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Encyclopedia > United States Census

The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by the United States Constitution.[1] The population is enumerated every 10 years and the results are used to allocate Congressional seats ("congressional apportionment"), electoral votes, and government program funding. (Some states also conduct statewide censuses as the need arises; these are called state censuses.) Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... Congressional districts for representation in the United States House of Representatives are determined after each census. ... The membership of the United States House of Representatives changes each decade following the decennial United States Census. ... The United States Electoral College is the electoral college that chooses the President and Vice President of the United States at the conclusion of each Presidential election. ...


The census is performed by the United States Census Bureau. The first census after the American Revolution was taken in 1790; there have been 21 federal censuses since that time. The next census will be taken in 2010. A detailed page on the most recent census can be found at United States Census 2000. The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... The United States Census of 1790 was the first Census conducted in the United States. ... The Twenty-third United States Census will be the next national census in the United States. ... 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ...


Decennial U.S. Census figures are based on actual counts of persons dwelling in U.S. residential structures. They include citizens, non-citizen legal residents, non-citizen long-term visitors, and illegal immigrants. In recent censuses, estimates of uncounted housed, homeless, and migratory persons have been added to the directly reported figures.


For years between the decennial censuses, the Census Bureau issues estimates made using surveys and statistical models.


The practice of including non-citizens in the official census figures is highly controversial as the census is used for the apportionment between the states of seats in the House of Representatives, and derived from that, of electors to the Electoral College. The Census also employs the practice of using hot deck imputation to assign data to housing units where occupation status is unknown. This practice has effects across many types of areas but is seen by some as controversial because it may increase representation for reliably Democratic districts. However, the practice was ruled constitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court in Utah v. Evans. Groups like the Prison Policy Initiative assert that the census practice of counting prisoners as residents of prisons, not their pre-incarceration addresses, leads to misleading information about racial demographics and population numbers. [1] The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. ... Electoral votes by state/federal district, for the elections of 2004 and 2008 The United States Electoral College is a term used to describe the 538 Presidential Electors who meet quadrennially to cast the electoral votes for President and Vice President of the United States; their votes represent the most... There is also an imputation disambiguation page. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries  Atlas  Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym... Holding Utah had standing to sue for a revision of the census results. ...

Contents

Census data and questionnaires

The census records and data specific to individual respondents is not available to the public until 72 years after they were taken but detailed statistical data derived from the census is freely available contemporaneously. Every census up to 1930 is currently available to the public and can be viewed on microfilm released by the National Archives and Records Administration, the official keeper of old federal census records. These census records are also available online from various sources such as Ancestry.com and FamilySearch.com, which have all released census records available for a subscription. The 1940 census will be available for public review in 2012. The Fifteenth United States Census was taken in 1930. ... Microfilm machines may be available at libraries or record archives. ... The National Archives building in Washington, DC The United States National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States federal government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records. ... The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7. ... 2012 (MMXII) will be a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Data is available for all surviving census records, including recent records up to the 2000 census, for research purposes from IPUMS USA. Further, scanned copies of each of the decennial census questionnaires distributed in the United States from 1960 forward are available on-line from IPUMS International.[2] IPUMS is an acronym for the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. ... The Eighteenth United States Census was taken in 1960. ... IPUMS is an acronym for the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. ...


The contemporaneous statistical data is available in various formats from the Bureau with one of the more popular formats being as layers formatted for the public-domain GIS tool, LandView. A geographic information system (GIS) is a system for managing data that has a spatial specialized form of an information system. ... LandView is a public domain GIS viewer designed to display United States Census Bureau, Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Geological Survey (USGS) data. ...


History of the U.S. Census

Censuses had been taken prior to the Constitution's ratification; in the early 1600s, a census was taken in Virginia, and people were counted in nearly all of the British colonies that became the United States. Many inventions and institutions are created, including Hans Lippershey with the telescope (1608, used by Galileo the next year), the newspaper Avisa Relation oder Zeitung in Augsburg, and Cornelius Drebbel with the thermostat (1609). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Down through the years, the country's needs and interests became more complex. This meant that there had to be statistics to help people understand what was happening and have a basis for planning. The content of the decennial census changed accordingly. In 1810 the first inquiry on manufactures, quantity and value of products; in 1840 on fisheries were added, and in 1850, the census included inquiries on social issues, such as taxation, churches, pauperism and crime. The censuses also spread geographically, to new States and Territories added to the Union, as well as to other areas under U.S. sovereignty or jurisdiction. There were so many more inquiries of all kinds in the censuses of 1880 and 1890 that almost a full decade was needed to publish all the results. The United States Census of 1810 was the third Census conducted in the United States. ... ... The Seventh Census of the United States, conducted by the Bureau of the Census, determined the resident population of the United States to be 23,191,876 — an increase of 35. ... 1880 US Census The United States Census of 1880 was the tenth United States Census. ... The Eleventh United States Census was taken June 1, 1890. ...


For the first six censuses (1790-1840) enumerators recorded only the names of the heads of household and did a general demographic accounting of the remaining members of the household. Beginning in 1850, all members of the household were named by the enumerator. The first slave schedules were done in 1850, with the second (and last) in 1860. Censuses of the late 19th century also included agricultural and industrial schedules to gauge the productivity of the nation's economy. Mortality schedules (taken between 1850 and 1880) captured a snapshot of life-spans and causes of death throughout the country. The United States Census of 1790 was the first Census conducted in the United States. ... The Sixth Census of the United States, conducted by the Bureau of the Census, determined the resident population of the United States to be 17,069,453 — an increase of 32. ... The Seventh Census of the United States, conducted by the Bureau of the Census, determined the resident population of the United States to be 23,191,876 — an increase of 35. ... The United States Census of 1860 was the eighth Census conducted in the United States. ...


The first nine censuses (1790-1870) were not managed by the U.S. Executive Branch, but by the U.S. Judicial Branch. The United States Federal Court districts assigned U.S. marshals, who hired assistant marshals to do the actual census-taking. The Ninth United States Census was taken in 1870. ... The government of the United States, established by the United States Constitution, is a federal republic of 50 states, a few territories and some protectorates. ... The government of the United States, established by the United States Constitution, is a federal republic of 50 states, a few territories and some protectorates. ...


First Census of the United States (1790)

The first Census was taken August 2, 1790. The federal census records for the first census are missing for five states: Delaware, Georgia, Kentucky, New Jersey and Virginia. They were destroyed some time between the time of the census-taking and 1830. The census estimated the population of the United States at 3,929,214. The United States Census of 1790 was the first Census conducted in the United States. ... The United States Census of 1790 was the first Census conducted in the United States. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... “NJ” redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Second Census of the United States (1800)

The second Census was taken August 4, 1800. The United States Census of 1800 was the second Census conducted in the United States. ... The United States Census of 1800 was the second Census conducted in the United States. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF...


Third Census of the United States (1810)

The third Census was taken August 6, 1810. The United States Census of 1810 was the third Census conducted in the United States. ... The United States Census of 1810 was the third Census conducted in the United States. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Fourth Census of the United States (1820)

The fourth Census was taken August 7, 1820. The United States Census of 1820 was the fourth Census conducted in the United States. ... The United States Census of 1820 was the fourth Census conducted in the United States. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Fifth Census of the United States (1830)

The fifth Census was taken June 1, 1830. The United States Census of 1830 was the fifth Census conducted in the United States. ... The United States Census of 1830 was the fifth Census conducted in the United States. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Sixth Census of the United States (1840)

The sixth Census was taken June 1, 1840. The census estimated the population of the United States at 17,100,000. The results were tabulated by 28 clerks in the Bureau of the Census. The Sixth Census of the United States, conducted by the Bureau of the Census, determined the resident population of the United States to be 17,069,453 — an increase of 32. ... The Sixth Census of the United States, conducted by the Bureau of the Census, determined the resident population of the United States to be 17,069,453 — an increase of 32. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Seventh Census of the United States (1850)

The seventh Census was taken June 1, 1850. The 1850 census was a landmark year in American census-taking. It was the first year in which the census bureau attempted to count every member of every household, including women, children and slaves. Accordingly, the first slave schedules were produced in 1850. Prior to 1850, census records had only recorded the name of the head of the household and broad statistical accounting of other household members, (three children under age five, one woman between the age of 35 and 40, etc.). The Seventh Census of the United States, conducted by the Bureau of the Census, determined the resident population of the United States to be 23,191,876 — an increase of 35. ... The Seventh Census of the United States, conducted by the Bureau of the Census, determined the resident population of the United States to be 23,191,876 — an increase of 35. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Eighth Census of the United States (1860)

The eighth Census estimated the population of the United States at 31,400,000. The results were tabulated by 184 clerks in the Bureau of the Census. The United States Census of 1860 was the eighth Census conducted in the United States. ... The United States Census of 1860 was the eighth Census conducted in the United States. ...


This was the first census where the American Indians officially were counted, but only those who had 'nenounced tribal rules'. The figure for the nation was 40,000.


Eleventh Census of the United States (1890)

The eleventh Census was taken June 1, 1890. The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed and therefore the tracking of westward migration would no longer be tabulated in the census. This trend prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his milestone Frontier Thesis. The Eleventh United States Census was taken June 1, 1890. ... The Eleventh United States Census was taken June 1, 1890. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Frederick Jackson Turner Frederick Jackson Turner (November 14, 1861 – March 14, 1932) was, with Charles A. Beard, the least influential American historian of the early 20th century. ... Frederick Jackson Turner, author of the Frontier Thesis The Frontier Thesis or Turner Thesis is the conclusion of Frederick Jackson Turner that the wellsprings of American exceptionalism and vitality have always been the American frontier, the region between urbanized, civilized society and the untamed wilderness. ...


The 1890 census was the first to be compiled on a tabulating machine, developed by Herman Hollerith. This introduction of technology reduced the time taken to tabulate the census from seven years for the 1880 census to two and a half years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,622,250 was announced after only six weeks of processing. Ironically, the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was widely believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. Tabulating machine constructed by Hollerith The tabulating machine was a machine designed to assist in tabulations. ... Herman Hollerith (February 29, 1860 – November 17, 1929) was an German-American statistician who developed a mechanical tabulator based on punched cards in order to rapidly tabulate statistics from millions of pieces of data. ...


The logistical difficulties in compiling the census drove computing technology for the next fifty years until computers became widespread in industry. IBM's first electronic computer was created primarily to deal with the needs of the census in addition to military and academic uses. A processors core Computing is a very broad topic that has become pandemic to modern uses of technology. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... The tower of a personal computer. ... Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ...


This census is also notable for the fact it is the only one of three for which the original data is no longer available. Almost all the population schedules were destroyed in a fire in 1921.


Fifteenth Census of the United States (1930)

The fifteenth Census was taken on April 2, 1930, except in Alaska Territory, where census-taking began October 1, 1929. The Fifteenth United States Census was taken in 1930. ... The Fifteenth United States Census was taken in 1930. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alaska Territory was an organized territory of the United States from August 24, 1912 to January 3, 1959, when Alaska became the 49th state. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Sixteenth Census of the United States (1940)

The sixteenth Census was taken on April 1, 1940. Because of a 72-year privacy law, this census will not be available for public inspection until April 1, 2012. The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7. ... The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2012 (MMXII) will be a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Twenty-second Census of the United States (2000)

The 22nd Census of the United States took place on April 1, 2000. Because of a 72-year privacy law, this census will not be available for public inspection until April 1, 2072. 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 20th century - 21st century - 22nd century Decades: 2020s 2030s 2040s 2050s 2060s - 2070s - 2080s 2090s 2100s 2110s 2120s Years: 2066 2067 2068 2069 2070 - 2071 - 2072 2073 2074 2075 2076 Events The Nicktoon My Life as a Teenage Robot takes place in 2072. ...


Respondent confidentiality

The sole purpose of the censuses and surveys is to secure general statistical information. Replies are obtained from individuals and establishments only to enable the compilation of such general statistics. The confidentiality of these replies is very important. By law, no one — neither the census takers nor any other Census Bureau employee — is permitted to reveal identifiable information about any person, household, or business.


Without such protections, certain people living illegally in the United States or in any other way hiding from the government would be deterred from submitting census data.


Historical FBI abuses of census data

As with any large collection of personal data which can be traced back to individual persons, the potential for abuse of census data exists. During the period of 1939–1941, the FBI, using primarily census records, compiled the Custodial Detention index ("CDI") on citizens, "enemy" aliens and foreign nationals who might be dangerous, which later led to large-scale internment of Japanese-Americans. [3][4] Custodial Detention Index (CDI) was based on massive list of US residents compiled by FBI during 1939-1941, in the frame of a program called variously Custodial Detention and/or Alien Enemy Control. The Custodial Detention Index was a list of suspects and potential subversives classified as A, B, and... Jerome War Relocation Center in Jerome, Arkansas Japanese people heading off to an internment camp. ...


Data analysis

Regions and divisions

US Census Bureau Population Regions
US Census Bureau Population Regions

The bureau recognizes four census regions within the United States, and further organizes them into nine divisions. These regions are groupings of states that subdivide the United States for the presentation of data. They should not be construed as necessarily being thus grouped owing to any geographical, historical, or cultural bonds. Image File history File links US_Census_geographical_region_map. ... Image File history File links US_Census_geographical_region_map. ... Look up Region in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

US Census Regions
Region 1: Northeast Region 2: Midwest Region 3: South Region 4: West

The U.S. Northeast is a region of the United States of America defined by the US Census Bureau. ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... The U.S. Southern states or the South, also known colloquially as Dixie, constitute a distinctive region covering a large portion of the United States, with its own unique heritage, historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... As defined by the Census Bureau, the western United States includes 13 states: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington lincoln, and Wyoming. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Mid-Atlantic States. ... The East North Central States form one of the nine geographic divisions within the United States which are officially recognized by the United States Census Bureau. ... The West North Central States form one of the nine geographic divisions within the United States that are officially recognized by that countrys census bureau. ... The South Atlantic States form one of the nine divisions within the United States that are formally recognized by that countrys census bureau. ... The East South Central States constitute one of the nine geographic divisions within the United States that are officially recognized by that countrys census bureau. ... The West South Central States form one of the nine geographic divisions within the United States that are officially recognized by the United States Census Bureau. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ...

Quantitative state rankings

In the last decade, the Census Bureau has begun to rank the states of the Union in qualitative terms based on their quantitative figures so that people can more easily understand the changing dynamics of the country. The goal of this effort is to stir up national pride and understanding along with governmental participation at the state and federal level.


See also

The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... IPUMS is an acronym for the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... In 1978, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Developments (HUDs) Office of Policy Development and Research (PD&R) established HUD USER, an information source for housing and community development researchers, academics, policymakers, and the American public. ... The Regulatory Barriers Clearinghouse (RBC) collects, processes, assembles, and disseminates information on existing barriers that inhibit the production and conservation of affordable housing. ... In the United States, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has produced a formal definition of metropolitan areas, which are organized around county boundaries. ... The United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB) defines micropolitan and metropolitan statistical areas. ... A Micropolis (mini-city) is a demographics term that gained currency in the 1990s to describe growing population centers in the United States that are far removed from a large city, even 100 miles (160 km) or more. ... A census-designated place (CDP) is an area identified by the United States Census Bureau for statistical reporting. ...

References

Notes

  1. ^ Constitution of the United States, Article 1, Section 2: "The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct."
  2. ^ Homepage. IPUMS USA. Retrieved on December 17, 2005.
  3. ^ Confirmed: The U.S. Census Bureau Gave Up Names of Japanese-Americans in WW II. Scientific American (2007-03-30).
  4. ^ Papers show Census role in WWII camps. USA Today (2007-03-30).

General references

  • Anderson, Margo J. "Encyclopedia of the U.S. Census". Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2000. ISBN 1-56802-428-2.
  • Campbell-Kelly, Martin, and Aspray, William. Computer: A History of the Information Machine. New York: Basic Books, 1996. ISBN 0-465-02990-6.
  • Lavin, Michael R. "Understanding the Census: A Guide for Marketers, Planners, Grant Writers, and Other Data Users". Kenmore, N.Y. : Epoch Books, 1996. ISBN 0-89774-995-2.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
United States Census Bureau (604 words)
The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce.
Its mission is defined in the Constitution of the United States, which directs that the population be enumerated at least once every ten years, and the number of Representatives in Congress determined accordingly.
Censuses had been taken prior to the Constitution's ratification; in the early 1600s, a census was taken in Virginia, and people were counted in nearly all of the British colonies that became the United States.
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