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Encyclopedia > United Productions of America
United Productions of America


The UPA opening title card from "How Now Boing Boing" (1954) Image File history File links The UPA opening title card from How Now Boing Boing (1954) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Formation 1944
Key people John Hubley
Stephen Bosustow
Henry G. Saperstein

United Productions of America, better known as UPA, was an animation studio of the 1940s through 1970s, and a distributor of Japanese films from Toho Studios from the 1970s onward. The date of establishment or date of founding of an institution is the date on which that institution chooses to claim as its starting point. ... // July 20 - Since You Went Away is released. ... John Hubley (May 21, 1914 – February 21, 1977) was an animator and animation director known for both his formal experimentation and for his emotional realism which stemmed from his tendency to cast his own children as voice actors in his films. ... Stephen Bosustow (1911 - 1981) was an American cartoonist from 1944 until his retirement in 1959. ... The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... Toho Co. ...


Its legacy in the history of animation has largely been overshadowed by the commercial success of the vast cartoon libraries of Warner Brothers and Disney. Nonetheless, UPA had a significant impact on animation style and technique, and its innovations were recognized and adopted by the other major animation studios. UPA pioneered the technique of limited animation, and though this style of animation came to be widely abused during the 1960s and 1970s as a cost-cutting measure, it was originally intended as a stylistic alternative to the growing trend (particularly at Disney) of recreating cinematic realism in animated films. Warner Bros. ... The Walt Disney Company (NYSE: DIS) is one of the largest media and entertainment corporations in the world. ... Limited animation is a process of making animated cartoons that does not follow a realistic approach. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979. ...

Contents

History

Origins

UPA was founded in the wake of the Disney animators' strike of 1941, which resulted in the exodus of a number of long-time Walt Disney staff members. Among them was John Hubley, a layout artist who was unhappy with the ultra-realistic style of animation that Disney had been advocating. Along with a number of his colleagues, Hubley believed that animation did not have to be a painstakingly realistic imitation of real life; he felt that the medium of animation had been constrained by efforts to depict cinematic reality. Chuck Jones' 1942 cartoon The Dover Boys had demonstrated that animation could freely experiment with character design, depth, and perspective to create a stylized artistic vision appropriate to the subject matter. Hubley sought to produce animated films with sufficient freedom to express design ideas considered radical by other established studios. The bitter animators strike of 1941 at Walt Disney Studios was a psychological turning point within the company. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... For the company founded by Disney, see The Walt Disney Company. ... John Hubley (May 21, 1914 – February 21, 1977) was an animator and animation director known for both his formal experimentation and for his emotional realism which stemmed from his tendency to cast his own children as voice actors in his films. ... Chuck Jones in 1976 Charles Martin Chuck Jones (September 21, 1912 – February 22, 2002) was an American animator, cartoon artist, screenwriter, producer, and director of animated films, most memorably of Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies shorts for the Warner Bros. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... The Dover Boys at Pimento University or The Rivals of Roquefort Hall (better known as simply The Dover Boys) is a 1942 Merrie Melodies cartoon produced by Leon Schlesinger Productions and directed by Chuck Jones. ...


Hubley teamed with animators Zack Schwartz, Dave Hilberman and Stephen Bosustow to form a studio called first United Film Production and later Industrial Films and Poster Service, where they were free to apply their concepts. Finding work (and income) in the then-booming field of wartime work for the government, the small studio produced a cartoon sponsored by the United Auto Workers (UAW) in 1944. This cartoon was entitled Hell-Bent for Election (directed by Chuck Jones), a film produced for the re-election campaign of Franklin D. Roosevelt. The film was a theatrical success, leading to another notable effort, Brotherhood of Man (1946), also sponsored by the UAW. The film, directed by Bobe Cannon, advocated tolerance of all people regardless of ethnicity. The short was groundbreaking not only in its message but in its very flat, stylized design, in complete defiance of the Disney approach. With its new-found fame, the studio renamed itself United Productions of America (UPA). Stephen Bosustow (1911 - 1981) was an American cartoonist from 1944 until his retirement in 1959. ... The United Auto Workers (UAW), headquartered in Detroit, Michigan, officially the United Automobile, Aerospace & Agricultural Implement Workers of America International Union, is one of the largest labor unions in North America, with more than 500,000 members in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico organized into approximately 950 union... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Hell-Bent For Election was a 1944 two-reel (thirteen minute) animated cartoon short subject. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Initially UPA contracted with the government to produce animation, but the government contracts began to evaporate as the FBI began investigating suspected Communist activities in Hollywood in the late 1940s. No formal charges were filed against anyone at UPA in the beginnings of the Second Red Scare, but the government contracts were lost as Washington severed its ties with Hollywood. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the dangers of a Communist takeover. ...


Columbia Pictures and success

UPA moved to the crowded field of theatrical cartoons to sustain itself, and won a contract with Columbia Pictures. Columbia had historically been an also-ran in the field of animated shorts, and was not satisfied with the output of its Screen Gems cartoon studio. The UPA animators applied their stylistic concepts to Columbia's characters The Fox and the Crow with the shorts Robin Hoodlum (1948) and The Magic Fluke (1949), both directed by Hubley. Both shorts were nominated for Academy Awards and Columbia gave the studio permission to create its own new characters. UPA responded, not with another "funny animal," but a human character, a crotchety, nearsighted old man. The Ragtime Bear (1949), the first appearance of Mr. Magoo, was a box-office hit, and UPA's star quickly rose as the 1950s dawned. The Columbia Pictures logo from 1993 to the present Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Fox and the Crow are a pair of anthropomorphic cartoon characters created by Frank Tashlin for the Screen Gems studio. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Mr. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


With a unique, sparse drawing style that contrasted greatly with other cartoons of the day, not to mention the novelty of a human character in a field crowded with talking mice, rabbits, and bears, the Mr. Magoo series won accolades for UPA. Two Magoo cartoons won the Academy Award for Best Short Subject (Cartoons): When Magoo Flew in 1953 and Magoo's Puddle Jumper in 1955. This class was known as Short Subjects, cartoons from 1932 until 1970, and as Short Subjects, animated films from 1971 to 1973. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ...


In 1951, UPA scored another hit with Gerald McBoing-Boing, based on a story by Dr. Seuss. Gerald McBoing-Boing won UPA another Academy Award, and several UPA cartoons would receive Oscar nominations in the next few years. Also in 1951, UPA announced plans for a feature-length film based on the work of cartoonist and humorist James Thurber, to be titled Men, Women and Dogs.[1] (Just one of the Thurber pieces intended for this feature, The Unicorn in the Garden, was eventually released as a short subject.[2]) Shorts such as The Tell-Tale Heart and Rooty Toot Toot featured striking, sophisticated designs unlike anything offered by competing studios. The "UPA style" began to influence significant changes at the other major animation studios, including Warner Bros., MGM, and even Disney, ushering in a new era of experimentation in animation. Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A scene from UPA/Columbias Gerald McBoing-Boing. ... Theodor Seuss Geisel (March 2, 1904 – September 24, 1991) was a famous American writer and cartoonist best known for his classic childrens books under the pen name Dr. Seuss, including The Cat in the Hat, Green Eggs and Ham, How the Grinch Stole Christmas and One Fish Two Fish... James Grover Thurber (December 8, 1894–November 2, 1961) was a U.S. humorist and cartoonist. ... The Unicorn in the Garden is a short story written by James Thurber. ... The Tell-Tale Heart is a 1953 animated short film produced by UPA, which retells the Edgar Allan Poe story of a man who is haunted by the beating heart of the man he has murdered. ... Rooty Toot Toot is a 1952 UPA animated short film, directed by John Hubley. ... Warner Bros. ... MGM logo Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer or MGM, is a large media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of cinema and television programs. ...


Decline

The House Un-American Activities Committee hearings took a toll on UPA. Columbia, fearful of the investigations, pressured UPA to dismiss anyone with even the slightest hint of communist association, including writers Phil Eastman and Bill Scott (who was not himself under suspicion but tainted by association as Eastman's writing partner). Hubley, a political activist with genuine communist ties, was dismissed in May, 1952. When he left, much of the innovation and creativity of UPA left with him. The studio continued under the management of Bosustow, but the energetic, innovative quality of UPA's cartoons was irreparably damaged. UPA stopped producing theatrical cartoon shorts in 1959. HUAC hearings House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC or HCUA) (1938–1975) was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... Philip Dey Eastman (November 25, 1909–January 7, 1986) was a screenwriter and childrens author. ... William John Bill Scott (August 2, 1920 – November 29, 1985) was an American voice actor, writer and producer for animated cartoons, primarily associated with Jay Ward. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Turning to television

As the major Hollywood studios began cutting back and shutting down their animation studios in the early 1960s, UPA was in financial straits, and Steve Bosustow sold the studio to a new producer, Henry G. Saperstein. Saperstein turned UPA's focus to television to sustain itself. UPA expanded the Mr. Magoo series and brought it to television, along with other animated series, including an adaptation of the comic strip Dick Tracy. The studio continued to operate, but the tight schedules and reduced budgets had devastating effects on the product. UPA was forced to churn out cartoons at a far greater quantity than the studio had done for theatrical release; quality, particularly of the Mr. Magoo series, sank to an embarrassing level. The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... An animated series or cartoon series is a television series produced by means of animation. ... This article is about the comic strip, the sequential art form as published in newspapers and on the Internet. ... Dick Tracy is a long-run comic strip featuring a popular and familiar character in American pop culture. ...


The UPA style of limited animation was adopted by other animation studios, and especially by TV cartoon studios such as Hanna-Barbera Productions. However, it was implemented as a cost-cutting measure rather than an artistic choice. A plethora of low-budget, cheaply made cartoons over the next twenty years effectively reduced television animation to a commodity, despite UPA's original goal to expand the boundaries of animation and create a new form of art. Limited animation is a process of making animated cartoons that does not follow a realistic approach. ... Cartoon Network Studios, formerly known as Hanna-Barbera Cartoons, Inc. ...


One bright moment in the UPA television era came with Mr. Magoo's Christmas Carol (1963), which became the first episode of an animated TV series entitled The Famous Adventures of Mr. Magoo. Christmas Carol captured the spirit of Charles Dickens' tale in a manner that few of the many re-tellings of the story would, and it is considered to be a holiday classic of the 1960s, ranking alongside A Charlie Brown Christmas and How the Grinch Stole Christmas!.[3][4] Mr. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mr. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... For the album, see A Charlie Brown Christmas (album). ... // The cover to How the Grinch Stole Christmas! How the Grinch Stole Christmas! is one of the best-known childrens books by Dr. Seuss. ...


UPA produced two full-length feature films in its tenure: a 1959 feature starring Mr. Magoo entitled 1001 Arabian Nights, directed by Jack Kinney; and Gay Purr-ee in 1962, directed by Abe Levitow. Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jack Kinney (March 29, 1909 - February 9, 1992) was an animator, director and producer of animated shorts. ... Gay-Purree is an animated film musical produced by United Productions of America and released by Warner Bros. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Abe Levitow (July 2, 1922 - 8 May 1975) was an American animator who worked mainly at Warner Bros. ...


Abandoning animation and Toho Studios

Saperstein kept UPA afloat in the 1960s and beyond by abandoning animation production completely after the animation studio closed permanently in 1964 and sold off UPA's library of cartoons, although the studio retained the licenses and copyrights on Mr. Magoo, Gerald McBoing-Boing and the other UPA characters. This led to UPA contracting with DePatie-Freleng Enterprises studio to produce a new animated series called What's New Mr. Magoo? in the 1970s. Columbia Pictures retained ownership of UPA's theatrical cartoons. The studio's TV cartoon library is currently under license by Classic Media. The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... DePatie-Freleng Enterprises (sometimes abbreviated to DFE) was a Hollywood-based animation production company, active from 1963 to 1981. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979. ... The Columbia Pictures logo from 1993 to the present Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc. ...


Saperstein then led UPA into a contract with Toho Studios of Japan to distribute its "giant monster" (see kaiju and tokusatsu) movies in America. Theatrical releases, and especially TV syndication, of the Toho monster movies created a new cult movie market for Japanese monster movies, and such long-running television movie syndication packages such as Creature Double Feature exposed the Toho movie monsters to young American audiences, who embraced them and helped them maintain their popularity throughout the 1970s and 1980s. When Toho began producing a new generation of monster movies in the late 1980s, beginning with Godzilla 1985, UPA capitalized on its Toho contract and help introduce the new kaiju features to the Western world. Toho Co. ... Kaijū (怪獣) is a Japanese term that generically translates to monster. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A cult film is a movie that attracts a small but devoted group of obsessive fans or one that has remained popular over successive years amongst a small group of followers. ... For a scant moment, the 2006 WLVI CDF promo shows the old 1970s CDF logo with the old Kaiser WLVI logo 1980-era title card for WLVIs Creature Double Feature, featuring Gappa Creature Double Feature and shows like it were staples of local television markets through the 1970s and... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Return of Godzilla (sometimes known as Godzilla 1985) is a 1984 film. ...


Because of its long association with Toho, UPA is better known to cult-movie fans today as Toho's American distributor rather than a pioneer of animated cartoons. But the legacy of UPA is an important chapter in the history of American animation.


UPA continues to license the American library of Godzilla movies, even today. UPA's contract with Toho also resulted in Saperstein producing Woody Allen's first feature film, What's Up Tiger Lily?. Although Classic Media now owns the ancillary rights to most of the UPA library, UPA itself continues to hold the licensing rights to Mr. Magoo, and Saperstein was executive producer to Disney's unsuccessful live-action feature Mr. Magoo in 1997. For other uses, see Godzilla (disambiguation). ... Woody Allen (born Allen Stewart Königsberg on December 1, 1935) is a three-time Academy Award-winning American film director, writer, actor, jazz musician, comedian, and playwright. ... Whats Up, Tiger Lily? is the first film directed by Woody Allen. ... Classic Media, Inc. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar). ...


Classic Media/Sony Wonder began issuing the Mr. Magoo cartoon series on DVD in 2001, beginning with Mr. Magoo's Christmas Carol. Sony Wonder logo Sony Wonder was the childrens music and home video arm of Sony BMG Music Entertainment. ... DVD (Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


Theatrical filmography

The following is a complete listing of every UPA short released through Columbia Pictures from 1948 to 1959. 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

1948: 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ...

1949: Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ...

1950: Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • Punchy DeLeon
  • Spellbound Hound
  • The Miner's Daughter
  • Giddyap
  • Trouble Indemnity – Academy Award Nominee
  • The Popcorn Story
  • Bungled Bungalow

1951: Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • Gerald McBoing Boing – Academy Award Winner
  • The Family Circus
  • Barefaced Flatfoot
  • Georgie and the Dragon
  • Fuddy Duddy Buddy
  • Wonder Gloves
  • Grizzly Golfer

1952: Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...

1953: Rooty Toot Toot is a 1952 UPA animated short film, directed by John Hubley. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • Little Boy with a Big Horn
  • The Emperor's New Clothes
  • Safety Spin
  • Christopher Crumpet – Academy Award Nominee
  • The Gerald McBoing Boing Symphony
  • Magoo's Masterpiece
  • The Unicorn in the Garden (based on the fable by James Thurber)[1]
  • Magoo Slept Here
  • The Tell-Tale Heart – Academy Award Nominee

1954: Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... For a comparison of fable with other kinds of stories, see Myth, legend, fairy tale, and fable. ... James Grover Thurber (December 8, 1894–November 2, 1961) was a U.S. humorist and cartoonist. ... The Tell-Tale Heart is a 1953 animated short film produced by UPA, which retells the Edgar Allan Poe story of a man who is haunted by the beating heart of the man he has murdered. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • Bringing Up Mother
  • Ballet-Oop
  • Magoo Goes Skiing
  • The Man on the Flying Trapeze
  • Fudget's Budget
  • Kangaroo Courting
  • How Now Boing Boing
  • Destination Magoo

1955: Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ...

  • When Magoo Flew – Academy Award Winner
  • Spare the Child
  • Four Wheels and No Brake
  • Magoo's Check-Up
  • Baby Boogie
  • Magoo's Express
  • Madcap Magoo
  • Christopher Crumpet's Playmate
  • Stage Door Magoo
  • Rise of Duton Lang
  • Magoo Makes News

1956: Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • Gerald McBoing Boing on Planet Moo – Academy Award Nominee
  • Magoo's Canine Mutiny
  • Magoo Goes West
  • Calling Dr. Magoo
  • The Jaywalker – Academy Award Nominee
  • Magoo Beats the Heat
  • Magoo's Puddle Jumper – Academy Award Winner
  • Trailblazer Magoo
  • Magoo's Problem Child
  • Meet Mother Magoo

1957: Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ...

  • Magoo Goes Overboard
  • Matador Magoo
  • Magoo Breaks Par
  • Magoo's Glorious Fourth
  • Magoo's Masquerade
  • Magoo Saves the Bank
  • Rockhound Magoo
  • Magoo's Moose Hunt
  • Magoo's Private War

1958: Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • Trees and Jamaica Daddy – Academy Award Nominee
  • Sailing and the Village Band
  • Magoo's Young Manhood
  • Scoutmaster Magoo
  • The Explosive Mr. Magoo
  • Magoo's Three-Point Landing
  • Magoo's Cruise
  • Love Comes to Magoo
  • Spring and Saganaki
  • Gumshoe Magoo

1959: Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • Bwana Magoo
  • Picnics Are Fun and Dino's Serenade
  • Magoo's Homecoming
  • Merry Minstrel Magoo
  • Magoo's Lodge Brother
  • Terror Faces Magoo


Theatrical features

  • 1001 Arabian Nights (1959)
  • Gay Purr-ee (1962)

References

  1. ^ Priceless Gift of Laughter. Time Archive: 1923 to the Present. Time Inc. (1951-07-09). Retrieved on 2007-01-31.
  2. ^ The Unicorn In The Garden. The Big Cartoon Database. Retrieved on 2007-01-31.
  3. ^ Hill, Jim (November 28, 2006). Scrooge U: Part VI -- Magoo's a musical miser. JimHillMedia.com. Retrieved on 2006 12-25.
  4. ^ Conan, Neil (host) (2006-12-25). Choose Your Favorite Scrooge (audio). Talk of the Nation. National Public Radio. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  • Barrier, Michael (1999): Hollywood Cartoons. Oxford University Press.
  • Maltin, Leonard (1987): Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons. Penguin Books.
  • Solomon, Charles (1994): The History of Animation: Enchanted Drawings. Outlet Books Company.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Neal Conan (born 1949 in Beirut, Lebanon) is an American radio journalist. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 6 days remaining in the year. ... Talk of the Nation is a talk radio program based in the United States, produced by National Public Radio, and is broadcasted nationally on weekday afternoons (Eastern Standard Time). ... “NPR” redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

The Golden Age of American animation is a period in American animation history that began with the advent of sound cartoons in 1928 and lasted into the 1960s when theatrical animated shorts slowly began losing to the new medium of television animation. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
United Productions of America: Definition and Links by Encyclopedian.com (1489 words)
UPA pioneered the technique of limited animation, and though this style of animation was widely abused during the 1960s and 1970s, it was originally founded on an artistic vision of animation as a form of art.
UPA was founded in the wake of the Disney animators' strike of 1941, which resulted in a number of long-time employees of Walt Disney leaving the venerable studio for greener pastures.
UPA moved to the crowded field of theatrical cartoons to sustain itself, and quickly won a contract with Columbia Pictures to try to breathe life into their moribund cartoon studio.
United Productions Of America (1759 words)
The legacy of the United Productions of America animation studio, better known as '''UPA''', has largely been forgotten in the wake of the era of modern U.S. animation ; it has been overshadowed by the commercialization of the vast cartoon libraries of Warner Bros. and Disney.
UPA was forced to churn out cartoons at a far greater quantity than the studio had done for theatrical release; this caused the ''Mr.
Saperstein kept UPA afloat in the 1960s and beyond by abandoning animation production completely and selling off UPA's library of cartoons, though the studio retained the licenses and copyrights on Mr.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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