FACTOID # 30: If Alaska were its own country, it would be the 26th largest in total area, slightly larger than Iran.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > United States Army Air Forces
United States Army Air Forces (USAAF)

USAAF Shoulder Sleeve Insignia
Active 1941-06-20 to 1947-09-17
Branch United States Army
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Gen. Henry H. Arnold, 1941-46
Gen. Carl Spaatz, 1946-47

The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was the aviation component of the United States Army primarily during World War II. The title of Army Air Forces succeeded the prior name of Army Air Corps in June 1941 during preparation for expected combat in what came to be known as World War II. Although countries such as ally Great Britain had its Royal Air Force as a separate Air Force, the Army Air Forces were part of the US Army and a direct precursor to the U.S. Air Force. The USAAF formally existed between 1941 and 1947 as an autonomous part of the U.S. Army, co-equal to the Army Ground Forces and Army Service Forces. Image File history File links Shield of the United States, Army Air Corps, Public Domain Image from af. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... General of the Air Force Henry Harley Hap Arnold GCB (June 25, 1886 – January 15, 1950) was an aviation pioneer and Chief of the United States Army Air Corps (from 1938), Commanding General of the U.S. Army Air Forces (from 1941 until 1945) and the first and only General... Carl Tooey Spaatz (June 28, 1891 – July 14, 1974) was an American general in World War II. Carl Andrew Spatz (Spaatz added the second a in 1937 at the request of his wife and daughters to clarify the pronunciation of the name) was born on June 28, 1891, in Boyertown... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... “RAF” redirects here. ... “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... The Army Ground Forces was one of the three autonomous components of the Army of the United States during World War II, the others being the United States Army Air Forces and Army Service Forces. ... The Army Service Forces was one of the three autonomous components of the Army of the United States during World War II, the others being the Army Air Forces and Army Ground Forces. ...

Contents

History

Lineage of the United States Air Force

  • ** The Air Corps became a subordinate element of the Army Air Forces on 20 June 1941, and it continued to exist as a combat arm of the Army (similar to Infantry) until disestablished by Congress with the creation of the U.S. Air Force in 1947.

The Aeronautical Division, U.S. Signal Corps (1907-1914) was the first progenitor of the United States Air Force. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps, was the name of the military aviation service of the United States Army from 1914 to 1918, and a direct ancestor of the United States Air Force. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Division of Military Aeronautics, also termed the Division of Military Aeronautics and Bureau of Aircraft Production (as both were created as coordinate components of the air arm by the same executive order), was the name of the Armys aviation organization for a brief period during World War I... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Army Air Service was a forerunner of the United States Air Force. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Origins of the air arm

The USAAF had its roots in a turn-of-the century effort at technology assessment of the progress of aviation. The issuance of a patent to the Wright Brothers in 1906, and the interest of President Theodore Roosevelt brought about the creation on August 1, 1907, of the Aeronautical Division of the Signal Corps, headed by Captain Charles deForest Chandler, established to develop all forms of flying. In 1908, the corps ordered a dirigible balloon and contracted with the Wrights for an airplane. Despite a crash that destroyed the first model, the Wright plane was delivered in 1909. The inventors then began to teach a few enthusiastic young officers to fly. The Wright brothers, Orville (August 19, 1871–January 30, 1948) and Wilbur (April 16, 1867–May 30, 1912), were two Americans generally credited with building the worlds first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and heavier-than-air human flight on December 17, 1903. ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Aeronautical Division, U.S. Signal Corps (1907-1914) was the first progenitor of the United States Air Force. ... Dirigible can refer to : an airship -- a lighter-than-air aircraft that can be steered and propelled through the air. ...


The progress of U.S. military aviation was slow in its early years. Congress voted the first appropriation for military aviation in 1911 and expanded the service into an Aviation Section in 1914. A provisional squadron was formed to support the Punitive Expedition under General John J. Pershing on the Mexican border in 1916 but failed, largely because of poor equipment unsuited to the harsh expeditionary conditions and bad maintenance. The Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps, was the name of the military aviation service of the United States Army from 1914 to 1918, and a direct ancestor of the United States Air Force. ... The Punitive Expedition of 1897 was a military excursion by a British force of 1,200 under Admiral Sir Harry Rawson that captured, burned, and looted the city of Benin, incidentally bringing to an end the highly sophisticated West African Kingdom of Benin. ... John Joseph Black Jack Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was an officer in the United States Army. ...


The importance of military aviation was established with its role in Europe during World War I. At the time of America's declaration of war against Germany on April 6, 1917, the Aviation Section was marginal at best. France asked the United States to provide an air force of 4,500 airplanes and 50,000 men, and with more enthusiasm than wisdom, Secretary of War Newton D. Baker asked for and received $640 million from Congress for aviation. The result was chaos. By May of 1918, it was clear that the Signal Corps was overtasked in the aviation mission. The War Department then set up a Air Service consisting at first of two agencies reporting directly to the Secretary of War: one under a civilian, to deal with the manufacturers, and one under a military officer, to train and organize units. In August President Woodrow Wilson appointed John D. Ryan, Second Assistant Secretary of War, to consolidate the whole under the aegis of the Air Service. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Newton Diehl Baker (December 3, 1871 - December 25, 1937) was an American politician in the Democratic Party, and a notable figure in the Progressive movement. ... The United States Army Air Service was a forerunner of the United States Air Force. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... John Dale Ryan (1915–1983) was a U.S. Air Force general. ...


As a result of the important role air power had played in the war, a movement developed during the 1920s and 1930s to create an independent air force. The model for this was the Royal Air Force in Great Britain, which early in 1918 had combined its Army and Navy air arms into the RAF. However the U.S. Army's leaders viewed the airplane primarily as merely a weapon for supporting infantry, and gave the Air Service a branch status comparable to that of the field artillery, responsible for procuring equipment and training units. Local ground forces commanders, none of them aviators, directed the aviation units. A series of boards and commissions studied and restudied the question of air organization, with no result other than approval of the name change to the U.S. Army Air Corps in mid-1926. “RAF” redirects here. ... 1. ...


The Air Corps Act of 1926 changed the name of the Air Service to the Air Corps, "thereby strengthening the conception of military aviation as an offensive, striking arm rather than an auxiliary service," and created an additional Assistant Secretary of War to help foster military aeronautics. Other provisions required that all flying units be commanded by rated personnel and that flight pay be continued, but the position of the air arm within the Department of War remained essentially the same as before. Perhaps the most promising aspect of the act for the Air Corps was the authorization to carry out a five-year expansion program, though inadequate funding limited growth to organizational changes and aircraft development.


The formulation of theories of strategic bombing (long-range bombardment intended to destroy an enemy nation's war-making potential) at the Air Corps Tactical School gave new impetus to arguments for an independent air force. Despite what it perceived as obstruction from the Army General Staff, much of which was attributable to a shortage of funds, the Air Corps made great strides during the 1930s. A doctrine emerged that stressed precision bombing of industrial targets by heavily armed long-range aircraft, and the Air Corps was given the mission of coastal defense. A General Staff is a group of professional military officers who act in a staff or administrative role under the command of a general officer. ...


The next major step toward a separate air force occurred in March 1935 with centralization of all combat air units within the United States into a single command called General Headquarters Air Force. GHQ Air Force took control of aviation operations away from corps area commanders, which had controlled them since 1920, and organized them administratively into four geographical districts headquartered in Los Angeles, Seattle, New York, and Tampa, and created a strike force of three wings.


GHQ Air Force was small in comparison to European air forces. Lines of authority were difficult as GHQ Air Force controlled only its combat units, with the Air Corps still responsible for all support functions, and the corps area commanders still in charge of all airfields and the support personnel manning them. The commanders of GHQ Air Force and the Air Corps, Major generals Frank Andrews and Oscar Westover, clashed philosophically over the direction in which the air arm was heading, adding to the difficulties. Frank Maxwell Andrews Lt. ... Oscar Westover (July 23, 1883 - September 21, 1938) was a major general and chief of the United States Army Air Corps when he died. ...


Creation and expansion of the Army Air Forces

The likelihood of U.S. participation in World War II prompted the most radical reorganization of the aviation branch in its history, developing a structure that gave it total autonomy by March 1942. On June 20, 1941, under a revision by the War Department of Army Regulation 95-5, Major General Henry H. Arnold, then Chief of the Air Corps, assumed the title of Chief of Army Air Forces, creating an echelon of command over all military aviation components. The AAF was directly under the orders of the Chief of Staff of the Army, General George C. Marshall. is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... War Department may refer to the military establishments of several different countries: British War Department Confederate War Department United States Department of War, under the leadership of the United States Secretary of War (until 1947) See also: defense minister This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists... General of the Air Force Henry Harley Hap Arnold GCB (June 25, 1886 – January 15, 1950) was an aviation pioneer and Chief of the United States Army Air Corps (from 1938), Commanding General of the U.S. Army Air Forces (from 1941 until 1945) and the first and only General... George C. Marshall George Catlett Marshall (December 31, 1880–October 16, 1959), an American military leader and statesman, was born into a middle-class family in Uniontown, Pennsylvania. ...


Arnold and Marshall agreed that the AAF would enjoy autonomy within the War Department until the end of the war, while its commanders would cease lobbying for independence. Marshall, a strong proponent of airpower, left understood that the Air Force would likely achieve its independence after the war. Soon after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, in recognition of importance of the role of the Army Air Forces, Arnold was given a seat on the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the planning staff that served as the focal point of American strategic planning during the war, so that the United States would have an air representative in staff talks with their British counterparts on the Combined Chiefs, and in effect gained equality with Marshall. is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States of America symbol The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a grouping comprising the Chiefs of service of each major branch of the armed services in the United States armed forces. ... The Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS) was the supreme military command for the western Allies during World War II. It was a body constituted from the British Chiefs of Staff Committee and the United States Joint Chiefs of Staff. ...


GHQ Air Force was replaced by the Air Force Combat Command, and its four geographical districts were converted in January 1941 into numbered air forces, with a subordinate organization of 54 groups. Organizationally, the Army Air Forces was created as a higher command echelon encompassing both Air Force Combat Command and the Army Air Corps, thus bringing all of the air arm under a centralized command for the first time. Yet these reforms were only temporary, lasting just nine months as the air arm streamlined in preparation for war, with a goal of centralized planning and decentralized execution of operations.


Executive Order 9082 [1] changed Arnold's title to "Commanding General, Army Air Forces" on March 9, 1942, making him co-equal with the commanding generals of the new Army Ground Forces and Services of Supply, the other two parts of the Army of the United States. War Department Circular No. 59 reorganized the Army Air Forces, disbanding the Combat Command (formerly GHQAF) and changing the Air Corps to a non-organizational combat arm, eliminating their layer of command. Replacing them were eleven numbered air forces (later raised to sixteen) and six major commands (which became eight in January 1943: Flying Training, Technical Training, Troop Carrier, Air Transport, Materiel, Air Service, Proving Ground, and Anti-Submarine Commands). In July 1943 Flying Training and Technical Training Commands merged into a single Training Command. is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Army Ground Forces was one of the three autonomous components of the Army of the United States during World War II, the others being the United States Army Air Forces and Army Service Forces. ... The Services Of Supply or SOS brach of the Army was created February 28th, 1942 with Executive Order Number 9082 Reorganizing the Army and thr War Department [1]. On 24 May, 1942 the Services of Supply, ETO, was established in England with Maj. ... The Army of the United States is the official name for the conscription (U.S. term: draft) force of the United States Army that may be raised at the discretion of the United States Congress in the event of the United States entering into a major armed conflict. ...


As a result of its exponential growth during World War II, the Army Air Forces became the world's largest and most powerful air force. The expansion from the Air Corps of 1939, with 20,000 men and 2,320 planes (a limit set in 1934), to the autonomous AAF of 1944, with almost 2.4 million personnel and 80,000 aircraft, was a remarkable feat. Robert A. Lovett, the Assistant Secretary of War for Air, together with Arnold, presided over an increase of personnel and equipment greater than for either the ground Army or the Navy, while at the same time dispatching combat air forces to theaters of war all over the globe. Robert A. Lovett Robert Abercrombie Lovett (14 September 1895 - 7 May 1986) was the fourth United States Secretary of Defense, serving in the cabinet of President Harry S. Truman from 1951 to 1953 and in this capacity, directed the Korean War. ...

Growth of the US Army Air Forces in World War II, aircraft
Type of aircraft Dec 31, 1941 Dec 31, 1942 Dec 31, 1943 Dec 31, 1944 Aug 31, 1945 Date of maximum size
Grand total 12,297 33,304 64,232 72,726 63,715 July 1944 (79,908)
Combat aircraft 4,477 11,607 27,448 41,961 41,163 May 1945 (43,248)
Very heavy bombers - 3 91 977 2,865 August 1945 (2,865)
Heavy bombers 288 2,076 8,027 12,813 11,065 April 1945 (12,919)
Medium bombers 745 2,556 4,370 6,189 5,384 October 1944 (6,262)
Light bombers 799 1,201 2,371 2,980 3,079 September 1944 (3,338)
Fighters 2,170 5,303 11,875 17,198 16,799 May 1945 (17,725)
Reconnaissance 475 468 714 1,804 1,971 May 1945 (2,009)
Support aircraft 7,820 21,697 36,784 30,765 22,552 July 1944 (41,667)
Transports 254 1,857 6,466 10,456 9,561 December 1944 (10,456)
Trainers 7,340 17,044 26,051 17,060 9,558 May 1944 (27,923)
Communications 226 2,796 4,267 3,249 3,433 December 1943 (4,267)

SOURCE: Army Air Forces Statistical Digest (World War II), Table 84

Growth of the US Army Air Forces in World War II, Personnel
Date Total USAAF Tot Officers Tot Enlisted # overseas Officers o/s Enlisted o/s
July 31, 1939 24,724 2,636 22,088 3,991 272 3,719
December 31, 1939 43,118 3,006 40,112 7,007 351 6,656
December 31, 1940 101,227 6,437 94,790 16,070 612 15,458
December 31, 1941 354,161 24,521 329,640 25,884 2,479 23,405
December 31, 1942 1,597,049 127,267 1,469,782 242,021 26,792 215,229
December 31, 1943 2,373,882 274,347 2,099,535 735,666 81,072 654,594
Peak size (March 1944) 2,411,294 306,889 2,104,405 906,335 104,864 801,471
December 31, 1944 2,359,456 375,973 1,983,483 1,164,136 153,545 1,010,591
Peak overseas (Apr 1945) 2,329,534 388,278 1,941,256 1,224,006 163,886 1,060,120
August 31, 1945 2,253,182 368,344 1,884,838 999,609 122,833 876,776

SOURCE: Army Air Forces Statistical Digest (World War II), Table 4


War strategy

As Arnold's staff saw it, the first priority in the war was to launch a strategic bombing offensive in support of the RAF against Germany. The Eighth Air Force, sent to England in 1942, took on that job. After a slow and often costly effort to bring the necessary strength to bear, joined in 1944 by the Fifteenth Air Force stationed in Italy, strategic bombing finally began to get results, and by the end of the war, the German economy had been dispersed and pounded to rubble. The Eighth Air Force is a numbered air force (NAF) of the major command (MAJCOM) of Air Combat Command of the United States Air Force and it is headquartered at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana. ... Activated on November 1, 1943, the Fifteenth Air Force was established as part of the U.S. Army Air Force in the World War II Mediterranean Theater of Operations as a strategic air force and commenced combat operations the day after it was formed. ...


Tactical air forces supported the ground forces in the Mediterranean and European theaters, where the enemy found Allied air supremacy a constant frustration. In the war against Japan, General Douglas MacArthur made his advance along New Guinea by leap-frogging his air forces forward and using amphibious forces to open up new bases. The AAF also supported Admiral Chester Nimitz's aircraft carriers in their island-hopping across the Central Pacific and assisted Allied forces in Burma and China. This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... The word amphibious or amphibian, when used alone, has several possible meanings in the English language. ... Chester William Nimitz (February 24, 1885 – February 20, 1966) was the Commander in Chief of Pacific Forces for the United States and Allied forces during World War II. He was the United States leading authority on submarines, as well as Chief of the Navys Bureau of Navigation in 1939. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea... External link Central Pacific Railroad Photographic History Museum Categories: Corporation stubs | Historical stubs | Defunct railroad companies of the United States | California railroads | Nevada railroads | Utah railroads | Historic civil engineering landmarks ...


Arnold directly controlled the Twentieth Air Force, equipped with the new long-range B-29 Superfortresses used for bombing Japan's home islands, first from China and then from the Marianas. Devastated by fire-raids, Japan was so weakened by August of 1945 that Arnold believed neither the atomic bomb nor the planned invasion would be necessary to win the war. The fact that AAF B-29s dropped the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, nevertheless, demonstrated what air power could do in the future. The Strategic Bombing Survey provided ammunition for the leaders of the AAF in the postwar debates over armed forces unification and national strategy. Twentieth Air Force is a Numbered Air Force in Air Force Space Command (AFSPC). ... The Boeing B-29 Superfortress was a four-engine heavy bomber propeller aircraft flown by the United States Army Air Forces in World War II and other military organizations afterwards. ... The Home Islands refers to the four main islands of Japan: Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku, and Hokkaido. ... Mariana Islands (sometimes called The Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called the Ladrone Islands) are a group of islands made up by the summits of 15 volcanic mountains in the Pacific Ocean. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Operation Downfall was the overall Allied plan for the invasion of Japan near the end of World War II. The operation was cancelled when Japan surrendered following the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the Soviet Unions declaration of war against Japan. ... Citizens of Hiroshima walk by the A-Bomb Dome, the closest building to have survived the citys atomic bombing. ... The term strategic bombing survey refers to a series of American examinations of many topics related to their involvement in World War II. Some areas covered were the effectiveness of strategic bombing, medical treatment of casualties, inelegance/counter inelegance, and munitions construction and distribution. ...

  • Source: U.S. Air Force Historical Studies Office

Main Article: United States aircraft production during World War II B-24s under construction at Willow Run ¹July-December ²January-August Army Air Forces Statistical Digest (World War II), Aircraft and Equipment, Table 79 Category: ...


The sixteen air forces

USAAF recruitment poster.

By the end of World War II, the USAAF had created sixteen numbered air forces (First through Fifteenth and Twentieth) distributed world-wide to prosecute the war and defend the Americas, plus a Zone of the Interior general air force within the continental United States to support the whole. An additional eight air divisions served as an additional layer of command for the vast organization, capable of acting independently if the need arose. Several of these air forces and divisions grew out of earlier commands—for example, the Eighth Air Force was originally VIII Bomber Command, then later had its designation again assigned to the command when that organization was discontinued——as the service expanded in size and organization, with multiple lower tiers added and higher echelons such as United States Strategic Air Forces (USSTAF) in Europe and U.S. Strategic Air Forces in the Pacific became necessary to control the whole. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The United States Strategic Air Forces was the command body of the American strategic bomber forces in Europe during World War II. It was formed on 22 February 1944 by the redesignation of the Eighth Air Force. ...


Several air forces were created de novo as the service expanded during the war. Inclusive within the air forces and divisions were a total of 91 administrative command headquarters called wings, denoted as bombardment, fighter reconnaissance, training or composite as defined by their functional role. Larger support organizations, such as Air Transport Command (successor to the pre-war Air Corps Ferrying Command) remained under the control of Headquarters Army Air Forces, while their operational organizations (wings, groups, and squadrons) were assigned to the numbered air forces.


In August 1945, the U.S. Strategic Air Forces became the United States Air Forces in Europe (USAFE). In 1947, USAFE became a component of the newly-created United States Air Force. From 1948–49, the unit was responsible for the Berlin Airlift. Emblem of the U.S. Air Forces in Europe. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... The Soviet Union blocked Western rail and road access to West Berlin from June 24, 1948 - May 11, 1949. ...

USAAF recruitment poster.

While officially the air arm had become the Army Air Forces, colloquially the term Air Corps persisted among the public as well as veteran airmen, whose branch remained the Air Corps; in addition, the singular "Air Force" often crept into popular use, reflected by usage of the term "Air Force Combat Command" in 1941-42. This misnomer crept onto official recruiting posters (see image on right) and was important in promoting the idea of an "Air Force" as an independent service. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


List of numbered air forces (& Field of responsibility during WW2)

First Air Force (1 AF) (Now AFNORTH) is a numbered air force (NAF) in Air Combat Command (ACC). ... The Second Air Force was formed in the United States to provide air defense and train personnel of newly formed units in World War II. The Second was briefly a part of Air Defense Command after the war. ... Third Air Force was established in 1940 as the Southeast Air District to provide air defence for that part of continental United States, it also provided air defense and conducted combat training for personnel of newly formed units in World War II. After the war it served Tactical Air Command... Formed in the United States during World War II to provide air defense and combat training for the personnel of newly formed units, the Fourth Air Force was assigned, in turn, to Continental Air Forces, Air Defense Command, and Continental Air Command before inactivating in 1960. ... The Fifth Air Force (5AF), with headquarters currently located at Yokota Air Base,Japan, is one of very few numbered air forces of the United States Air Force never to have been based in the United States itself. ... Sixth Air Force was redesignated from the Caribbean Air Force in February 1942. ... The Seventh Air Force (7 AF) is a Numbered Air Force (NAF) under the Pacific Air Forces major command (MAJCOM) of the United States Air Force. ... The Eighth Air Force is a numbered air force (NAF) of the major command (MAJCOM) of Air Combat Command of the United States Air Force and it is headquartered at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana. ... Ninth Air Force is a Numbered Air Force in Air Combat Command (ACC). ... The USAAF Tenth Air Force was created for air combat operations in China-Burma-India (CBI) theater during World War II. In the years since World War II, the Tenth Air Force has served the air defense and reserve training programs. ... Military aircraft began to deploy to Alaska during the last half of 1940. ... Twelfth Air Force is a Numbered Air Force in Air Combat Command (ACC). ... Like the Fifth Air Force, the Thirteenth Air Force has never been stationed in the United States; it is also one of the oldest, continuously active, numbered air forces. ... The United States Fourteenth Air Force, also 14th Air Force (14 AF), is a Numbered Air Force (NAF) of Air Force Space Command (AFSPC). ... Activated on November 1, 1943, the Fifteenth Air Force was established as part of the U.S. Army Air Force in the World War II Mediterranean Theater of Operations as a strategic air force and commenced combat operations the day after it was formed. ... Twentieth Air Force is a Numbered Air Force in Air Force Space Command (AFSPC). ...

Air Force independence

Following the immense buildup in aviation infrastructure and personnel during the war, and in recognition of the tremendous new importance and strength of airpower, then President Harry S. Truman created the United States Department of the Air Force in 1947. This legislation renamed the aviation military group again to the United States Air Force, elevating it to a truly separate branch of the U.S. military. The Key West Agreement outlined the air assets that each service would be permitted to maintain, with the Air Force getting the bulk of strategic, tactical and transport aircraft. The Army was permitted light aircraft for reconnaissance, the transport of general officers and other miscellaneous duties, under the auspices of Army Aviation. This state-of-affairs lasted until the 1960's, when the advent of the jet-turbine helicopter and the concept of air-mobile brigades increased the size and scope of Army Aviation once again. For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Seal The United States Department of the Air Force was formed in 1949 and is a component agency of the United States Department of Defense. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Key West Agreement is the colloquial name for a policy paper entitled Functions of the Armed Forces and the Joint Chiefs of Staff drafted by James V. Forrestal, the first United States Secretary of Defense. ... Aerial warfare is the use of aircraft and other flying machines for the purposes of warfare. ...


People who served in the United States Army Air Forces

Many persons on this list also served in the United States Air Force after it became an independent service on September 18, 1947. “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Carl Bert Albert (May 10, 1908 – February 4, 2000) was a lawyer and a Democratic American politician from Oklahoma. ... The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. ... Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,898 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... The term Speaker is usually the title given to the presiding officer of a countrys lower house of parliament or congress (ie: the House of Commons or House of Representatives). ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... General of the Air Force Henry Harley Hap Arnold GCB (June 25, 1886 – January 15, 1950) was an aviation pioneer and Chief of the United States Army Air Corps (from 1938), Commanding General of the U.S. Army Air Forces (from 1941 until 1945) and the first and only General... General of the Army is a military rank used in some countries of the world to denote a senior military leader, usually a General in command of a nations Army. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Sy Bartlett was a U.S. author and screenwriter/producer of Hollywood films. ... Twelve OClock High is a 1949 film about the United States Army Air Forces crews who flew daylight bombing missions against Germany and occupied France during World War II. The movie was adapted by Sy Bartlett, Henry King (uncredited) and Beirne Lay Jr. ... Lloyd Millard Bentsen Jr. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... For other persons named Charles Bronson, see Charles Bronson (disambiguation). ... Merian C. Cooper Merian Caldwell Cooper (October 24, 1893, Jacksonville, Florida, USA — April 21, 1973, San Diego, California, USA, died of cancer) was an American aviator, American Air Force and Polish Air Force officer, adventurer, director, screenwriter and producer. ... Clyde Lorrain Cowan Jr (1919–1974) was a captain in the United States Army Air Force. ... Neutrinos are elementary particles denoted by the symbol ν. Travelling close to the speed of light, lacking electric charge and able to pass through ordinary matter almost undisturbed, they are extremely difficult to detect. ... James Gould Cozzens (1903 13 August 1903 - 8 August 1978) was a Pulitzer Prize-winning U.S. novelist. ... General Benjamin Oliver Davis, Jr. ... Tennessee Ernie Ford Ernest Jennings Ford (February 13, 1919 – October 17, 1991), better known by the stage name Tennessee Ernie Ford, was a pioneering U.S. recording artist and television host who enjoyed success in the country & western, pop, and gospel musical genres. ... Nathan Bedford Forrest III (April 7, 1905 - June 13, 1943) was a Brigadier General of the United States Army Air Force, and a great-grandson of Confederate general Nathan Bedford Forrest. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... For the World War II general, see Nathan Bedford Forrest III. Nathaniel Bedford Forrest (July 13, 1821–October 29, 1877) was a Confederate Army general during the American Civil War. ... William Clark Gable (February 1, 1901 – November 16, 1960) was an Academy Award-winning American film actor. ... This is an alphabetical list of notable male movie actors. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... The presidential seal was first used by president Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii The President of the United States (often abbreviated to POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... This article is about the American author. ... This article contains a trivia section. ... This article concerns the National Rifle Association of the USA. For the UK organisation, see National Rifle Association of the United Kingdom The National Rifle Association, or NRA, is a non-profit group for the promotion of marksmanship, firearm safety, and the protection of hunting and personal protection firearm rights... Major Arthur Harvey (sometimes referred to as Tex) was born in Edom, Rusk County, Texas, on September 26, 1895. ... Donald Jeffrey Herbert (born July 10, 1917 in Waconia, Minnesota), better known as Mr. ... Irv Homer is a radio talk show host in the Philadelphia market. ... C.V. Whitney, 2000 book cover Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney (February 20, 1899 - December 13, 1992) was an American businessman, film producer, writer, and government official, as well as the owner of a leading stable of thoroughbred racehorses. ... John Hay Whitney (August 27, 1904 in Ellsworth, Maine – February 8, 1982), colloquially known as Jock Whitney, was U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom, publisher of the New York Herald Tribune, and a member of the Whitney family. ... The office of United States Ambassador (or Minister) to the United Kingdom (also known as Ambassador to the Court of St. ... John Raymond Hope (May 4, 1919-June 13, 2002) was an American meteorologist who specialized in hurricane forecasting and was an on-air personality on The Weather Channel. ... Meteorology is the scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... This article is about weather phenomena. ... Bobby Jones won the first Grand Slam of golf in 1930. ... Augusta National Golf Club, a private golf club in Augusta, Georgia, is one of the most famous and exclusive golf clubs in North America. ... DeForest redirects here. ... Beirne Lay, Jr. ... Twelve OClock High is a 1949 film about the United States Army Air Forces crews who flew daylight bombing missions against Germany and occupied France during World War II. The movie was adapted by Sy Bartlett, Henry King (uncredited) and Beirne Lay Jr. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Curtis Emerson LeMay (November 15, 1906 – October 1, 1990) was a General in the United States Air Force and the vice presidential running mate of independent candidate George C. Wallace in 1968. ... Walter Matthau (October 1, 1920 – July 1, 2000) was an Academy Award-winning American comedy actor best-known for his role as Oscar Madison in The Odd Couple and his frequent collaborations with fellow Odd Couple star Jack Lemmon. ... George McGovern on May 8, 1972 cover of Time Magazine George Stanley McGovern, Ph. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Walter Michael Miller, Jr. ... Note that this partial list contains some authors whose works of fantastic fiction would today be called science fiction, even if they predate, or did not work in that genre. ... Richard Murphy (May 8, 1912 - May 19, 1993) was an award winning screenwriter. ... ... Screenwriters, scenarists or script writers, are authors who write the screenplays from which movies and television programs are made. ... “Reagan” redirects here. ... William Hubbs Rehnquist (October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer, jurist, and a political figure who served as an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States and later as the Chief Justice of the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial branch... Eugene Wesley Roddenberry (August 19, 1921 – October 24, 1991) was an American scriptwriter and producer. ... The current Star Trek franchise logo Star Trek is an American science fiction entertainment series and media franchise. ... Carl Tooey Spaatz (June 28, 1891 – July 14, 1974) was an American general in World War II. Carl Andrew Spatz (Spaatz added the second a in 1937 at the request of his wife and daughters to clarify the pronunciation of the name) was born on June 28, 1891, in Boyertown... Donald Kent Deke Slayton (March 1, 1924 – June 13, 1993) was one of the original Mercury Seven NASA astronauts. ... Original seven Astronauts portrait (L-R: Schirra, Shepard, Slayton, Grissom, Glenn, Cooper, Carpenter) The Mercury Seven was the group of seven Mercury astronauts picked in April 1959. ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless II using a manned maneuvering unit outside the U.S. Space Shuttle Challenger in 1984. ... Aaron Spelling (April 22, 1923 – June 23, 2006) was an American film and television producer. ... A Television producer oversees the making of television penis programs. ... For other persons named James Stewart, see James Stewart (disambiguation). ... Paul Warfield Tibbets, Jr. ... Joseph A. Walker - X-15 astronaut (NASA) Joseph Albert Walker (20 February 1921 - 8 June 1966) was an American military test pilot; in 1963, he made two X-15 flights past the 100 kilometer edge of space, the only spaceplane flights past that threshold made until SpaceShipOne in 2004. ... Test pilots are aviators who fly new and modified aircraft in specific maneuvers, allowing the results to be measured and the design to be evaluated. ... Senator Harris Wofford Harris Llewellyn Wofford (born April 9, 1926) is an American politician and member of the Democratic Party who served as a U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania from 1991 to 1995. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ... George Corley Wallace, Jr. ... This article is about Jack Warner, the head of Warner Brothers. ... Coleman Alexander Young (May 24, 1918 – November 29, 1997) served as mayor of Detroit in the U.S. state of Michigan from 1974 to 1994. ... Charles Elwood Chuck Yeager (born on February 13, 1923) is a retired Brigadier General in the United States Air Force and a noted test pilot. ... Esther Blake was the first woman in the Air Force. ... “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ...

Badges of the United States Army Air Forces

To denote the special training and qualifications required for membership in the USAAF, the following military badges (known colloquially but ubiquitously throughout the service as "wings") were authorized for wear by members of the Army Air Forces during World War II: Military badges of the United States are devices of personal recognition that are granted to service members of the United States armed forces to denote personal accomplishment, qualifications, and participation in designated military campaigns or other activities. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

These aviation qualification badges were typically worn in full three-inch size on service or dress uniforms, but two-inch versions were also authorized for less-formal shirt wear. Most aviation badges were made of sterling silver or were given a silver finish, and various devices were used to attach them to uniforms. These included the traditional pin and safety catch and, later, clutch-back fasteners. Most USAAF badges of World War II are now obsolete, having been superseded by later designs, and further information on them can be found under Obsolete badges of the United States military. The Aircrew Badge is a decoration of the United States military that is awarded by all five branches of military service. ... The Observer Badge is a military badge of the United States military which dates to the First World War. ... The Auxiliary Pilot Badge was a decoration of the United States military which was issued during the years of the Second World War. ... First World War Aviator Badge WWI Senior Aviator Badge Enlisted Aviator Badge A United States Aviator Badge refers to three types of aviation badges issued by the United States military, those being for Army, Air Force, and Naval aviation. ... The Observer Badge is a military badge of the United States military which dates to the First World War. ... First World War Aeronaut Badges The Balloon Pilot Badge is a military badge of the United States Armed Forces which was issued during the First and Second World Wars. ... Bombing Aviator Badge Bombardier Badge The Bombardier Badge was a military badge of the United States military which was issued between the years of 1918 and 1947. ... First World War Aviator Badge WWI Senior Aviator Badge Enlisted Aviator Badge A United States Aviator Badge refers to three types of aviation badges issued by the United States military, those being for Army, Air Force, and Naval aviation. ... The Flight Engineer Badge was a qualification badge of the United States Army Air Forces authorized late in the Second World War on 19 June 1945. ... The Flight Instructor Badge was a decoration of the United States Army during the years of the Second World War. ... Air Force Master Flight Nurse Badge Navy Flight Nurse Badge Army Air Force Flight Nurse Badge The Flight Nurse Badge is a military badge of the United States armed forces which is issued by the U.S. Air Force and United States Navy. ... The Flight Surgeon Badge is a military badge of the United States Armed Forces which has existed since the Second World War. ... The Auxiliary Pilot Badge was a decoration of the United States military which was issued during the years of the Second World War. ... The Gunner Badge was a military decoration of the United States Army Air Force and was issued during the years of the Second World War. ... The Auxiliary Pilot Badge was a decoration of the United States military which was issued during the years of the Second World War. ... Second World War Navigator Badge Master Navigator Badge The Navigator Badge is a military decoration of the United States Air Force which was first created during the Second World War. ... The Observer Badge is a military badge of the United States military which dates to the First World War. ... First World War Aviator Badge WWI Senior Aviator Badge Enlisted Aviator Badge A United States Aviator Badge refers to three types of aviation badges issued by the United States military, those being for Army, Air Force, and Naval aviation. ... First World War Aeronaut Badges The Balloon Pilot Badge is a military badge of the United States Armed Forces which was issued during the First and Second World Wars. ... First World War Aviator Badge WWI Senior Aviator Badge Enlisted Aviator Badge A United States Aviator Badge refers to three types of aviation badges issued by the United States military, those being for Army, Air Force, and Naval aviation. ... The Auxiliary Pilot Badge was a decoration of the United States military which was issued during the years of the Second World War. ... The Observer Badge is a military badge of the United States military which dates to the First World War. ... The Army Air Force Technician Badge was a decoration of the United States Army Air Force which was first created in 1941. ... Two versions (early and standard) of the WASP Badge The Women Airforce Service Pilots Badge is a decoration of the United States Army that was issued during the Second World War. ... Obsolete badges of the United States military are a number of U.S. military decorations which were issued in the early 20th century leading up to and including badges issued during the Second World War. ...


External links

  • Air Force History Overview
  • U.S. Army Air Forces in World War II: Combat Chronology 1941 - 1945
  • Air Power:The United States Air Force
  • A Guide to United States Air Force Lineage and Honors
  • Army Air Forces Aircraft: A Definitive Moment
  • AAFCollection.info Historical Army Air Forces training manuals and class books

Sources

  • ArmyAirForces.com — private site, comprehensive look at the USAAF. Includes searchable databases, histories, dictionary, and forum.
  • United States Army Center of Military History "Green Book" Chief of Staff: Prewar Plans and Preparations. Chap. IX: The Movement Toward Air Autonomy
  • USAAF.net — "Published accounts of the Army Air Forces in World War II available in the public domain."
  • USAAF in WWII — Combat chronology. Available for ZIP download.
  • Maurer, Maurer. Air Force Combat Units of World War II. 1986.
  • Allied Fighter Combat Footage - Watch combat footage from Allied fighters
  • USAAF 1941-1945
  • Night Fighter by J R Smith
  • USAAF roll of honour - 1944-45
  • USAAF roll of honour - Postwar
Preceded by
United States Army Air Corps
United States Army Air Forces
1941-1947
Succeeded by
United States Air Force

  Results from FactBites:
 
United states army air force - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (200 words)
Start the United states army air force article or add a request for it.
Look for "United states army air force" in Wiktionary, our sister dictionary project.
Look for "United states army air force" in the Wikimedia Commons, our repository for free images, music, sound, and video.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m