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Encyclopedia > United States Air Force Academy

United States Air Force Academy

Established 1954
Type Federal military academy
Superintendent Lt. Gen. John F. Regni
Staff 600 (approx.) faculty 75% military, 25% civilian
Undergraduates 4,000 (approx.)
Location Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA
Campus Air Force base, 18,000 acres
Nickname FightingFalcons
Mascot "The Bird"
Website www.usafa.af.mil

The United States Air Force Academy (USAFA or Air Force),[1] located immediately north of Colorado Springs in El Paso County, Colorado, United States, is an institution for the undergraduate education of officers for the United States Air Force. Graduates of the four-year program receive a Bachelor of Science degree and most are commissioned as second lieutenants in the United States Air Force.[2] The Academy is also one of the largest tourist attractions in Colorado, attracting more than a million visitors each year.[3] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 625 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1000 × 959 pixel, file size: 354 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): United States Air... The date of establishment or date of founding of an institution is the date on which that institution chooses to claim as its starting point. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States military academies, sometimes known as the United States service academies, are federal academies for the education and training of commissioned officers for the United States armed forces. ... The Superintendent is the senior officer at the United States Air Force Academy. ... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... Lt. ... Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... In some educational systems, undergraduate education is post-secondary education up to the level of a Bachelors degree. ... Colorado Springs is a middle-sized city, located just east of the geographic center of the state of Colorado in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... An Air Force Base (AFB) is a term used to designate a military base of a number of air forces, including the United States Air Force (USAF) and the South African Air Force (SAAF). ... An acre is the name of a unit of area in a number of different systems, including Imperial units and United States customary units. ... The F-16 Fighting Falcon is a modern multi-role jet fighter aircraft built in the United States and used by dozens of countries all over the world. ... For other uses, see Falcon (disambiguation). ... Millie, once mascot of the City of Brampton, is now the Brampton Arts Councils representative. ... This article is about the Air Force Academy mascot. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... The City of Colorado Springs is the second most populous city (after Denver) in the state of Colorado and the 48th most populous city in the United States. ... El Paso County is a county located in the U.S. state of Colorado. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... B.S. redirects here. ... Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ... “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ...


The Air Force Academy is among the most selective colleges in the United States, although many publications such as U.S. News and World Report do not rank the Academy directly against other colleges because of the Academy's special mission.[4][5] Candidates are judged based on their academic achievement, demonstrated leadership, athletics and character. To gain admission, candidates must also pass a fitness test, undergo a thorough medical examination, and secure a nomination, which usually comes from one of the candidate's members of Congress. Recent incoming classes have usually consisted of about 1400 cadets; just under 1000 of those usually make it through to graduation.[4] Cadets pay no tuition, but incur a commitment to serve a number of years in the military service after graduation.[6] U.S. News & World Report is a weekly newsmagazine. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political...


The program at the Academy is guided by its core values of "Integrity First, Service Before Self, and Excellence In All We Do," and based on four "pillars" of excellence: military training, academics, athletics and character development.[3] In addition to a rigorous military training regimen, cadets also take a broad academic course load with an extensive core curriculum in engineering, humanities, social sciences, basic sciences, military studies and physical education. All cadets participate in either intercollegiate or intramural athletics, and a thorough character development and leadership curriculum provide cadets a basis for future officership. Each of the components of the program is intended to give cadets the skills and knowledge that they will need for success as officers.

Contents

History

Establishment

Prior to the Academy's establishment, air power advocates had been pushing for a separate air force academy for decades. As early as 1918, Lt. Col. A.J. Hanlon wrote, "As the Military and Naval Academies are the backbone of the Army and Navy, so must the Aeronautical Academy be the backbone of the Air Service. No service can flourish without some such institution to inculcate into its embryonic officers love of country, proper conception of duty, and highest regard for honor."[7] Other officials expressed similar sentiments. In 1919, Congressman Charles F. Curry introduced legislation providing for an Academy, but concerns about cost, curriculum and location led to its demise.[7] In 1925, General Billy Mitchell testified on Capitol Hill that it was necessary "to have an air academy to form a basis for the permanent backbone of your air service and to attend to the. . . organizational part of it, very much the same way that West Point does for the Army, or the Naval Academy for the Navy."[7][8] Still, these arguments did not gain traction with legislators, and it was not until the late 1940s that the concept of the United States Air Force Academy began to take shape.[7] For other persons of the same name, see Charles Curry. ... For other people with the same name, see Billy Mitchell (disambiguation). ... Capitol Hill is the name of a district in the following cities: Capitol Hill, Denver, Colorado Capitol Hill, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Capitol Hill, Seattle, Washington Capitol Hill, Washington, DC It is also a common nickname for the United States Congress and the politicians who serve it (e. ...


Support for an air academy got a boost with the National Security Act of 1947, which provided for the establishment of a separate Air Force. As an initial measure, Secretary of the Air Force W. Stuart Symington negotiated an agreement where up to 25% of West Point and Annapolis graduates could volunteer to receive their commissions in the newly-established Air Force. However, this was only a short term fix, and disagreements between the services led to the establishment of the Service Academy Board by Secretary of Defense James Forrestal. In January 1950, the Service Academy Board, headed by Dwight D. Eisenhower, then president of Columbia University, concluded that the needs of the Air Force could not be met by the two existing U.S. service academies and that an air force academy should be established.[7] President Truman signs the National Security Act Amendment of 1949 with guests in the Oval Office. ... William Stuart Symington (June 26, 1901–December 14, 1988) was a U.S. businessman and political figure. ... USMA redirects here. ... The United States Naval Academy (USNA) is an institution for the undergraduate education of officers of the United States Navy and Marine Corps and is in Annapolis, Maryland . ... James Vincent Forrestal (February 15, 1892 – May 22, 1949) was a Secretary of the Navy and the first United States Secretary of Defense. ... Dwight David Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American General and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... The United States military academies, sometimes known as the United States service academies, are federal academies for the education and training of commissioned officers for the United States armed forces. ...


By 1954, Congress passed legislation to begin the construction of the Air Force Academy, and President Eisenhower signed it into law on April 1 of that year. The legislation established an advisory commission to determine the site of the new school. Among the panel members were Charles Lindbergh, General Carl Spaatz, and Lieutenant General Hubert R. Harmon, who later became the Academy's first superintendent. The original 582 sites considered were winnowed to three: Alton, Illinois; Lake Geneva, Wisconsin; and the ultimate site at Colorado Springs, Colorado. The Secretary of the Air Force, Harold E. Talbott, announced the winning site on June 24, 1954. Meanwhile, Air Training Command began developing a detailed curriculum for the Academy program.[7] Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles Augustus Lindbergh (4 February 1902 – 26 August 1974), known as Lucky Lindy and The Lone Eagle, was an American pilot famous for the first solo, non-stop flight across the Atlantic, from Roosevelt Field, Long Island to Paris in 1927 in the Spirit of St. ... Carl Tooey Spaatz (June 28, 1891 – July 14, 1974) was an American general in World War II. Carl Andrew Spatz (Spaatz added the second a in 1937 at the request of his wife and daughters to clarify the pronunciation of the name) was born on June 28, 1891, in Boyertown... Lieutenant General Hubert Reilly Harmon (1892-1957), after a distinguished combat career in World War II, was instrumental in developing plans for the establishment of the United States Air Force Academy. ... Historic Alton Home Alton is a city in Madison County, Illinois, United States, about 15 miles north of St. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Location of Lake Geneva, Wisconsin Road sign For the lake in Wisconsin, see Geneva Lake. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Largest metro area Greater Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to... The City of Colorado Springs is the second most populous city (after Denver) in the state of Colorado and the 48th most populous city in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... The Secretary of the Air Force is the civilian head of the United States Department of the Air Force, a component organization of the Department of Defense. ... Harold E. Talbott became the third Secretary of the Air Force on Feb. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Air Training Command (ATC) was a former United States Air Force command. ...


The early years

Cadets in parade dress
Cadets in parade dress

The early Air Force Academy leadership faced monumental tasks — not the least of which were the development of an appropriate curriculum, establishment of a faculty, design of a distinctive cadet uniform, oversight of the construction of the permanent site, and the creation of a structure for military and flight training. To establish the foundations of the Academy program, officials ultimately drew from sources within the Air Force, from West Point and Annapolis, and occasionally from outside the military entirely. Image File history File links AFA_grad. ... Image File history File links AFA_grad. ...


The Academy's permanent site had not been completed when the first class entered, so the 306 cadets from the Class of 1959 were sworn in at a temporary site at Lowry Air Force Base, in Denver on July 11, 1955. While at Lowry, they were housed in renovated World War II barracks. There were no upper class cadets to train the new cadets, so the Air Force appointed a cadre of "Air Training Officers" (ATOs) to conduct training. The ATOs were junior officers, many of whom had been graduates of West Point and Annapolis, who acted as surrogate upper class cadets until the upper classes could be populated.[7] The Academy's dedication ceremony took place on that first day, live on national television, with Walter Cronkite covering the event.[7] A cadet is a future officer in the military. ... Lowry Air Force Base, located in the cities of Aurora and Denver, Colorado until deactivated in 1994, was the site of a United States Air Force training base that was heavily involved with the training of United States Army Air Force bomber crews during WWII. It was permanently closed in... Nickname: Location of Denver in Colorado Location of Colorado in the United States Coordinates: , Country State Founded [1] November 22, 1858 Incorporated November 7, 1861 Government  - Type Strong Mayor/Weak Council  - Mayor John Hickenlooper (D) Area [1]  - City & County  154. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Look up cadre in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Air Training Officers (ATO) were specially selected commissioned officers who served as surrogate upperclass cadets at the United States Air Force Academy. ... Walter Leland Cronkite, Jr. ...


In developing a distinctive uniform for cadets, Secretary of the Air Force Harold Talbott was looking for "imagination" in the design. Talbott initially used military tailors, but was unhappy with their products.[9] As a result, the first classes of cadets wore temporary uniforms while the official uniform was developed. Secretary Talbott then sought out legendary Hollywood director Cecil B. DeMille for help. DeMille's designs — most notably his design of the cadet parade uniform — won praise from Air Force and Academy leadership, were ultimately adopted, and are still worn by cadets today. Hollywood redirects here. ... Cecil Blount DeMille (August 12, 1881 – January 21, 1959) was one of the most successful filmmakers during the first half of the 20th century. ...


The Class of 1959 established many other important traditions that continue until today. Most notably, the first class adopted the Honor Code, and chose the falcon as the Academy's mascot. In 1957, the Air Force cadets marched in the Inaugural Parade of President Dwight Eisenhower in Washington DC. On August 29, 1958, the wing of 1,145 cadets moved to the present site near Colorado Springs, and less than a year later the Academy received accreditation. The first USAFA class graduated and was commissioned on June 3, 1959. An honor code or honor system is a set of rules or principles governing a community based on a set of rules or ideals that define what constitutes honorable behavior within that community. ... For other uses, see Falcon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Air Force Academy mascot. ... Inauguration Day 2005 of President George W. Bush on the west steps of the U.S. Capitol. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... Wing is a term used by different air forces for a unit of command. ... Accreditation is a process by which a facilitys services and operations are examined by a third-party accrediting agency to determine if applicable standards are met. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Vietnam

The Vietnam War was the first war in which Academy graduates fought and died, and as such had a profound effect on the development of the character of the Academy. Because of the need for more pilots, Academy enrollment grew significantly during this time. The size of the graduating classes went from 217 in 1961 to 745 in 1970.[10] Academy facilities were likewise expanded, and training was modified to better meet the needs of the wartime Air Force. The Jack's Valley field training area was added, the SERE program was expanded, and light aircraft training started in 1968.[10] Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Cadets compete in the pugil stick competition in Jacks Valley Jacks Valley is a 3,300-acre training complex on the grounds of the United States Air Force Academy used for military field training. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Unsurprisingly, many Academy graduates of this era found themselves with early assignments to Southeast Asia, and many served with distinction in the conflict. F-4 pilot Steve Ritchie '64 and F-4 weapon systems officer Jeffrey Feinstein '68 each became aces, by downing five enemy aircraft in combat.[11][12] One hundred forty-one graduates died in the war, and thirty-two graduates became prisoners of war. Lance Sijan, '65, fell into both categories, becoming the first Academy graduate to be awarded the Medal of Honor.[13] Sijan Hall, one of the cadet dormitories, is named in his honor. Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The F-4 Phantom II (simply F-4 Phantom after 1990) is a two-place (tandem), supersonic, long-range, all-weather fighter-bomber built by McDonnell Douglas Corporation. ... Brigadier General Richard Stephen Steve Ritchie (born June 25, 1942 in Reidsville, North Carolina) was an officer in the United States Air Force and the Colorado Air National Guard, and a general officer in the Air Force Reserve. ... The F-4 Phantom II (simply F-4 Phantom after 1990) is a two-place (tandem), supersonic, long-range, all-weather fighter-bomber built by McDonnell Douglas Corporation. ... The Weapon Systems Officer (WSO, pronounced wizzo) is an air navigator directly involved in all air operations and weapon systems of the aircraft (fighter or bomber). ... Colonel (Ret. ... The Red Baron, Manfred von Richthofen, perhaps the most famous ace of all The first ace, Adolphe Pegoud being awarded the Croix de Guerre A flying ace or fighter ace is a military aviator credited with shooting down five or more enemy aircraft during aerial combat. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Lance Peter Sijan an American pilot, of Serbian (father) and Irish (mother) descent, with a rank of Captain in the USAF. He was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin on April 13, 1942. ... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ...


The effects of the anti-war movement were felt at the Academy as well. Because the Academy grounds are open to the public, the Academy often became a site for protests by anti-war demonstrators.[10] Regular demonstrations were held at the Cadet Chapel, and cadets often became the targets of protesters' insults. Other aggravating factors were the presence in the Cadet Wing of cadets motivated to attend the Academy for reasons of draft avoidance, and a number of highly publicized cheating scandals. Morale sometimes suffered as a consequence. “Conscript” redirects here. ...


Women at the Academy

An appointee from the Class of 1980 reports for in-processing

One of the most significant events in the history of the Academy was the admission of women. On October 7, 1975, President Gerald R. Ford signed legislation permitting women to enter the United States service academies. On June 26, 1976, 157 women entered the Air Force Academy with the Class of 1980. Because there were no female upper class cadets, the Air Training Officer model was revived, and fifteen young female officers were brought in to help with the integration process. The female cadets were initially segregated from the rest of the Cadet Wing, but were fully integrated into their assigned squadrons after the first semester. On May 28, 1980, 97 of the original female cadets completed the program and graduated from the Academy — just over 10% of the graduating class. Women currently comprise about 18% of the Cadet Wing.[4] Image File history File links AFA_80s_Lady. ... Image File history File links AFA_80s_Lady. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... Diverse women. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Air Training Officers (ATO) were specially selected commissioned officers who served as surrogate upperclass cadets at the United States Air Force Academy. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ...


Many of the women from those early classes went on to achieve success within the Cadet Wing. Kathleen Conley '80, was the first woman to graduate from the Academy, finishing eighth in her class. Michelle D. Johnson '81, was the first woman to serve as the Academy's Cadet Wing Commander — the senior ranking cadet — and was the Academy's first female Rhodes Scholar. Terrie Ann MacLaughlin '86, was the first female cadet to graduate top in her class. Many women from these classes also excelled after graduation. Susan J. Helms '80, is the first woman graduate astronaut, flying on four Space Shuttle missions and serving five months on the International Space Station. Heather Wilson '82, another Rhodes Scholar, became the first female veteran to serve in the House of Representatives in 1998. Brigadier General Dana H. Born '83, is currently the Academy's Dean of Faculty, and Brigadier General Susan Y. Desjardins '80 is currently the Academy's Commandant of Cadets — both are the first women to serve in their respective positions. Brig. ... Rhodes House in Oxford, designed by Sir Herbert Baker. ... Susan Jane Helms is a Brigadier General in the United States Air Force and a former NASA astronaut. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... ISS redirects here. ... Heather A. Wilson (born December 30, 1960), is a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives, representing New Mexicos 1st congressional district. ... Brig. ... Brig. ...


Despite these successes, integration issues were long apparent. Female cadets have had consistently higher dropout rates than men, and have left the Air Force in higher numbers than men.[14] Some male cadets also believed that the presence of women had softened the rigors of Academy life and that women received special treatment. According to at least one commentator, as many as ten percent of male Academy graduates in the late 1970s and early 1980s requested Army commissions, in part because of disillusionment over such issues.[15]


Campus and facilities

United States Air Force Academy, Cadet Area
(U.S. National Historic Landmark)
Cadet Chapel
Nearest city: Colorado Springs, Colorado
Coordinates: 39°00′30″N, 104°53′25.5″W
Built/Founded: 1958
Architect: Walter Netsch, Jr.

Skidmore, Owings & Merrill Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The City of Colorado Springs is the second most populous city (after Denver) in the state of Colorado and the 48th most populous city in the United States. ... Walter Netsch (1920-) is a German-American architect based in Chicago. ... The architectural firm of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill LLP (SOM) was formed in Chicago in 1936 by Louis Skidmore and Nathaniel Owings; in 1939 they were joined by John Merrill. ...

Architectural style(s): Modern
Designated as NHL: April 1, 2004[16]
Added to NRHP: April 1, 2004
NRHP Reference#: 04000484
Interior of Cadet Chapel
Interior of Cadet Chapel

The campus of the Academy covers 18,000 acres (73 km²) on the east side of the Rampart Range of the Rocky Mountains, just north of Colorado Springs. Its altitude is normally given as 7,258 feet (2,212 m) above sea-level, which is the elevation of the cadet area. The Academy was designed by architect Walter Netsch with the architectural firm of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill. On April 1, 2004, fifty years after Congress authorized the building of the Academy, the Cadet Area at the Academy was designated a National Historic Landmark.[16],[17] Modern architecture, not to be confused with contemporary architecture, is a term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A typical plaque showing entry on the National Register of Historic Places. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 501 pixelsFull resolution (1790 × 1120 pixel, file size: 462 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 501 pixelsFull resolution (1790 × 1120 pixel, file size: 462 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... The City of Colorado Springs is the second most populous city (after Denver) in the state of Colorado and the 48th most populous city in the United States. ... Walter Netsch (1920-) is a German-American architect based in Chicago. ... Shaklee Terraces, San Francisco, designed in 1982 with a flush aluminum and glass facade and rounded corners. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ...


The Cadet Area

The buildings in the Cadet Area were designed in a distinct, modernist style, and make extensive use of aluminum on building exteriors, suggesting the outer skin of aircraft and some spacecraft.[18] Aluminum is a soft and lightweight metal with a dull silvery appearance, due to a thin layer of oxidation that forms quickly when it is exposed to air. ...


The buildings in the Cadet Area are set around a large, square pavilion known as The Terrazzo, because the walkways are made of terrazzo tiles, set among a checkerboard of marble strips. The east quarter of the Terrazzo, known as the "Air Gardens", is a 700-foot long space with an ordered geometry of lighted pools, lowered grass sections and maze-like walkways. The Terrazzo area was designed by landscape architect Dan Kiley, and originally created a wooded sloping hill from the middle of the Terrazzo extending south to the valley below, creating a blend of natural and man-made environments.[17] This aspect of the landscape was eliminated with the building of Sijan Hall on the south side of the Terrazzo. Terrazzo with adapted Native-American design at the Hoover Dam Terrazzo is a faux-marble flooring or countertopping material. ... Dan Kiley Grounds of the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial in St. ...


The most recognizable building in the Cadet Area is the 17-spired[19] Cadet Chapel, and is often used as a symbol of the Academy itself. The subject of controversy when it was first built, it is now considered among the most beautiful examples of modern American academic architecture. The structure consists of 100 identical aluminum tetrahedrons, with colored glass in the spaces between the tetrahedrons. The chapel reaches a height of 150 feet, with an overall length of 280 feet and a width of 84 feet. Architect Walter Netsch said he was inspired in his design by the Sainte-Chapelle cathedral in Paris, the Cathedral of Chartres, and the Basilica of San Francesco d'Assisi in Italy.[20][17] The Cadet Chapel is built on two levels. The upstairs portion houses a 1,300 seat multi-denomination Protestant chapel; downstairs are a 500-seat Catholic chapel, a 100-seat Jewish chapel, and interfaith rooms used for services of other religions. Walter Netsch (1920-) is a German-American architect based in Chicago. ... La Sainte-Chapelle (French for The Holy Chapel) is a Gothic chapel on the Ile de la Cité in the heart of Paris, France. ... The Cathedral of Chartres (Cathedral of Our Lady of Chartres, French: Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres), located in Chartres, about 50 miles (80 km) from Paris, is considered one of the finest examples in all France of the Gothic style of architecture. ... The Basilica of San Francesco dAssisi (St Francis), the mother church of the Franciscan Order, is a World Heritage Site in Assisi, Italy. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination...


Cadets live in two dormitories, Vandenberg Hall and Sijan Hall. Vandenberg Hall, named after Air Force Chief of Staff General Hoyt S. Vandenberg, was the original cadet dormitory. Sijan Hall was built on the south side of the Cadet Area in 1968, in order to accommodate the expansion of the Cadet Wing to a strength of 4,417 cadets. Sijan Hall was dedicated on May 31, 1976. Known simply as the "New Dorm" until its dedication, it is now named after Captain Lance Sijan '65, the first USAFA graduate to be awarded the Medal of Honor. The Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force (CSAF) serves as the senior uniformed United States Air Force officer responsible for the organization, training, and equipage of more than 700,000 active-duty, National Guard, Reserve, and civilian forces serving in the United States and overseas. ... Hoyt Sanford Vandenberg (January 24, 1899–April 2, 1954) was an U.S. Air Force officer and director of the Central Intelligence Group. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lance Peter Sijan an American pilot, of Serbian (father) and Irish (mother) descent, with a rank of Captain in the USAF. He was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin on April 13, 1942. ... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ...


Several buildings in the Cadet Area are used for academics. Fairchild Hall, named after General Muir S. Fairchild, the first commander of Air University and later Vice Chief of Staff of the Air Force, is the main academic building and contains academic classrooms, laboratories and research facilities, faculty offices, and the Robert F. McDermott Library. The Aeronautics Research Center (also known as the "Aero Lab") is just south of Fairchild Hall, and contains numerous aeronautical research facilities, including transonic, subsonic, low speed and cascade wind tunnels, engine and rocket test cells and simulators.[21] The Consolidated Education and Training Facility (CETF) was built in 1997 as an annex to Fairchild Hall. It contains chemistry and biology classrooms and labs, medical and dental clinics, and civil engineering and astronautics laboratories. The Cadet Area also contains an observatory and a planetarium for academic use. General Muir Stephen Fairchild was former vice chief of staff of the United States Air Force. ... Emblem of Air University Air University (AU) is a component of the United States Air Forces Air Education and Training Command, headquartered at Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama. ... Brigadier General Robert Francis McDermott (July 31, 1920 – August 28, 2006) was the first permanent Dean of the Faculty at the United States Air Force Academy, and later served as Chairman and CEO of USAA. He is often referred to as the Father of Modern Military Education for his contributions... NASA wind tunnel with the model of a plane A wind tunnel is a research tool developed to assist with studying the effects of air moving over or around solid objects. ...

The Campus in 1988

Mitchell Hall, named after air power pioneer Brigadier General William "Billy" Mitchell, is the cadet dining facility, which has the ability to feed the entire Cadet Wing at one time. The cadet social center is Arnold Hall, named after General of the Air Force Henry H. "Hap" Arnold, commanding general of the United States Army Air Forces during World War II. Arnold Hall houses a 3000-seat theater, a ballroom, and a number of lounge and recreation facilities for cadets and visitors. Harmon Hall is the primary administration building, which houses the offices of the Superintendent and the Superintendent's staff. It is named after Lieutenant General Hubert R. Harmon, the first Superintendent of the Academy. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 509 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,100 × 700 pixels, file size: 174 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 509 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,100 × 700 pixels, file size: 174 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For other people with the same name, see Billy Mitchell (disambiguation). ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... General of the Air Force Henry Harley Hap Arnold GCB (June 25, 1886 – January 15, 1950) was an aviation pioneer and Chief of the United States Army Air Corps (from 1938), Commanding General of the U.S. Army Air Forces (from 1941 until 1945) and the first and only General... The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was the aviation component of the United States Army primarily during World War II. The title of Army Air Forces succeeded the prior name of Army Air Corps in June 1941 during preparation for expected combat in what came to be known as... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Superintendent is the senior officer at the United States Air Force Academy. ... Lieutenant General Hubert Reilly Harmon (1892-1957), after a distinguished combat career in World War II, was instrumental in developing plans for the establishment of the United States Air Force Academy. ... The Superintendent is the senior officer at the United States Air Force Academy. ...


The Cadet Area also contains numerous athletic facilities for use by cadets participating in intercollegate athletics, intramural athletics, physical education classes, and other physical training. Set amid numerous outdoor athletic fields, the Cadet Gymnasium contains basketball gyms, indoor tennis courts, an Olympic-size swimming and diving pool, a water polo pool, numerous squash and racquetball courts, two weight-training rooms with state-of-the-art equipment, and specialized facilities for volleyball, fencing, gymnastics and boxing. The gymnasium also houses a human performance laboratory complete with hydrostatic weighing equipment, sports psychology and vision testing capabilities, and aerobic testing equipment. The Cadet Fieldhouse contains the 6000-seat Clune Arena (named after long-time USAFA Director of Athletics Colonel John J. Clune ), a 2600-seat ice hockey rink, and an indoor track that doubles as a practice facility for a number of sports. The indoor track is 97 yards long — just three yards shy of a regulation football field. Falcon Stadium, located outside of the Cadet Area, is the home of Air Force Academy football, and the site of the graduation ceremonies for each year's graduating class.[22] Clune Arena is a multi-purpose arena in Colorado Springs, Colorado. ... Colonel John J. Clune was the long-time Director of Athletics at the United States Air Force Academy. ... The Cadet Field House Ice Arena is a 2,500-seat multi-purpose arena on the grounds of the United States Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, Colorado. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... Falcon Stadium is a stadium in Colorado Springs, Colorado. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ...

The Class Wall in 2004
The Class Wall in 2004

There are many displays throughout the Cadet Area, commemorating heroes and air power pioneers, and meant to serve as inspiration to cadets. The War Memorial, a black marble wall, located just under the flagpole on the Terrazzo, etched with the names of Academy graduates who have been killed in combat. The Honor Wall, overlooking the Terrazzo, is inscribed with the Academy's Honor Code: "We will not lie, steal, or cheat, nor tolerate among us anyone who does." Just under the Cadet Chapel, the Class Wall bears the crests of each of the Academy's graduating classes. The crest of the current first (senior) class is displayed in the center position. Another display often used as a symbol of the Academy itself, the Eagle and Fledglings Statue was given as a gift to the Academy in 1958 by the personnel of Air Training Command. It contains the inscription by Austin Dusty Miller, "Man's flight through life is sustained by the power of his knowledge." Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 752 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (800 × 638 pixel, file size: 198 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Class Wall at the United States Air Force Academy (Colorado Springs, Colorado) - taken by myself on August 7, 2004. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 752 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (800 × 638 pixel, file size: 198 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Class Wall at the United States Air Force Academy (Colorado Springs, Colorado) - taken by myself on August 7, 2004. ... Terrazzo with adapted Native-American design at the Hoover Dam Terrazzo is a faux-marble flooring or countertopping material. ... Air Training Command (ATC) was a former United States Air Force command. ...


There are also numerous static air- and spacecraft displays on the Academy grounds. These include an F-4, F-15, F-16 and F-105 on the Terrazzo; a B-52 by the North Gate; a T-38 and A-10 at the airfield; an F-100 by the preparatory school; a SV-5J lifting body next to the aeronautics laboratory; and a Minuteman III missile in front of the Field House. The F-4 Phantom II (simply F-4 Phantom after 1990) is a two-place (tandem), supersonic, long-range, all-weather fighter-bomber built by McDonnell Douglas Corporation. ... The McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle is an all-weather, extremely maneuverable, tactical fighter designed to permit the U.S. Air Force to gain and maintain air superiority in aerial combat. ... The F-16 Fighting Falcon is a modern multi-role jet fighter aircraft built in the United States and used by dozens of countries all over the world. ... The Republic F-105 Thunderchief was a single-seat, supersonic fighter-bomber used by the United States Air Force. ... Terrazzo with adapted Native-American design at the Hoover Dam Terrazzo is a faux-marble flooring or countertopping material. ... B-52 can refer to the following: The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress strategic bomber aircraft A hairstyle popular in the 1950s and 1960s, named after the aircraft A rock band, The B-52s, named after the hairstyle A cocktail This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which... The Northrop T-38 Talon is a widely used US-built supersonic jet trainer. ... The A-10 Thunderbolt II is a single-seat, twin-engine jet aircraft developed by Fairchild-Republic for the United States Air Force to provide close air support (CAS) of ground forces by attacking tanks, armored vehicles, and other ground targets, also providing a limited air interdiction role. ... F-100A Super Sabre The North American F-100 Super Sabre was a jet fighter aircraft that served with the USAF from 1954 to 1971 and with the ANG until 1979. ... The X-24 was an experimental US aircraft developed from a joint USAF-NASA program named PILOT (1963-1975). ... The LGM-30 Minuteman is a United States nuclear missile, a land-based intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) (the other type is the LG-118A Peacekeeper, which is to be phased out by 2005). ...


The Core Values Ramp (formerly known as the "Bring Me Men Ramp") leads down from the main Terrazzo level toward the parade field. On in-processing day, new cadets arrive at the base of the ramp and start their transition into military and Academy life by ascending the ramp to the Terrazzo. From 1964 to 2004, the portal at the base of the ramp was inscribed with the words "Bring me men..." taken from the poem, "The Coming American," by Samuel Walter Foss. In a controversial move following the 2003 sexual assault scandal, the words "Bring me men..." were taken down and replaced with the Academy's (later adopted as the Air Force's) core values: "Integrity first, service before self, and excellence in all we do." Terrazzo with adapted Native-American design at the Hoover Dam Terrazzo is a faux-marble flooring or countertopping material. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sam Walter Foss Sam Walter Foss, June 19, 1858 - February 26, 1911, was a full time librarian and poet whose most famous works included The House by the Side of the Road and The Coming American. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article concerns a particular scandal which received a great deal of media coverage. ...


Other locations on campus

Cadets have the opportunity to fly gliders as part of their training

Other locations on campus serve support roles for cadet training and other base functions. Doolittle Hall is the headquarters of the Academy's Association of Graduates, and also serves as the reception point for new cadets arriving for Basic Cadet Training. It is named after General Jimmy Doolittle. The Goldwater Visitor Center, named after longtime proponent of the Academy United States Senator Barry Goldwater, is the focal point for family, friends and tourists visiting the Academy grounds. The Academy Airfield is used for training cadets in airmanship courses, including parachute training, soaring and powered flight. Interment at the Academy Cemetery is limited to Academy cadets and graduates, certain senior officers, certain Academy staff members, and certain other family members. Air power notables Carl Spaatz and Curtis E. LeMay, are interred here. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x682, 192 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x682, 192 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... General James Harold Jimmy Doolittle, Sc. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... For other uses, see Airport (disambiguation). ... The United States Air Force Academy Cemetery is a cemetery at the United States Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, Colorado. ... Carl Tooey Spaatz (June 28, 1891 – July 14, 1974) was an American general in World War II. Carl Andrew Spatz (Spaatz added the second a in 1937 at the request of his wife and daughters to clarify the pronunciation of the name) was born on June 28, 1891, in Boyertown... Curtis Emerson LeMay (November 15, 1906 - October 3, 1990) was a General in the United States Air Force. ...


The United States Air Force Academy Preparatory School (usually referred to as just the "Prep School") is a program offered to selected individuals who were not able to obtain appointments directly to the Academy. The program involves intense academic (particularly English, math and science), athletic and military training to prepare the students for appointment to the Academy. A high percentage of USAFA Preparatory School students (known as "Preppies") earn appointments to the Academy following their year at the Prep School. The U.S. Air Force Academy Preparatory School, referred to as the prep school, was established in May 1961 and is located on the grounds of the United States Air Force Academy. ... The U.S. Air Force Academy Preparatory School, referred to as the prep school, was established in May 1961 and is located on the grounds of the United States Air Force Academy. ...


The Honor Code and character education

The Honor Code is the cornerstone of a cadet's professional training and development — the minimum standard of ethical conduct that cadets expect of themselves and their fellow cadets. The Honor Code was developed and adopted by the Class of 1959, the first class to graduate from the Academy, and has been handed down to every subsequent class.[23][24] The Code itself is simple: An honor code or honor system is a set of rules or principles governing a community based on a set of rules or ideals that define what constitutes honorable behavior within that community. ...

We will not lie, steal, or cheat, nor tolerate among us anyone who does.

In 1984, the Cadet Wing voted to add an "Honor Oath," which was to be taken by all cadets. The oath is administered to fourth class cadets (freshmen) when they are formally accepted into the Wing at the conclusion of Basic Cadet Training.[24] The oath remains unchanged since its adoption in 1984, and consists of a statement of the code, followed by a resolution to live honorably: This article is about the year. ...

We will not lie, steal or cheat, nor tolerate among us anyone who does.
Furthermore, I resolve to do my duty and to live honorably, so help me God.

Cadets are considered the "guardians and stewards" of the Code. Cadet honor representatives throughout the Wing oversee the honor system by conducting education classes and investigating possible honor incidents. Cadets throughout the Wing are expected to sit on Honor Boards as juries that determine whether their fellow cadets violated the code. Cadets also recommend sanctions for violations. Although the presumed sanction for a violation is disenrollment, mitigating factors may result in the violator being placed in a probationary status for some period of time. This "honor probation" is usually only reserved for cadets in their first two years at the Academy. For jury meaning makeshift, see jury rig. ...


To reinforce the importance of honor, character and integrity to future officers, cadets are given an extensive character and leadership curriculum. The Academy's Character and Leadership Education Division provides classroom, seminar, workshop and experiential-based learning programs to all cadets, beginning when they enter Basic Cadet Training, and continuing each year through their last semester at the Academy. The Center's programs, when coupled with the Honor Code and Honor System, establish a foundation for the "leaders of character" that the Academy aspires to produce.


Organization

Air Force Academy cadets celebrate after graduation

The Academy is organized on several levels. The entire base is set up much like a regular Air Force Base, but the Cadet Wing has an internal structure that operates somewhat independently from the rest of the base. Cadets in the U.S. Air Force Academy celebrate after graduation. ... Cadets in the U.S. Air Force Academy celebrate after graduation. ...


The Cadet Wing

The organization of the Academy has characteristics of a military unit and a civilian college. Like a civilian college, cadets are divided into four classes, based on their year in school. However, they are not referred to as freshmen, sophomores, juniors and seniors, but rather as fourth-, third-, second- and first-class cadets, respectively. Fourth-class cadets (freshmen) are sometimes referred to as "doolies," a term derived from the Greek word δουλος ("doulos") meaning "slave" or "servant."[25] Members of the three lower classes are also referred to as "4 degrees," "3 degrees" or "2 degrees" based on their class.[26] First-class cadets are referred to as "firsties." In the military structure of the Academy, first class cadets (seniors) act as the cadet officers, second class cadets (juniors) act as the cadet non-commissioned officers, and third class cadets (sophomores) as more entry-level enlisted grades. For other uses, see Student (disambiguation). ... Below are the insignia used by cadets at the United States Air Force Academy. ...


The Cadet Wing is sub-divided into four cadet groups, of ten cadet squadrons each. Each cadet squadron consists of about 110 cadets, roughly evenly distributed among the four classes. Selected first-, second- and third-class cadets hold leadership, operational and support jobs at the squadron, group and wing levels. Most activities at the Academy, including military training, marching, and intramural athletics, are organized by squadron. Each cadet squadron and group is supervised by a specially selected active duty officer called an Air Officer Commanding (AOC). In the case of a cadet squadron, the AOC is normally an active duty Air Force major. For a cadet group, the AOC is normally an active-duty lieutenant colonel. These officers have command authority over the cadets, counsel cadets on leadership and military career issues, oversee military training, and serve as role models for the future officers. For some other uses of the word group please see Group Group is a term used by different air forces for a unit of command. ... A Squadron is a small unit or formation of cavalry, aircraft (including balloons), or naval vessels. ... Air Officer Commanding (AOC) is a title given in the air forces of Commonwealth (and some other) nations to an air officer who holds a command appointment. ... Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ...


Base organization

The Superintendent of the Academy is the senior officer, and is normally an active-duty lieutenant general. The Superintendent oversees all aspects of the Academy, including military training, academics, athletics, admissions, and the administration of the base. The superintendent's role is similar to that of the president of a civilian university. Because the Academy is a Direct Reporting Unit, the Superintendent reports directly to the Air Force Chief of Staff. The Superintendent is the senior officer at the United States Air Force Academy. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... A Direct Reporting Unit (DRU) is an agency of the United States Air Force that is outside the bounds of the standard organizational hierarchy by being exclusively and uniquely under the control of Air Force headquarters alone, rather than reporting through a Major Command. ... The Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force (CSAF) serves as the senior uniformed United States Air Force officer responsible for the organization, training, and equipage of more than 700,000 active-duty, National Guard, Reserve, and civilian forces serving in the United States and overseas. ...


The Superintendent has command over several active duty (non-cadet) organizations that operate on the Academy, including the 34 Training Wing (34 TW) and the 10th Air Base Wing (10 ABW). The 34th Training Wing is responsible for all military training of cadets at the Academy. The 34th Training Wing commander is dual hatted as the Commandant of Cadets, and reports to the Superintendent of the United States Air Force Academy. The 10th Air Base Wing provides all base support functions that exist at other air force bases, including civil engineering, communications, medical support, personnel, administration, security forces and base services. All flying programs at the Academy are run by the 306th Flying Training Group. Originally part of the 34th Training Wing, flying training at the Academy now falls under the control of Air Education and Training Command to ensure more uniformity of flight training Air Force-wide. The 34th Training Wing (34 TRW) is a wing of the United States Air Force based at the Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, Colorado. ... The Superintendent is the senior officer at the United States Air Force Academy. ... The 10th Air Base Wing (10 ABW) is a United States Air Force unit that is the host wing for the United States Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, Colorado. ... The 306th Flying Training Group was redesignated on September 30, 2004 and activated on October 4, 2004. ... Air Education and Training Command (AETC), with headquarters at Randolph AFB near San Antonio, Texas, was established July 1, 1993, with the realignment of Air Training Command and Air University. ...


Board of Visitors

Congressional oversight of the Academy is exercised through a Board of Visitors, established under Title 10, United States Code, Section 9355. The Board inquires into the morale, discipline, curriculum, instruction, physical equipment, fiscal affairs, academic methods and other matters relating to the Academy. The Board meets at least four times per year and prepares semi-annual reports containing its views and recommendations submitted concurrently to the Secretary of Defense, through the Secretary of the Air Force, and to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the United States House of Representatives. The 15 members of the board are appointed by the President of the United States, the Vice President, the Senate and House Armed Services Committees, and the Speaker of the House of Representatives. In 2006, the Board organization was changed to require inclusion of two Academy graduates. The initial two appointees were Charles P. Garcia '83, and Nancy R. Kudla '80. The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... The Secretary of the Air Force is the civilian head of the United States Department of the Air Force, a component organization of the Department of Defense. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[1] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... This article is an autobiography, and may not conform to Wikipedias NPOV policy. ...


Military training

Basic cadets complete the obstacle course during BCT
Basic cadets complete the obstacle course during BCT

The cadets' primary military training happens over the summer. The first military experience for new or "basic" cadets occurs during the six weeks of Basic Cadet Training (BCT), in the summer before their fourth class (freshman) year. During BCT, cadets learn the fundamentals of military and Academy life under the leadership of a cadre of first and second class cadets. Basic cadets learn military customs and courtesies, learn proper wear of the uniform, practice marching, study military knowledge and undergo a rigorous physical training program. During the second half of BCT, basic cadets march to Jack's Valley, where they complete the program in a field encampment environment. Upon completion of BCT, basic cadets receive their fourth-class shoulder boards, take the Honor Oath, and are formally accepted as members of the Cadet Wing. Image File history File links AFA_OCourse. ... Image File history File links AFA_OCourse. ... Cadets compete in the pugil stick competition in Jacks Valley Jacks Valley is a 3,300-acre training complex on the grounds of the United States Air Force Academy used for military field training. ... Below are the insignia used by cadets at the United States Air Force Academy. ...


Recognition is a culmination of the freshmen (fourth class) year and has varied in length throughout the Academy's history. The 40 days preceding recognition are used to "ramp up" training and each day becomes more strenuous than the last as the fourth class ROE's become more and more difficult. The events included in recognition are kept secret from the freshmen (and many civilians) and begin after retreat on the last day of "ramp up." During recognition the freshmen are referred to as "SMACKS," "BASICS" or "4 degrees" and are placed under extremely stressful conditions, comparable to VMI's "breakout" or the United States Marine Crucible. At the end of recognition each fourth class cadet is given the "prop-and-wings" insignia signifying their "recognition" as a cadet in the wing. They are granted all privileges and are "free from the strips." Any cadet that does not perform up to the standards is "shunned," meaning other cadets may only speak to them for official reasons. Also, these cadets are not awarded the "prop-and-wings" insignia. They continue following fourth-class customs and courtesies until they are promoted to Third Class Cadet (sophomore). Sometimes the shunned cadet takes meals in silence and has no roommate. This article is about fish eggs. ... Look up retreat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... VMI is a 3 letter acronym for: Virginia Military Institute Vendor Managed Inventory Virtual Machine Interface Video Module Interface, a video bus standard, similar to VESA Feature Connector, VIP and AMC This page disambiguates a three-character combination which might be any or all of an abbreviation, an acronym, an... The United States Marine Corps Crucible is the final test in phase two of Marine Corps recruit training. ...


Following the first summer, the training becomes a bit more varied. Between their fourth and third class years, cadets undergo training in Air Force operations in a deployed environment (called "Global Engagement") and may participate in flying gliders or free-fall parachute training. From the late 1960s until the mid-1990s, cadets also completed SERE training between their fourth- and third-class years. This program was replaced with Combat Survival Training (CST) in 1995 and done away with entirely in 2005. SERE is scheduled to be reintroduced into the military training curriculum in summer 2008. During their last two summers, cadets may participate in a variety of programs, to include BCT cadre, travel to active duty Air Force bases, and a variety of other leadership, research and aviation programs. They may also be able to take courses offered by other services, such as the U.S. Army's Airborne School at Fort Benning, Georgia, or the Air Assault School, at Fort Campbell, Kentucky. During the academic year, all cadets take formal classes in military theory, operations and leadership. For other uses, see Glider (disambiguation). ... Skydiver redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Airborne Trooper The Airborne School is run by the 1st Battalion (Airborne), 507th Infantry, U.S. Army Infantry School, Fort Benning, Georgia. ... Fort Benning is a United States Army base, located southwest of Columbus in Muscogee and Chattahoochee counties in Georgia and Russell County, Alabama It is part of the Columbus, Georgia Metropolitan Statistical Area. ... The Sabalauski Air Assault School (TSAAS) is a FORSCOM TDA unit that trains leaders and soldiers assigned to the 101st Airborne Division (AASLT), other Army units and U.S. armed services in several courses annually. ... Fort Campbell is a large post of the United States Army located approximately ten miles northwest of downtown Clarksville, Tennessee. ...


Academics

The Eagle and Fledglings Statue at the south end of the Air Gardens in inscribed with the quote, "Man's flight through life is sustained by the power of his knowledge".
The Eagle and Fledglings Statue at the south end of the Air Gardens in inscribed with the quote, "Man's flight through life is sustained by the power of his knowledge".

The Air Force Academy is an accredited four-year university offering Bachelor's degrees in a variety of subjects. Approximately 75 percent of the faculty are Air Force officers, with the remaining 25 percent comprised of civilian professors, visiting professors from civilian universities, and instructors from other U.S. and allied foreign military services. In recent years, civilians have become a growing portion of senior faculty. All graduates receive a Bachelor of Science degree, regardless of major, because of the technical content of the core requirements. The Dean of the Faculty is usually an active-duty brigadier general, although a civilian may hold the position. Each academic department is chaired by a permanent professor, who is an active duty colonel, and staffed by both permanent professors and instructors who are serving on the faculty between operational Air Force tours. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ... B.S. redirects here. ... In an educational setting, a dean is a person with significant authority . ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: [1]) varies. ... For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... The Air Force Academy Professor Badge is a military decoration of the United States Air Force which was first created in the 1980s. ...


Cadets may major in a variety of divisional, disciplinary or inter-disciplinary subjects, including majors in engineering, the basic sciences, social sciences and humanities. The academic program has an extensive core curriculum, in which all cadets take required courses in the sciences, engineering, social sciences, humanities, military studies and physical education. Approximately sixty percent of a cadet's courseload is mandated by the core curriculum. As a result, most of a cadet's first two years are spent in core classes. During the third and fourth years, cadets have more flexibility to focus in their major areas of study, but the core requirements are still significant. The Core Curriculum was originally developed as the main curriculum used by Columbia Universitys Columbia College. ... The Michelson–Morley experiment was used to disprove that light propagated through a luminiferous aether. ... Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ... For other uses, see Humanities (disambiguation). ... Military science concerns itself with the study of the diverse technical, psychological, and practical phenomena that encompass the events that make up warfare, especially armed combat. ... Physical education (PE) is the interdisciplinary study of all area of science relating to the transmission of physical knowledge and skills to an individual or a group, the application of these skills, and their results. ...


Traditionally, the academic program at the Air Force Academy (as with military academies in general) has focused heavily on science and engineering, with the idea that many graduates would be expected to manage complex aeronautical, astronautical, and communications systems. Over time, the Academy has broadened its humanities offerings, and many cadets have sought to major in non-technical disciplines (notably more than the other U.S. service academies). This has been seen by some as inconsistent with the original academic focus of the Academy. Former Air Force Secretary James Roche was concerned enough that he ordered a revamping of the curriculum to reduce the workload of engineering majors. His goal was to encourage more cadets to pursue science or engineering studies. This effort was opposed by those who believed that engineering expertise could be provided by the defense industry, and that leadership, management and foreign studies requirements are at least as significant as historical demands for technical preeminence. Since Roche left the position, however, his effort appears to have been abandoned. The Secretary of the Air Force is the civilian head of the United States Department of the Air Force, a component organization of the Department of Defense. ... James G. Roche Dr. James G. Roche is the 20th Secretary of the Air Force. ...


Athletics

All cadets at the Academy take part in the extensive athletic program. The program is designed to enhance the physical conditioning of all cadets, to develop the physical skills necessary for officership, to teach leadership in a competitive environment and to build character.[27] The three primary elements of the athletic program are intercollegiate athletics, intramural athletics, physical education, and the fitness tests. The Academy's high altitude makes the physical fitness program particularly demanding, and gives the acclimated cadets a distinct advantage over visiting athletic teams from lower altitudes. Physical education (PE) is the interdisciplinary study of all area of science relating to the transmission of physical knowledge and skills to an individual or a group, the application of these skills, and their results. ...

"Thor," one of USAFA's trained peregrine falcon mascots.
"Thor," one of USAFA's trained peregrine falcon mascots.

Cadets are required to take physical education courses from a range of categories. Swimming and water survival build confidence while teaching important survival skills. Combative sports such as boxing, wrestling, judo and unarmed combat build confidence, teach controlled aggression, and develop physical fitness. Cadets also complete physical education classes in team sports such as basketball and soccer, "lifetime" sports such as tennis and golf, and take academic classes on the physiology of exercise. Each semester, cadets must pass an Aerobic Fitness Test — a timed 1.5 mile (2.4 km) run) — and a Physical Fitness Test, which consists of pull-ups, standing long jump, sit-ups, push-ups and a 600 yard run all done in a 15-minute time frame. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 1728 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 1728 pixel, file size: 1. ... Swimmer redirects here. ... For other senses of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer (disambiguation). ... This article is about collegiate wrestling. ... This article is about the martial art and sport. ... This article is about the sport. ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sport. ... Aerobic exercise refers to exercise that is of moderate intensity, undertaken for a long duration. ... Chin-up bars are playground equipment that were once ubiquitous on childrens playgrounds. ... The standing long jump is an athletic event that was featured in the Olympics from 1900 to 1912. ... A sit-up can refer to: Moving to a sitting postion from a lying postion Sit-up a form of exercise. ... A press up (also push up) is a common strength training exercise performed while lying horizontal and face down, raising and lowering using the arms. ...


All cadets are expected to compete in intramural athletics for their entire time at the Academy, as long as they are not "on-season" for intercollegiate athletics. Intramural sports pit cadet squadrons against one another in many sports, including basketball, cross-country, flag football, racquetball, flickerball, rugby union, boxing, soccer, mountain biking, softball, team handball, tennis, Ultimate, wallyball and volleyball. The term intramural is most commonly associated with sports within a school. ... This article is about the sport. ... The Minnesota State Highschool Cross Country Meet A cross country race in Seaside, Oregon. ... An Intramural game of co-ed flag football at the University of Texas at Austin Flag football is a version of American football that is popular across the United States. ... Racquetball racquet and ball Racquetball is a sport played with racquets and a hollow rubber ball on an indoor or outdoor court. ... Flickerball is a group sport played with a (American) Football in similar situations to dodgeball, such as Gym Class/PE (Physical Education) classes. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... For other senses of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer (disambiguation). ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... Mountain biker riding in the Arizona desert. ... Soft ball is also a sugar stage Softball is a team sport popular around the world but especially in the United States. ... Handball player leaps towards the goal prior to throwing the ball, while the goalkeeper extends himself trying to stop it. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... Ultimate (sometimes called ultimate Frisbee in reference to the trademarked brand name) is a non-contact competitive team game played with a 175 gram flying disc. ... Wallyball (known in some places as rebound volleyball) is a fast-paced sport that was invented by Joe Garcia in 1979. ... For the ball used in this sport, see Volleyball (ball). ...

Air Force Falcons logo
Air Force Falcons logo

The intercollegiate program has 17 men's and 10 women's NCAA sanctioned teams, nicknamed the '"Falcons"'.[27] Men's teams compete in football, baseball, basketball, ice hockey, cross-country, fencing, golf, gymnastics, indoor and outdoor track, lacrosse, rifle, soccer, swimming and diving, tennis, water polo and wrestling. Women's teams include basketball, cross-country, fencing, gymnastics, indoor and outdoor track, swimming and diving, soccer, tennis and volleyball. In addition, the Academy also sponsors two non-NCAA programs: cheerleading, and boxing. The men's and women's programs both compete in NCAA's Division I, with the football team competing in Division I FBS. Most teams compete in the Mountain West Conference; however, the gymnastics teams and men's soccer teams compete in the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation; the men's hockey team competes in Atlantic Hockey and the water polo team competes in the Western Water Polo Association. The men's boxing team competes in the National Collegiate Boxing Association. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A college football game between Colorado State and Air Force. ... This article is about collegiate wrestling. ... Youth Cheerleaders during a football halftime show. ... For other senses of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer (disambiguation). ... The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA, often pronounced N-C-Double-A or N-C-Two-A ) is a voluntary association of about 1,200 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States. ... Division I (or DI) is the highest level of intercollegiate athletics sanctioned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association in the United States. ... “Mountain West” redirects here. ... Gymnastics is a sport involving the performance of sequences of movements requiring physical strength, flexibility, balance, endurance, and kinesthetic awareness, such as handsprings, handstands, split leaps, aerials and cartwheels. ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... The Mountain Pacific Sports Federation is a College Athletic Conference whose member teams are located in the western United States. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... Atlantic Hockey is a college athletic conference which operates in the northeastern United States. ... Water polo is a team water sport that combines some elements of swimming and football. ... The Western Water Polo Association is a conference of colleges and universities in the western United States that compete in water polo. ... For other senses of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer (disambiguation). ... The National Collegiate Boxing Association (NCBA) was founded in 1976 as a non-profit, autonomous organization whose goal is to provide a safe, positive experience for student athletes pursuing the sport of boxing. ...


Air Force has traditional service academy rivalries with Navy and Army. The three service academies compete for the Commander in Chief's Trophy in football each year. Air Force Falcons football has had the best showing of the three, winning the trophy 16 of its 34 years. The Academy also has an in-state rivalry with Colorado State University, which is located in Fort Collins and is a fellow member of the Mountain West Conference. The United States Naval Academy (USNA) is an institution for the undergraduate education of officers of the United States Navy and Marine Corps and is in Annapolis, Maryland . ... USMA redirects here. ... The Commander-in-Chiefs Trophy is awarded to each seasons winner of the triangular college football series among the United States Military Academy (Army Black Knights), the United States Naval Academy (Navy Midshipmen), and United States Air Force Academy (Air Force Falcons). ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... Head coach Troy Calhoun 1st year, 7–3 Home stadium Falcon Stadium Capacity 52,480 - Turf Conference MWC First year 1955 Website GoAirForceFalcons. ... Colorado State University is a public institution of higher learning located in Fort Collins, Colorado in the United States. ... Horsetooth Rock, atop Horsetooth Mountain, is often used as a symbol of Fort Collins Fort Collins, situated on the Cache la Poudre River, is the largest city and county seat of Larimer County, Colorado. ... “Mountain West” redirects here. ...


Air Force has had great athletic success throughout its history. The boxing team, led for 31 years by Coach Ed Weichers, has won 19 national championships, and has never finished lower than second in the nation.[28] The Academy's men's and women's rugby union teams have both have won multiple national championships and the women's side recently had two players selected for the United States national team.[29] The football team has played in 17 bowl games, and the basketball team has had strong showings in the last several years, qualifying for the NCAA tournament and, most recently, making the final four of the 2007 NIT Tournament.[30] In 2007, the hockey team won their first ever Atlantic Hockey conference tournament, and made the first ever appearance by a service academy in the NCAA hockey tournament.[31] Eddie Weichers has been the head boxing coach at the United States Air Force Academy since 1976, and has led the Academys boxing team to 18 national collegiate boxing championships. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... A bowl game is a post-season college football game, typically at the Division I-A level. ... National Invitation Tournament logo The 2007 National Invitation Tournament is a single-elimination tournament of thirty-two National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I teams which are not participating in the 2007 NCAA Mens Division I Basketball Tournament. ...

See also: Air Force Falcons football

Head coach Troy Calhoun 1st year, 7–3 Home stadium Falcon Stadium Capacity 52,480 - Turf Conference MWC First year 1955 Website GoAirForceFalcons. ...

Admissions

To be eligible to enter the Academy, a candidate must:[32][33]

In addition to the normal application process, all candidates must secure a nomination to the Academy, normally from a U.S. Senator or U.S. Representative. Each member of Congress and the Vice President can have five appointees attending the Air Force Academy at any time. The process for obtaining a congressional nomination is not political, and candidates do not have to know their senator or representative to secure a nomination. Additional nomination slots are available for children of career military personnel, children of disabled veterans or veterans who were killed in action, or children of Medal of Honor recipients. The admissions process is a lengthy one, and applicants usually begin the paperwork during the second semester of their junior year of high school. “Citizen” redirects here. ... Department of Defense redirects here. ... Moral character or character is an evaluation of an individuals moral qualities. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Congress in Joint Session. ... The Vice President of the United States (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[1] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Former crewmembers of the battleship Missouri pose for photos shortly after the Anniversary of the End of World War II ceremony, held aboard the famous ship. ... Former crewmembers of the battleship Missouri pose for photos shortly after the Anniversary of the End of World War II ceremony, held aboard the famous ship. ... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ... For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ...


Controversies

Despite the exceptionally high standards expected of cadets, faculty and staff, and the fact that the selection processes are among the most thorough and most rigorous to be found, the Academy has not been immune from scandal.


Honor scandals

The first Honor scandal broke in 1965, when a resigning cadet reported knowing of more than 100 cadets who had been involved in a cheating ring. 109 cadets were ultimately expelled. Cheating scandals rocked the Academy again in 1967, 1972, 1984, 2004[35] and 2007.[36] Following each of these events, the Academy thoroughly examined the etiology of the mass cheating in addition to alleged excessive pressures that the academic system at the time placed on cadets and made changes in attempts to reduce the opportunities for future incidents.


Allegations of sexual harassment, assault, and gender bias

The sexual assault scandal that broke in 2003 forced the Academy to look more closely at how effectively women had been integrated into cadet life. According to the Fowler Commission report, due to poor leadership, sexual assault had become "a part of life at the Academy." Following the scandal and rising concerns about sexual assault throughout the U.S. military, the Department of Defense established a task force to investigate sexual harassment and assault at each of the United States service academies. The report also revealed 92 incidents of reported sexual assault.[37] At the same time, the Academy implemented programs to combat sexual assault, harassment, and gender bias. The new programs actively encourage prompt sexual assault reporting. The Academy's decisive actions of zero tolerance was praised by officials and experts.[38] While it was of no consolation to the Academy who has always subscribed itself to a higher standard, former Virginia Governor James S. Gilmore III, chair of the Academy's Board of Visitors, described curbing sexual assault on campuses as "a national challenge, not just an issue confined to the Air Force Academy." This article concerns a particular scandal which received a great deal of media coverage. ... The Fowler Commission was a seven-member congressional oversight panel dedicated to investigating charges concerning the United States Air Force Academys sexual assault reports. ... Sexual assault is any physical contact of a sexual nature without voluntary consent. ... Sexual assault is any physical contact of a sexual nature without voluntary consent. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Categories: People stubs | Politics stubs | 1949 births | Governors of Virginia ...


In late 2006, a military judge dismissed a rape charge against an accused cadet because the accuser's mental health professional refused a court order to release medical records of statements the accuser had made to her.[39] On January 10, 2007, the Associated Press reported that civilian prosecutors declined to file charges in an alleged sexual assault that started the aforementioned 2003 sexual assault scandal because they could not meet the required burden of proof.[40] is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Charges of religious proselytizing

In 2005, allegations surfaced that some Evangelical Christian cadets and staff were saying or doing things that some felt to be tantamount to religious proselytizing at the Academy.[41] These allegations, along with concerns over how the Air Force handles other religious issues, prompted Academy graduate Michael L. Weinstein[42] to file a lawsuit against the Air Force.[43] An Air Force panel investigated the accusations and issued its report on June 22, 2005.[44] The panel found a "religious climate that does not involve overt religious discrimination, but a failure to fully accommodate all members’ needs and a lack of awareness over where the line is drawn between permissible and impermissible expression of beliefs" (p. 3). Evangelicalism, in a strictly lexical, but rarely used sense, refers to all things that are implied in belief that Jesus is the savior. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Notable graduates

For a list of well-known graduates of the Academy, see:

Notable graduates of the United States Air Force Academy or Category: United States Air Force Academy graduates

For a list of well-known alumni who did not graduate, see: This article is a list of notable graduates of the United States Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, Colorado. ...

Notable non-graduate alumni of the United States Air Force Academy

This article is a list of notable individuals who attended the United States Air Force Academy but did not graduate. ...

See also

United States Air Force Portal

Image File history File links Seal_of_the_US_Air_Force. ... Air Force Academy is a census-designated place located in El Paso County, Colorado. ... The Jabara Award for Airmanship, named in memory of Colonel James Jabara, is awarded each year to the United States Air Force Academy graduate whose accomplishments demonstrate superior performance in fields directly involved with aerospace vehicles. ... Below are the insignia used by cadets at the United States Air Force Academy. ... // Originally started in 1989 at 104. ...

References

  • Bruegmann, Robert. Modernism at Mid-Century: The Architecture of the United States Air Force Academy. University of Chicago Press: 1995. ISBN 0–226–07693–8.
  • Celebrating the U.S. Air Force Academy's Golden Anniversary, (Colorado Springs) Gazette, Special Edition, Spring 2004.
  • Contrails (various years)
  • Fagan, George V. Air Force Academy: An Illustrated History. Johnson Books: 1988. ISBN 1–55566–032–0.
  • Fifty Years of Excellence: Building Leaders of Character for the Nation, 2004.
  • Lui, Elizabeth Gill. Spirit and Flight: A Photographic Salute to the United States Air Force Academy. 1996. ISBN 0–9652585–0-5.

Notes

  1. ^ Unlike the United States Military Academy at West Point and the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, which are often referred to by their respective city names, the Air Force Academy is not normally referred to as "Colorado Springs."
  2. ^ Since 1959, cadets have also been able to "cross-commission" into the Army, Navy or Marine Corps, and each year a small number of graduates does so, usually in a one-for-one "trade" with similarly inclined cadets at the other service academies. Foreign cadets and graduates who have lost their medical qualification while at the Academy (a small number each year) may receive a degree but are not commissioned.
  3. ^ a b A Quick Look at the U.S. Air Force Academy, USAFA Fact Sheet, June 2005
  4. ^ a b c Air Force Academy Admissions Web site, last visited Mar. 22, 2007.
  5. ^ "Unranked Specialty Schools: Service Academies," U.S. News and World Report
  6. ^ The commitment is normally five years, although it has varied. The obligation attaches on the first day of a cadet's second class (junior) year, and non-graduates after that point are expected to fulfill their obligations in enlisted service.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Steven A. Simon, "A Half-Century of History," Fifty Years of Excellence: Building Leaders of Character for the Nation, 2004.
  8. ^ M. Hamlin Cannon and Henry S. Fellerman, Quest for an Air Force Academy, 1974. (ASIN: B00071G1T6)
  9. ^ Bill Radford, "A Digger, a Director and a Practical Joker," (Colorado Springs) Gazette, USAF Academy 50th Anniversary Edition, Spring 2004.
  10. ^ a b c Bill McKeown, "Cadets Learned True Meaning of Service During Vietnam War," (Colorado Springs) Gazette, USAF Academy 50th Anniversary Edition, Spring 2004.
  11. ^ USAF Bio: Richard S. Ritchie, available at http://www.af.mil/history/person.asp?dec=&pid=123006498
  12. ^ Rebecca Grant, "The Missing Aces," Air Force Magazine, Sep. 2004.
  13. ^ Air Force Museum Fact Sheet: Capt. Lance P. Sijan, available at http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=1130
  14. ^ Pam Zubeck, Women, Blacks Face Different Obstacles," (Colorado Springs) Gazette, USAF Academy 50th Anniversary Celebration, Spring 2004.
  15. ^ Brian Mitchell, Women in the Military: Flirting With Disaster, 1998. (ISBN 978–0895263766)
  16. ^ a b United States Air Force Academy, Cadet Area. National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Retrieved on 2007-10-16.
  17. ^ a b c John H. Sprinkle, Ed., NHL Nomination Study, US Air Force Academy, Apr. 1, 2004
  18. ^ Particularly in the early days, cadets at the other service academies teasingly referred to USAFA as "Alcoa U" or "Aluminum U."
  19. ^ Although the number of spires has architectural significance only, cadets and chaplains sometimes joke that the seventeen spires represent the "12 apostles and the 5 Chiefs of Staff in the USAF's history up until that point.
  20. ^ Elizabeth Gill Lui, Spirit and Flight: A Photographic Salute to the United States Air Force Academy, 1996. (ISBN 0–9652585–0-5).
  21. ^ USAFA Department of Aeronautics, Aero Research Center, accessed on Mar. 21, 2007.
  22. ^ A Quick Look at the U.S. Air Force Academy, USAFA Fact Sheet, June 2005.
  23. ^ The Honor Code, USAFA Fact Sheet, July 2004.
  24. ^ a b USAF Academy Honor Code Handbook, 2003. Although the original code adopted was identical to West Point's Honor Code ("We will not lie, cheat or steal, or tolerate among us those who do."), it was modified slightly in 1960–61 to its current wording.
  25. ^ Although the official literature from the Academy still uses the word "doolie," the term was never particularly popular with the upper classes and fell into disuse. The term used more often is "SMACK" — originally a nonspecific derogatory term, but is now a backronym for "Soldier Minus Ability Courage and Knowledge" or "Soldier Minus Ability Coordination and Knowledge." Other terms include "Squat," "Wad," "Tool," and "Wedge" (the simplest tool.) Don Hall, Class of '76, created the popular character "Waldo F. Dumbsquat, whose Svejk-like innocence and good intentions overcome his abysmal ineptitude.
  26. ^ The "degree" terminology comes from a generic ordinal indicator used for classes in the early years of the Academy — for example, "2°" was read as "second class."
  27. ^ a b Athletics, USAFA Fact Sheet, April 2006
  28. ^ Profile: Coach Ed Weichers, USAFA Sports Site, last visited Mar. 30, 2007.
  29. ^ ZRFC History, last visited Mar. 30, 2007
  30. ^ "Comeback Effort Falls Just Short, 68–67," AP Wire Story, March 27, 2007.
  31. ^ David Albright, "Gophers Earn NCAA Hockey No. 1 Overall Seed," ESPN.com, accessed Apr. 9, 2007.
  32. ^ USAFA Admissions Eligibility
  33. ^ U.S. Air Force Academy Admissions Philosophy, USAFA Fact Sheet, April 2006.
  34. ^ USAFA Admissions: International Student Guidelines
  35. ^ Erin Emery, 19 AFA Cadets Admit Cheating, Denver Post, Feb. 8, 2007 In April 2004, cadets were given a military knowledge test over the computer in cadet dorms. An estimated 265 cadets were questioned for cheating then, when academy officials noticed it took only three minutes for cadets to take a 25-question test. Several cadets resigned during the investigation.
  36. ^ Chase Squires, "Air Force Academy Investigates Cheating," ABC News,February 7, 2007. Approximately 28 freshmen cadets, including 19 varsity athletes, were investigated for possible cheating on a military knowledge test. The answers were reportedly posted on a social-networking Web site.
  37. ^ Report of the Defense Task Force on Sexual Assault and Violence at the Service Academies, June 2005
  38. ^ David Kassabian, "Experts Praise AFA's Steps Against Sex Assault," Aimpoints, Oct. 7, 2005.
  39. ^ Tom Roeder, "Air Force Academy Rape Case is Dropped," Colorado Springs Gazette, Sep. 30, 2006.
  40. ^ "Academy Sex Assault Case Won't Go to Civilian Court," Air Force Times, Jan 12, 2007.
  41. ^ Zealots at the Air Force Academy, editorial, New York Times, Jun. 11, 2005
  42. ^ Weinstein's 2006 book With God on Our Side (ISBN 0-312-36143-2) details the alleged proselytization and harassment at the Academy.
  43. ^ Air Force Sued over Religion, CBS News, Oct. 6, 2005.
  44. ^ Report of HQ Review Group Concerning the Religious Climate at the U.S. Air Force Academy, June 22, 2005.

USMA redirects here. ... The United States Naval Academy (USNA) is an institution for the undergraduate education of officers of the United States Navy and Marine Corps and is in Annapolis, Maryland . ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... The Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force (CSAF) serves as the senior uniformed United States Air Force officer responsible for the organization, training, and equipage of more than 700,000 active-duty, National Guard, Reserve, and civilian forces serving in the United States and overseas. ... A backronym (or bacronym) is a phrase that is constructed after the fact from a previously existing abbreviation, the abbreviation being an initialism or an acronym. ... The Good Soldier Å vejk is an unfinished satirical novel by Jaroslav HaÅ¡ek. ... In written languages, an ordinal indicator is a sign adjacent to a numeral denoting that it is an ordinal number, rather than a cardinal number. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Factsheets : United States Air Force Academy : United States Air Force Academy (1092 words)
Nominations to the academy may be obtained through a congressional sponsor or by meeting eligibility criteria in other categories of competition established by law.
In 1948 a board of leading civilian and military educators was appointed to plan the curriculum for an academy that would meet the needs of the newly established Air Force.
The board determined that Air Force requirements could not be met by expanding the other service academies and recommended an Air Force academy be established without delay.
Vice President's Remarks at United States Air Force Academy Commencement (2867 words)
As leaders in the Air Force you will be participants in that transformation to make America far better able to meet the challenges of the 21st century.
And because you have transformed into an expeditionary air and space force, you are even more flexible and our reliance on your abilities has only grown.
We continue to depend on Air Force radar, photo, and infrared imaging, and on unmanned aircraft such as the Predator, which gathers data, sends it back to commanders in real time, then, if needed, fires on a target with pinpoint accuracy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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