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Encyclopedia > United States Civil Defense
The old United States Civil Defense logo. The triangle emphasised the 3-step Civil Defense philosophy used before the foundation of FEMA and Comprehensive Emergency Management.
The old United States Civil Defense logo. The triangle emphasised the 3-step Civil Defense philosophy used before the foundation of FEMA and Comprehensive Emergency Management.

United States Civil Defense refers to the use of civil defense in the history of the United States, which is the organized non-military effort to prepare American civilians for military attack. Over the last twenty years, the term and practice of civil defense have fallen into disuse and have been replaced by emergency management and homeland security. ((PD)) Federal Civil Defense Logo, no longer used except on FEMAs seal File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... New FEMA seal The Federal Emergency Management Agency, or FEMA, is an agency of the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) within the Emergency Preparedness and Response Directorate. ... Comprehensive Emergency Management, as defined in various laws throughout the United States, is the preparation for and the carrying out of all emergency functions, other than functions for which the military forces are primarily responsible, to mitigate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from emergencies and disasters, and to aid... The old United States civil defense logo. ... The American continent ranges from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean and includes outlying areas as well. ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... // Emergency management (or disaster management) is the discipline dealing with and avoiding risks. ... For the NBC TV Movie starring Tom Skeritt, see Homeland Security (TV Movie). ...

Contents

History

Pre-World War

There is little history of civil defense in the United States before the twentieth century. Indeed, since time immemorial cities built walls and moats to protect from invasion and commissioned patrols and watches to keep an eye out for danger. But such activities have not traditionally been encompassed by the term "civil defense." The U.S. has a particular lack of early civil defense efforts because the American homeland was seldom threatened with a significant attack. Despite these considerations, there are still examples of what would today be considered civil defense. For example, as early as 1692, the village of Bedford, New York kept a paid drummer on staff, who was charged with sounding the town drum in the event of a Native American attack--a very early precursor to the wailing sirens of the Cold War.[1] Bedford is a town in Westchester County, New York, USA. The population was 18,133 at the 2000 census. ... Native Americans are the indigenous peoples within the territory that is now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska down to their descendants in modern times. ...


World War I

Civil Defense truly began to come of age, both worldwide and in the United States, during the first World War--although it was usually referred to as civilian defense. This was the first major Total war, which required the involvement and support of the general population. Great Britain was subjected to bombing raids by both dirigibles and airplanes, resulting in thousands of injuries and deaths. Attacks on civilian ships, like the Lusitania, presented another threat to civilians. The British responded with an organized effort which was soon copied in the US. This was formalized with the creation of the Council of National Defense on August 29, 1916. Civil defense responsibilities at the federal level were vested in this council, with subsidiary councils at the state and local levels providing additional support--a multi-level structure which was to remain throughout the history of United States civil defense. Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz... Total war is an unqualified, all-out war conducted without scruple or limitation. ... Dirigible can refer to : an airship -- a lighter-than-air aircraft that can be steered and propelled through the air. ... An Air France Boeing 777, a modern passenger jet. ... In red is the province of Lusitania within the Roman Empire, 120 AD Lusitania was an ancient Roman province approximately including current Portugal, except for the area between the rivers Douro and Minho (part of Hispania Tarraconensis), and part of modern day western Spain, the present autonomous communities of Extremadura...


As the United States had little threat of a direct attack on its shores, the organization instead "maintained anti-saboteur vigilance, encouraged men to join the armed forces, facilitated the implementation of the draft, participated in Liberty Bond drives, and helped to maintain the morale of the soldiers.�[2] This freedom to focus beyond air raid attacks gave United States civil defense a much broader scope than elsewhere. With the end of military conflict, the activities of the Council of National Defense were suspended.[3] Thus, World War I marked the first time that organized civil defense was practised on a large scale in the United States. Although civil defense had not yet reached the scale and significance it soon would, much of the basic features were set in place.


World War II

Posters like this were used to promote "Civilian Defense" during WWII and Comprehensive Emergency Management.
Posters like this were used to promote "Civilian Defense" during WWII and Comprehensive Emergency Management.

World War II, which began in the United States with a devastating surprise attack on American soil, was characterized by a significantly greater use of civil defense. Even before the attack, the Council of National Defense was reactivated by President Roosevelt and created the Division of State and Local Cooperation to further assist the Council's efforts.[4] Thus, the civil defense of World War II began very much as a continuation of that of World War I. Very soon, however, the idea of local and state councils bearing a significant burden became viewed as untenable and more responsibility was vested at the federal level with the creation of the Office of Civilian Defense (OCD) within the Office of Emergency Planning (OEP) in the Executive Office of the President (EOP) on May 20, 1941.[5] The OCD was originally headed by New York Mayor Fiorello La Guardia and was charged with promoting protective measures and elevating national morale. Image File history File links AmericanCalling. ... Comprehensive Emergency Management, as defined in various laws throughout the United States, is the preparation for and the carrying out of all emergency functions, other than functions for which the military forces are primarily responsible, to mitigate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from emergencies and disasters, and to aid... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Husband Kimmel (USN), Walter Short (USA) Chuichi Nagumo (IJN), Mitsuo Fuchida (IJNAS) (1st aerial wave), Shigekazu Shimazaki (IJNAS) (2nd aerial wave) Strength 8 battleships, 8 cruisers, 29 destroyers, 9 submarines, ~50 other ships, ~390 planes 6 aircraft carriers, 9 destroyers, 2 battleships, 2... FDR redirects here. ... Office of Civilian Defense was a United States federal emergency war agency set up May 20, 1941 by Executive Order 8757 to co-ordinate state and federal measures for protection of civilians in case of war emergency. ... The Executive Office of the President consists of the immediate staff of the President of the United States, as well as multiple levels of support staff. ... Fiorello Henry LaGuardia (December 11, 1882–September 20, 1947) was the Mayor of New York from 1934 to 1945. ...


These organizations and others worked together to mobilize the civilian population in response to the threat. The Civil Air Patrol (CAP), which was created just days before the attack on Pearl Harbor, commissioned civilian pilots to patrol the coast and borders and engage in search and rescue missions as needed. The Civil Defense Corps, run by the OCD, organized approximately 10 million volunteers who trained to fight fires, decontaminate after [chemical weapons] attacks, provide first aid, and other duties.[6] These efforts did not replace the kinds of civil defense that took place during WWI. Indeed, WWII saw an even greater use of rationing, recycling, and anti-saboteur vigilance than was seen in WWI. As the threat of air raids or invasions in the United states seemed less likely during the war, the focus on the Civil Defense Corps, air raid drills, and patrols of the border declined but the other efforts contniued. Unlike at the end of WWI, the US did not dismiss all its civil defense efforts as soon as WWII ended. Instead, they continued after the end of the war and served as the foundation of civil defense in the Cold War. Civil Air Patrol seal The Civil Air Patrol (CAP) is the official civilian auxiliary of the United States Air Force (USAF). ... Search and Rescue (acronym SAR) is an operation mounted by emergency services, often well-trained volunteers, to find someone believed to be in distress, lost, sick or injured either in a remote or difficult to access area, such as mountains, desert or forest (Wilderness search and rescue), or at sea...


Cold War

The new dimensions of nuclear war terrified the world and the American people. The sheer power of nuclear weapons and the increasing likelihood of such an attack on the United States necessitated a greater response than had yet been required of civil defense. Civil defense, something previously considered an important and common sense step, also became divisive and controversial in the charged atmosphere of the Cold War. In 1950, the National Security Resources Board created a 162 page document outlining a model civil defense structure for the U.S. Called the "Blue Book" by civil defense professionals in reference to its solid blue cover, it was the template for legislation and organization that occurred over the next 40 years.[7] Despite a general agreement on the importance of civil defense, Congress never came close to meeting the budget requests of federal civil defense agencies. Throughout the Cold War, Civil defense was characteried by fits and starts. Indeed, the responsibilities were passed through a myriad of agencies, and specific programs were often boosted and scrapped. Nuclear War is a card game designed by Douglas Malewicki, and originally published in 1966. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The National Security Resources Board was a United States board created by the National Security Act of 1947. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate Dick Cheney, R, since January 20, 2001 Speaker of the House Dennis Hastert, R, since January 6, 1999 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups (as of January 4, 2005 elections) Democratic Party Republican Party...

Civil Defense literature such as Survival Under Atomic Attack was common during the cold war era.
Civil Defense literature such as Survival Under Atomic Attack was common during the cold war era.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (958x1326, 224 KB) Summary Executive Office of the President, NSRB, Civil Defense Office, 1950. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (958x1326, 224 KB) Summary Executive Office of the President, NSRB, Civil Defense Office, 1950. ... Copy of Survival Under Atomic Attack issued by the Cleveland office of Civil Defense. ...

Educating the People

Perhaps the most memorable aspect of the Cold War civil defense effort was the educational effort made or promoted by the government. In Duck and Cover, Bert the Turtle advocated that children "duck and cover" when they "see the flash." Indeed, this was something kids drilled in school. Booklets were also common place such as Survival Under Atomic Attack, Fallout Protection and Nuclear War Survival Skills. To further spread the message, radio Public Service Accouncements including children's songs were created then released by radio stations to educate the public in case of nuclear attack.[8] The title screen from the film. ... The title screen from the film. ... Duck and Cover was a method of personal protection against the effects of a nuclear detonation which the United States government taught to generations of United States school children from the late 1940s into the 1980s. ... Copy of Survival Under Atomic Attack issued by the Cleveland office of Civil Defense. ... Cover of Fallout Protection, 1961 Fallout Protection - What To Know And Do About Nuclear Attack, was an official government booklet released in December of 1961 by the United States Department of Defense and The Office of Civil Defense. ... Nuclear War Survival Skills or NWSS by Cresson Kearny is a civil defense manual. ...


Evacuation plans

At the dawn of the nuclear age, evacuation was opposed by the federal government. The Federal Civil Defense Administration produced a short movie called Our Cities Must Fight. It argued that in the event of a nuclear war, civilians need to stay in cities to help repair the infrastructure and man the recovering industries. "Nuclear radiation," it advised, "would only stay in the air a day or two."[9] Despite this early opposition, evacuation plans were soon created. One city at the forefront of such efforts was Portland, Oregon. In 1955, their city government completed "Operation Greenlight"--a drill to evacuate the entire town. Hospital patients were packed into semi-trucks, pedestrians were picked up by passing motorists, and the city's construction equipment and emergency vehicles were rushed out to "dispersal points." The entire city center was evacuated in 19 minutes.[10] The resulting success was documented for weary civilians in A Day Called 'X', a TV special narrated by Glenn Ford.[11] Such plans were plausible in the early days of the Cold War, when an attack would have come from strategic bombers, which would have allowed a warning of many hours. The development of Intercontinental ballistic missiles made this goal less realistic, however. Despite that, civil defense officials still worked to prepare evacuation plans. In 1983, President Ronald Reagan announced the Crisis Relocation Plan. The White House suggested that the $10 billion, five-year program could allow the evacuation of targeted urban centers to rural "host areas" and thus save 80% of the population. The plan allowed up to three days for the evacuation to be completed, believing that a nuclear war would not come in a surprise attack but rather as the culmination of a crisis period of rising tensions.[12] The Federal Civil Defense Administration, or FCDA, was established by President Harry S. Truman to show the public how they could survive a nuclear war, if they were prepared. ... A Day Called X was a dramatised CBS documentary showing a civil defence exercise in Portland, Oregon in which the entire city is evacuated in response to an air raid. ... Glenn Ford in 1979 Gwyllyn Samuel Newton Glenn Ford (May 1, 1916 – August 30, 2006) was an acclaimed Canadian-American actor from Hollywoods Golden Era with a career that spanned seven decades. ... Boeing B-52 strategic bomber taking off A strategic bomber is a large aircraft designed to drop large amounts of ordnance on a distant target for the purposes of debilitating an enemys capacity to wage war. ... A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... North façade of the White House, seen from Pennsylvania Avenue. ...

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (671x663, 1185 KB) United States Civil Defense patch, Cuyahoga County, Ohio. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (671x663, 1185 KB) United States Civil Defense patch, Cuyahoga County, Ohio. ... The old United States civil defense logo. ... Cuyahoga County is a county located in the state of Ohio. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ...

Ensuring continuity of government

Civilian governments made efforts to exist even after an apocalyptic nuclear attack, something called continuity of government. Many city halls built Emergency Operation Centers in their basements. Continuity of government (COG) is the principle of establishing defined procedures that allow a government to continue its essential operations in case of a nuclear war or other catastrophic event. ... The Emergency Operations Center, or EOC, is a central command and control facility responsible for carrying out the principles of emergency preparedness and emergency management, or disaster management functions at a strategic level in an emergency situation, and ensuring the continuity of operation of the company, or political subdivision. ...


Identifying fallout shelters

President Kennedy launched an ambitious effort to install fallout shelters throughout the United States. These shelters would not protect against the blast and heat effects of nuclear weapons, but would provide some protection against the radiation effects that would last for weeks and even effect areas distant from a nuclear explosion. As such, some of them were even located on the upper floors of skyscrapers. There were never enough shelters, however, and many of those that did exist would have likely been destroyed because of their proximity to key targets.


Survivability in design

CD officials encouraged people to build in the suburbs away from key targets and to be conscientious of the needs of a nuclear age when building houses and other structures.


Alerting the people

In order for most of these preparations to be effective, there had to be some degree of warning. The United States embarked on creating systems at both the local and national levels to allow the communication of emergencies. In 1951, President Harry S. Truman established the CONELRAD (Control of Electromagnetic Radiation) Plan. Under the system, a few primary stations would be alerted of an emergency and would broadcast an alert. All broadcast stations throughout the country would be constantly listening to an upstream station and repeat the message, thus passing it from station to station. After broadcasting the message, all radio communications would cease except for on two designated lower power AM frequencies (640 and 1240). This was designed to prevent enemy plans from using broadcast stations for Direction finding. ICBMs made this too obsolete, and it was phased out in the early 1960s. In 1963, the FCC created the Emergency Broadcast System to replace CONELRAD. The EBS served as the primary alert system throughout the Cold War and well into the 1990s. CONELRAD (Control of Electromagnetic Radiation) was a planned method of emergency broadcasting to the public of the United States in the event of World War III. It served two purposes; to prevent Soviet bombers from homing-in on American cities by using broadcast stations as beacons, and to provide essential... A broadcast station may be: a radio station a television station It does not include television networks or radio networks. ... Direction finding (DF) refers to the establishment of the direction from which a received signal was transmitted. ... The abbreviation FCC can refer to: Face-centered cubic (usually fcc), a crystallographic structure Federal Communications Commission, a US government organization Farm Credit Corporation/Farm Credit Canada, a Canadian government organization Families with Children from China, an adoption support organization Florida Christian College, a college in central Florida Fresno City... A slide used by television stations during Emergency Broadcast System announcements and tests. ...


Post-Cold War

Since the end of the Cold War, civil defense has fallen into disuse within the United States. The downfall of the Soviet Union and the emergence of the United States as the world's only superpower has minimized the threat of a military attack on America. Gradually, the focus on nuclear war shifted to an "all-hazards" approach of Comprehensive Emergency Management. Natural disasters and the emergence of new threats such as terrorism have caused attention to be focused away from traditional civil defense and into new forms of civilian protection such as emergency management and homeland security. An American B-2 bomber in flight. ... Comprehensive Emergency Management, as defined in various laws throughout the United States, is the preparation for and the carrying out of all emergency functions, other than functions for which the military forces are primarily responsible, to mitigate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from emergencies and disasters, and to aid... Natural Disasters is a young rap group made up of five young teens from the Chicago suburbs. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... // Emergency management (or disaster management) is the discipline dealing with and avoiding risks. ... For the NBC TV Movie starring Tom Skeritt, see Homeland Security (TV Movie). ...


Past and present civil defense agencies

Since its creation by President George W. Bush after the September 11, 2001 attacks, United States Civil Defense has been concentrated within the cabinet-level Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Between 1979 and 2001, the duties of Civil Defense were served by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Originally an independent agency, FEMA was absorbed into to DHS in 2003. Before the creation of FEMA on March 31, 1979 the responsibility for civil defense in the United States was shared between a wide variety of short-lived and frequently changing departments, agencies, and organizations. Some of the pre-FEMA organizations important in the history of US Civil Defense include: George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a Cabinet department of the federal government of the United States that is concerned with protecting the American homeland and the safety of American citizens. ... New FEMA seal The Federal Emergency Management Agency, or FEMA, is an agency of the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) within the Emergency Preparedness and Response Directorate. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (91st in Leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... For the Smashing Pumpkins song, see 1979 (song). ...

The Executive Office of the President consists of the immediate staff of the President of the United States, as well as multiple levels of support staff. ... Office of Civilian Defense was a United States federal emergency war agency set up May 20, 1941 by Executive Order 8757 to co-ordinate state and federal measures for protection of civilians in case of war emergency. ... Office of Civilian Defense was a United States federal emergency war agency set up May 20, 1941 by Executive Order 8757 to co-ordinate state and federal measures for protection of civilians in case of war emergency. ... The National Security Resources Board was a United States board created by the National Security Act of 1947. ... The Executive Office of the President consists of the immediate staff of the President of the United States, as well as multiple levels of support staff. ... The Executive Office of the President consists of the immediate staff of the President of the United States, as well as multiple levels of support staff. ... Line drawing of the Department of Wars seal. ... The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ... The Executive Office of the President consists of the immediate staff of the President of the United States, as well as multiple levels of support staff. ... The Executive Office of the President consists of the immediate staff of the President of the United States, as well as multiple levels of support staff. ... The Executive Office of the President consists of the immediate staff of the President of the United States, as well as multiple levels of support staff. ... The Executive Office of the President consists of the immediate staff of the President of the United States, as well as multiple levels of support staff. ... The General Services Administration (GSA) is an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1949 to help manage and support the basic functioning of federal agencies. ... The General Services Administration (GSA) is an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1949 to help manage and support the basic functioning of federal agencies. ... The Federal Civil Defense Administration, or FCDA, was established by President Harry S. Truman to show the public how they could survive a nuclear war, if they were prepared. ... The Executive Office of the President consists of the immediate staff of the President of the United States, as well as multiple levels of support staff. ...

See also

The old United States civil defense logo. ... Emergency operations or Emergency preparedness is a set of doctrines to prepare civil society to cope with natural or man-made disasters. ... Duck and Cover was a method of personal protection against the effects of a nuclear detonation which the United States government taught to generations of United States school children from the late 1940s into the 1980s. ... The overall objectives in the field of Civil Protection are to ensure better protection of people, the environment, economies and infrastructure in the event of major natural or man-made disasters, including accidental marine pollution, chemical spills. ... A sign pointing to an old fallout shelter in New York City. ... A blast shelter is a place where people can go to protect themselves from bomb blasts. ...

References

  1. ^ Towne, Robert, Stamford Historical Society. "Record Group 11: Civil Defense in Stamford." 6/1/1996. [1]
  2. ^ Kerr, Thomas J. "Civil Defense in the U.S." Westview Press (Boulder, CO): 1983. p12. ISBN 0-86531-586-8. Quoted at [2].
  3. ^ Green, Walter G., editor. "Council of National Defense and State Defense Councils." Electronic Encyclopaedia of Civil Defense and Emergency Management. 8/17/2003.
  4. ^ Suburban Emergency Management Project, "SEMP Biot #243: What Is Civil Defense? World War I through the Eisenhower Administration," 8/1/05. [3]
  5. ^ Suburban Emergency Management Project, "SEMP Biot #243: What Is Civil Defense? World War I through the Eisenhower Administration," 8/1/05. [4]
  6. ^ Suburban Emergency Management Project, "SEMP Biot #243: What Is Civil Defense? World War I through the Eisenhower Administration," 8/1/05. [5]
  7. ^ National Security Resources Board. United States Civil Defense. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO), 1950. LCCN 51060552.
  8. ^ Civil Defense & CONELRAD recordings
  9. ^ Anthony Rizo (Director), Ray J. Mauer (Writer). (1951). "Our Cities Must Fight [Film]." Los Angeles: Archer Productions, Inc. See Free download from the Internet Archive or IMDB description
  10. ^ Portland Online
  11. ^ Harry Rasky (Director). (1957) "A Day Called X [TV]." CBS. See NY Times Review, IMDB description, or Free Download from The Internet Archive
  12. ^ See this website and Edward Zuckerman. The Day after World War III. New York: Viking Press, 1984. ISBN 0-670-25880-6 and Jennifer Leaning and Langley Keyes, editors. The Counterfeit ark: Crisis Relocation for Nuclear War. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Publishing Company, 1983. ISBN 0-88410-940-2.

Bibliography

Websites

  • Suburban Emergency Management Project, "SEMP Biot #243: What Is Civil Defense? World War I through the Eisenhower Administration," 8/1/05
  • Suburban Emergency Management Project, "SEMP Biot #244: What Is Civil Defense? Kennedy Administration through the George W. Bush Administration," 8/2/05
  • Kurt Pickering and Charles Bryant, Tennessee Emergency Management Agency, "The History of Civil Defense & Emergency Management in Tennessee," 2002
  • Fort Collins Office of Emergency Management, "From Civil Defense to Emergency Management"
  • Cold War Civil Defense Museum
  • The Electronic Encyclopaedia of Civil Defense and Emergency Management
  • "In Civil Defense" at Military.com

Books

World War II civil defense

  • Louis L. Snyder, editor. Handbook of Civilian Protection. New York: Whittlesey House (McGraw-Hill), 1942. LCCN 42010183.
  • Captain Burr Leyson. The Air Raid Safety Manual. New York: E.P. Dutton and Company, 1942. LCCN 42005041.

Cold War civil defense

  • Highly recommended for those wishing a detailed overview: Edward Zuckerman. The Day after World War III. New York: Viking Press, 1984. ISBN 0-670-25880-6.
  • Laura McEnaney. Civil Defense Begins at Home: Militarization meets everyday life in the fifties. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-691-00138-3.
  • Jennifer Leaning and Langley Keyes, editors. The Counterfeit ark: Crisis Relocation for Nuclear War. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Publishing Company, 1983. ISBN 0-88410-940-2.
  • National Security Resources Board. United States Civil Defense. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO), 1950. LCCN 51060552.
  • Henry Eyring, Editor. Civil Defense: A symposium presented at the Berkely meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, December 1965. Washington: AAAS, 1966. LCCN 66025382.

Post Cold War civil defense

  • Mark Sauter. Homeland Security: A complete guide to understanding, preventing, and surviving terrorism. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005. ISBN 0-07-144064-X.
  • Juliette Kayyem and Robyn Pangi, editors. First to Arrive: State and Local Responses to Terrorism. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2003. ISBN 0-585-48173-3.

 
 

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