delegate to the United States House of Representatives. ... In 1798, the Northwest Territory became eligible to send a non-voting delegate to the U.S. Congress. ... Orleans Territory was the name given to most of what is now the state of Louisiana (excluding that portion of the state which is west of the Sabine River. ... A Legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to create, amend and ratify laws. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      All United States states are required to possess a legislative branch. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Alabama Legislature met at the Alabama State Capitol between 1851 to 1985. ... The seal of the Alabama Senate. ... The Alaska Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Alaska. ... The Alaska House of Representatives is the lower house in the Alaska Legislature of the U.S. state of Alaska. ... The Alaska Senate in session. ... The Arizona State Legislature is the legislative branch of the state government of Arizona. ... The Arizona House of Representatives is the lower legislative body for the State of Arizona. ... The debating chamber of the Arizona Senate The Arizona Senate is part of the Arizona Legislature, the state legislature of the U.S. state of Arizona. ... The Arkansas General Assembly is the legislative branch of the Arkansas government. ... The Arkansas House of Representatives legislative chamber. ... The Arkansas State Senate is the upper branch of the Arkansas General Assembly. ... Californias Capitol, where the State Legislature meets California State Assembly chamber California state Senate chamber The California Legislature is the legislative branch of the state government of California. ... The California State Assembly chamber California State Assembly Chamber in the State Capitol The California State Assembly is the lower house of the California State Legislature. ... California State Senate chamber The California State Senate is the upper house of the California State Legislature. ... The Colorado General Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Colorado. ... The Colorado House of Representatives has 65 members elected for two-year terms. ... The Colorado Senate has 35 members each elected to four-year terms. ... The Connecticut General Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Connecticut. ... The Hall of the Connecticut House of Representatives. ... The Connecticut State Senate is the upper house of the Connecticut General Assembly. ... The Delaware General Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Delaware. ... The Delaware House of Representatives is the lower house of the Delaware General Assembly, the state legislature of the U.S. State of Delaware. ... The Delaware Senate is the upper house of the Delaware General Assembly, the legislature of the U.S. State of Delaware. ... The Florida Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Florida. ... The Florida House of Representatives, one of the two Chambers of the Florida Legislature, is composed of 120 members, each representing a district. ... The Florida Senate is part of the Legislative branch of government for the state of Florida. ... The Georgia House of Representatives is the lower house of the General Assembly (the state legislature) of Georgia. ... Seal of the Georgia Senate The Georgia State Senate is the upper house of the Georgia General Assembly (the state legislature of Georgia). ... Hawaii Governor Benjamin J. Cayetano speaks before a special session of the legislature on January 24, 2000. ... The Hawaii House of Representatives is the lower house of the Hawaii State Legislature. ... The Hawaii State Senate is the upper chamber of the Hawaii State Legislature which governs from Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. There are twenty-five members from various electoral districts. ... The Idaho Legislature is the lawmaking body of the State of Idaho. ... The Idaho House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the Idaho State Legislature. ... The Idaho Senate is the upper chamber of the Idaho State Legislature. ... The Illinois General Assembly convenes at the Illinois State Capitol in Springfield. ... Type Bicameral Speaker Michael Madigan, (D) since 1997 Minority Leader Tom Cross, (R) since 2002 Members 118 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Illinois State Capitol Web site ilga. ... The Illinois Senate convenes at the Illinois State Capitol in Springfield. ... Image:Indianapolis Capitol. ... The Indiana General Assembly is the state legislature, or legislative branch, of the state government of Indiana. ... The Indiana Senate comprises, along with the Indiana House of Representatives, the Indiana General Assembly. ... 2002 Senate District Map 2002 House District Map The Iowa General Assembly (IGA) is the legislative branch for the state of Iowa. ... 2002 House District Map The Iowa House of Representatives is the lower house of the Iowa General Assembly. ... The current senate that was ellected in 2006 consists of these people: Senate (50) Name District Party Home County Senator Jeff Angelo Senate District 48 Republican Union Senator Daryl Beall Senate District 25 Democrat Webster Senator Jerry Behn Senate District 24 Republican Boone Senator Dennis H. Black Senate District 21... The Kansas Legislature meet at the State Capitol in Topeka. ... The Kansas House of Representatives is the lower house of the Kansas Legislature, the state legislature of the U.S. State of Kansas. ... The Kansas Senate in legislative session in January 2006. ... The Kentucky State Capitol Building in Frankfort, KY The Kentucky General Assembly, also called the Kentucky Legislature, is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Kentucky. ... Kentucky House of Representatives is the lower house of the Kentucky General Assembly, the state legislature of Kentucky. ... The Kentucky Senate is the upper house of the Kentucky General Assembly. ... The Louisiana State Legislature is the legislative branch of the U.S. state of Louisiana. ... The Louisiana House of Representatives is the lower house in the Louisiana State Legislature, the state legislature of the U.S. state of Louisiana. ... The Louisiana Senate is the upper house of the state legislature of Louisiana. ... The Maine Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Maine. ... The debating chamber of the Maine House of Representatives inside the State House The Maine House of Representatives is the lower house of the Maine Legislature. ... The debating chamber of the Maine Senate in the State House in Augusta The Maine Senate is the upper house of the Maine Legislature, the state legislature of the U.S. state of Maine. ... The Maryland State House in downtown Annapolis. ... The Maryland House of Delegates is the lower house of the General Assembly, the state legislature of the U.S. state of Maryland. ... The Maryland State Senate is the upper house of the General Assembly, the state legislature of the U.S. state of Maryland. ... The Massachusetts General Court is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... The Massachusetts House of Representatives is the lower house of the Massachusetts General Court, the bicameral state legislature of Massachusetts. ... The Massachusetts Senate is the upper house of the Massachusetts General Court, the bicameral state legislature of Massachusetts. ... The Michigan Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Type Lower House Speaker of the House Andy Dillon, Democratic since November 7, 2006 Minority Leader Craig DeRoche, Republican since November 7, 2006 Members 110 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Meeting place Michigan State Capitol, Lansing, Michigan Web site Michigan House of Representatives Cora B. Anderson House of Representatives... Billie S. Farnum Senate Office Building, Downtown Lansing The Michigan Senate is the upper body of the Michigan Legislature. ... The Minnesota State Legislature is the legislative branch of government in the U.S. state of Minnesota. ... The Minnesota House of Representatives is the lower house in the Minnesota State Legislature. ... The Minnesota Senate is the upper house in the Minnesota Legislature. ... The Mississippi Legislature is comprised of the Mississippi House of Representatives and the Mississippi Senate. ... The Mississippi House of Representatives is the lower house of the state legislature of Mississippi. ... The Mississippi Senate, in American politics, is the upper house of the state legislature of Mississippi. ... The Missouri General Assembly is the state legislature of Missouri. ... The Missouri State House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the Missouri General Assembly It has 163 members, representing districts with an average size of 31,000 residents. ... The Missouri State Senate is the upper chamber of the Missouri General Assembly It has 34 members, representing districts with an average size of 160,000 residents. ... The Montana State Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Montana. ... The Montana House of Representatives is one of the two houses of the Montana Legislature. ... The Montana Senate is, with the Montana House of Representatives, part of the Montana State Legislature. ... The Nebraska Legislature is the U.S. state of Nebraskas legislative branch. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Constitution of Nevada The Nevada Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Nevada. ... The Nevada Assembly is the lower house of the Nevada Legislature. ... The Nevada Senate is one of the two houses of the Nevada Legislature. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate (upper) House of Representatives (lower) President Sylvia Larsen, Democrat since December 6, 2006 Speaker Terie Norelli, Democrat since December 6, 2006 Members Senate: 24 House of Representatives: 400 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Meeting place New Hampshire State House Web site http://www. ... The New Hampshire General Court is the state legislature of the U.S. state of New Hampshire. ... The General Court meets in the New Hampshire State House The New Hampshire General Court is the state legislature of the U.S. state of New Hampshire. ... The New Jersey Legislature convene at the State House building in Trenton. ... The New Jersey General Assembly is the lower house of the New Jersey Legislature. ... The New Jersey Senate is the upper house of the New Jersey Legislature. ... The New Mexico Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of New Mexico. ... The New Mexico House of Representatives is the lower house of the New Mexico State Legislature. ... The New Mexico State Senate is the upper house of the New Mexico State Legislature. ... The New York Legislature is the legislative branch of the U.S. state of New York, seated at the states capital, Albany. ... The New York State Assembly is the lower house of the New York Legislature, the state legislature of the U.S. state of New York. ... The New York State Senate is one of two houses in the New York State Legislature and has members each elected to two-year terms. ... The North Carolina General Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of North Carolina. ... The North Carolina General Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of North Carolina. ... The North Carolina General Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of North Carolina. ... The North Dakota Legislative Assembly is the legislative branch of the government of North Dakota. ... The North Dakota House of Representatives is the lower house of the North Dakota Legislative Assembly, larger than the North Dakota Senate. ... The North Dakota Senate is the upper house of the North Dakota Legislative Assembly, smaller than the North Dakota House of Representatives. ... The Ohio General Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Ohio. ... Ohio has a bicameral legislature, the Ohio General Assembly, consisting a House of Representatives and Senate (the Ohio State Senate), based on its constitution of 1851. ... The Ohio Senate is the upper house in Ohios bicameral legislature, the Ohio General Assembly; the lower house is the Ohio House of Representatives. ... The State Capitol of Oklahoma The Legislature of the State of Oklahoma is the biennial meeting of the legislative branch of the Government of Oklahoma. ... The Oklahoma House of Representatives meets in the State Capitol of Oklahoma The Oklahoma House of Representatives is the larger body of the two houses of the Oklahoma Legislature, the other being the Oklahoma Senate. ... The Oklahoma Senate meets in the State Capitol of Oklahoma The Oklahoma Senate is the smaller body of the two houses of the Legislature of Oklahoma, the other being the Oklahoma House of Representatives. ... The Oregon Legislative Assembly is the legislature for the U.S. state of Oregon. ... The Oregon House of Representatives chamber in the State Capitol The Oregon House of Representatives is the lower house of the Oregon Legislative Assembly. ... The Oregon State Senate chamber in the State Capitol. ... Capitol Building The Pennsylvania General Assembly is the U.S. state of Pennsylvanias legislative branch, seated at the states capital, Harrisburg. ... The Pennsylvania House of Representatives is the lower house of the bicameral Pennsylvania General Assembly, the legislature of the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... The Pennsylvania State Senate is the upper house of the Pennsylvania General Assembly, the legislative branch of Pennsylvania government. ... The Rhode Island General Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Rhode Island. ... The Rhode Island House of Representatives is the lower body of the Rhode Island General Assembly, and consists of 75 members. ... The Rhode Island Senate chamber in the State Capitol The Rhode Island Senate is the upper house of the Rhode Island General Assembly, the state legislature of the U.S. State of Rhode Island. ... The South Carolina General Assembly, also called the South Carolina Legislature, is the legislative branch of South Carolina and consists of the South Carolina House of Representatives and the South Carolina Senate. ... The South Carolina House of Representatives is the lower house of the South Carolina General Assembly. ... The South Carolina Senate is the upper house of the South Carolina General Assembly. ... The South Dakota State Legislature meets at the state capitol in Pierre. ... The South Dakota State Legislature meets at the state capitol in Pierre. ... The South Dakota State Legislature meets at the state capitol in Pierre. ... The Tennessee General Assembly is the formal name of the legislature of the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... The Tennessee House of Representatives, in American politics, is the lower house of the state legislature of Tennessee, formally called the Tennessee General Assembly. ... The Tennessee Senate is the upper house of the Tennessee General Assembly, the formal name of the Tennessee state legislature. ... Texas Senate in session The Texas Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Texas. ... The Texas Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Texas. ... The Texas Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Texas. ... The Utah State Capitol, home of the Utah State Legislature. ... Utah State House Seal. ... The Utah State Senate is the upper house of the Utah State Legislature. ... The Legislature of Vermont is the U.S. state of Vermonts legislative branch, seated at the states capital, Montpelier. ... Representatives Hall, where the Vermont House of Representatives convenes in the Vermont State House. ... The Vermont Senate is the upper house of the Vermont General Assembly, which is the states legislature. ... The Virginia General Assembly is the state legislature of the Commonwealth of Virginia, a U.S. state. ... The Virginia House of Delegates is the lower house of the Virginia General Assembly. ... Historic Partisan Makeup of the Virginia State Senate The Senate of Virginia is the upper house of the Virginia General Assembly. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate Brad Owen, D since January 13, 1997 Speaker of the House of Representatives Frank Chopp, D since January 14, 2001 Members 147 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Washington State Capitol, Olympia... The floor of the Washington House of Representatives in the Legislative Building. ... The Washington State Senate passing the 2005 budget. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The West Virginia House of Delegates is the lower house of the West Virginia Legislature. ... The West Virginia Senate is the upper house of the West Virginia Legislature. ... The Wisconsin Legislature, based in Madison, is bicameral and is composed of the Wisconsin State Assembly and the Wisconsin Senate. ... The Wisconsin State Assembly is the lower house of the Wisconsin Legislature. ... The Wisconsin Senate, whose powers are modeled after those of the U.S. Senate, is the upper house of the Wisconsin State Legislature, smaller than the Wisconsin State Assembly. ... The Wyoming State Capitol in Cheyenne where the legislature meets. ... The Wyoming House of Representatives is the lower house of the Wyoming State Legislature. ... The Wyoming Senate is the upper house of the Wyoming State Legislature. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      All United States states are required to possess a legislative branch. ... The Legislature or Fono of American has two chambers. ... The Legislature or Fono of American Samoa has two chambers. ... The Council of the District of Columbia is the legislative branch of the local government of Washington, D.C.. As such, it is analogous to the city councils of other cities in the United States, but in some manners it is also analogous to state legislatures. ... The Northern Mariana Islands House of Representatives is the lower house of the Northern Mariana Islands Commonwealth Legislature. ... The Northern Mariana Islands Senate is the upper house of the Northern Mariana Islands Commonwealth Legislature. ... The House of Representatives of Puerto Rico is the lower house of the Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico, larger than the Senate. ... Seal of the Senate of Puerto Rico. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... American history redirects here. ... This is a timeline of United States history. ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents. ... For colonies not part of the 13 colonies see European colonization of the Americas or British colonization of the Americas. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... A government map, probably created in the mid-20th century, that depicts a simplified history of territorial acquisitions within the continental United States. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... American Civil Rights Movement redirects here. ... The War on Terrorism (also known as the War on Terror) is campaign begun by the Bush administration which includes various military, political, and legal actions taken to ostensibly curb the spread of terrorism following the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... // 2000 282,338,631 2010 309,162,581 2020 336,031,546 2030 363,811,435 2040 392,172,658 2050 420,080,587 2060 450,505,985 2070 480,568,004 2080 511,442,859 2090 540,405,985 2100 571,440,474 The US population in 1900 was... 48-star flag, 1957 This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of the United States. ... The United States Constitution, the supreme law of the United States The United States Reports, the official reporter of the Supreme Court of the United States The law of the United States was originally largely derived from the common law of the system of English law, which was in force... The United States Bill of Rights consists of the first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution. ... theSeparation of powers is a political doctrine under which the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government are kept distinct, to prevent abuse of power. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Cabinet meets in the Cabinet Room on May 16, 2001. ... This is an incomplete list of federal agencies, which are either departmental agencies within the executive branch of the United States government or are Independent Agencies of the United States Government (including regulatory agencies and government corporations). ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... The United States courts of appeals (or circuit courts) are the mid-level appellate courts of the United States federal court system. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building, Washington, D.C. For animal rights group, see Justice Department (JD) The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... Logo used on the Intelligence Community web site. ... CIA redirects here. ... The Defense Intelligence Agency, or DIA, is a major producer and manager of military intelligence for the United States Department of Defense. ... For other uses of NSA, see NSA (disambiguation). ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... USN redirects here. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ... USAF redirects here. ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk USCG HC-130H departs Mojave USCG HC-130H on International Ice Patrol duties The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the U.S. military, a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ... Union Jack. ... Politics of the United States takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of the United States is head of state, head of government, and of a two-party legislative and electoral system. ... Political parties in the United States lists political parties in the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... GOP redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Third parties in the United States are political parties other than the two... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      The United States has a federal government, with elected officials at federal (national), state and... Political Compass. ... This article provides a list of major political scandals of the United States. ... Map of results by state of the 2004 U.S. presidential election, representing states won by the Democrats as blue and those won by the Republican Party as red. ... This article is about the national personification of the USA. For other uses, see Uncle Sam (disambiguation). ... Flag of Puerto Rico The political movement for Puerto Rican Independence (Lucha por la Independencia Puertorriqueña) has existed since the mid-19th century and has advocated independence of the island of Puerto Rico, in varying degrees, from Spain (in the 19th century) or the United States (from 1898 to... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The political units and divisions of the United States include: The 50 states... United States territory is any extent of region under the jurisdiction of the federal government of the United States,[1] including all waters[2] (around islands or continental tracts). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... This is a list of the cities, towns, and villages of the United States. ... United States of America, showing states, divided into counties. ... This list of regions of the United States includes official (governmental) and non-official areas within the borders of the United States, not including U.S. states, the federal district of Washington, D.C. or standard subentities such as cities or counties. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... It has been suggested that Middle Atlantic States be merged into this article or section. ... Historic Southern United States. ... This article is about the Midwestern region in the United States. ... For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... The list of mountains of the United States shows the location of mountains in a given state. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... Rivers in the United States is a list of rivers in the United States. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... The Missouri River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the United States. ... The Colorado River from the bottom of Marble Canyon, in the Upper Grand Canyon Colorado River in the Grand Canyon from Desert View The Colorado River from Laughlin Horseshoe Bend is a horseshoe-shaped meander of the Colorado River located near the town of Page, Arizona The Colorado River is... This is a list of the extreme points of the United States, the points that are farther north, south, east, or west than any other location in the country. ... The National Park System of the United States is the collection of physical properties owned or administered by the National Park Service. ... Water supply and sanitation in the United States is provided by towns and cities, public utilities that span several jurisdictions and rural cooperatives. ... USD redirects here. ... Elaborate marble facade of NYSE as seen from the intersection of Broad and Wall Streets For other uses, see Wall Street (disambiguation). ... The Fed redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The standard of living in the United States is one of the highest in the world by almost any measure. ... For information on household income, see Household income in the United States. ... For information on the income of individuals, see Personal income in the United States. ... This graph shows the household income of the given percentiles from 1967 to 2003, in 2003 dollars. ... Single family homes such as this are indicative of the American middle class. ... The primary regulator of communications in the United States is the Federal Communications Commission. ... This article adopts the US Department of Transportation definition of passenger vehicle The United States is home to the largest passenger vehicle market of any country,[1] which is a consequence of the fact that it has the largest Gross Domestic Product of any country in the world. ... Current U.S. Route shield Current U.S. Route shield in California The system of United States Numbered Highways (often called U.S. Routes or U.S. Highways) is an integrated system of roads and highways in the United States numbered within a nationwide grid. ... There arergwertwertert[1] Kyle Railroad (KYLE) [2] Missouri and Northern Arkansas Railroad (MNA) [3] Montana Rail Link (MRL) [4] Montreal, Maine and Atlantic Railway (MMA) [5] Nebraska, Kansas and Colorado RailNet (NKCR) New York, Susquehanna and Western Railway (NYSW) [6] Northern Plains Railroad Paducah and Louisville Railway (PAL) [7] Palouse... The United States of America has a large and lucrative tourism industry serving millions of international and domestic tourists. ... This article is about the high culture and popular culture of the United States. ... The first U.S. census, in 1790, recorded four million Americans. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... A monument to the working and supporting classes along Market Street in the heart of San Franciscos Financial District, home to tens of thousands of professional and managerial middle class workers each day. ... For other uses, see American Dream (disambiguation). ... The percentage of households and individuals over the age of 25 with incomes exceeding $100,000 in the US.[1][2] Affluence in the United States refers to an individuals or households state of being in an economically favorable position in contrast to a given reference group. ... A monument to the working and supporting classes along Market Street in the heart of San Franciscos Financial District, home to tens-of-thousands of professional and managerial middle class workers each day. ... Percent below each countrys official poverty line, according to the CIA factbook. ... This graph shows the educational attainment since 1947. ... Violent conforntation between working class union members and law enforecement such as the one between teamsters and Minneapolis police above were commonly frowned upon by professional middle class. ... Holidays of the United States vary with local observance. ... Health care in the United States is provided by many separate legal entities. ... This article is about the high culture and popular culture of the United States. ... The United States is home to a wide array of regional styles and scenes. ... American classical music refers to music written in the United States but in the European classical music tradition. ... American folk music, also known as Americana, is a broad category of music including Native American music, Bluegrass, country music, gospel, old time music, jug bands, Appalachian folk, blues, Tejano and Cajun. ... The first major American popular songwriter, Stephen Foster Even before the birth of recorded music, American popular music had a profound effect on music across the world. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... American cinema has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. ... This article is about television in the United States, specifically its history, art, business and government regulation. ... Hollywood redirects here. ... American literature refers to written or literary work produced in the area of the United States and Colonial America. ... The folklore of the United States, or American folklore, is one of the folk traditions which has evolved on the North American continent since Europeans arrived in the 16th century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early-to mid-19th century. ... The Harlem Renaissance was named after the anthology The New Negro, edited by Alain Locke in 1925. ... Beats redirects here. ... The Rocky Mountains, Landers Peak, 1863 by Albert Bierstadt, one of the Hudson River School painters Visual arts of the United States refers to the history of painting and visual art in the United States. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Closely related to the development of American music in the early 20th century was the emergence of a new, and distinctively American, art form -- modern dance. ... The United States has a history of architecture that includes a wide variety of styles. ... Social issues are matters which directly or indirectly affect many or all members of a society and are considered to be problems, controversies related to moral values, or both. ... Main articles: Adolescent sexuality and Adolescent sexual behavior Adolescent sexuality in the United States relates to the sexuality of American adolescents and its place in American society, both in terms of their feelings, behaviors and development and in terms of the response of the government, educators and interested groups. ... Affirmative action is a policy or a program of giving preferential treatment to certain designated groups allegedly seeking to redress discrimination or bias through active measures, as in education and employment. ... Progress of America, 1875, by Domenico Tojetti American exceptionalism (cf. ... Anti-Americanism, often Anti-American sentiment, is defined as being opposed or hostile to the United States of America, its people, its principles, or its policies. ... Capital punishment is the legal process which ends the life of a felon. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Detroit police inspecting equipment found in a clandestine underground brewery during the prohibition era. ... The Energy policy of the United States is determined by federal, state and local public entities, which address issues of energy production, distribution and consumption. ... 1970s US postage stamp block In the United States today, the organized environmental movement is represented by a wide range of organizations sometimes called non-governmental organizations or NGOs. ... Gun Politics in the United States, incorporating the political aspects of gun politics, and firearms rights, has long been among the most controversial and intractable issues in American politics. ... The human rights record of the United States of America has featured an avowed commitment to the protection of specific personal political, religious and other freedoms. ... - Fence barrier on the international bridge near McAllen, TX . ... Pornography may use any of a variety of media — written and spoken text, photos, movies, etc. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity... Racism in the United States has been a major issue in America since the colonial era. ... International recognition Civil unions and domestic partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated Civil unions legal, same-sex marriage debated See also Same-sex marriage Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      Same-sex marriage, also called gay...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Congress of the United States - Academic Kids (4195 words)
The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America.
Congress is a bicameral legislature, consisting of the House of Representatives (the "Lower House") and the Senate (the "Upper House").
The first Congress under the current Constitution started its term in Federal Hall in New York City on March 4, 1789 and their first action was to declare that the new Constitution of the United States was in effect.
United States Congress - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5557 words)
House seats are apportioned among the states by population.
The Vice President of the United States is ex officio the President of the Senate; he or she has no vote except in the case of a tie.
The speech is modeled on the Speech from the Throne given by the British monarch, and is mandated by the Constitution of the United States.
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