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Encyclopedia > United Press International
Front of UPI Headquarters, Washington, D.C.
Front of UPI Headquarters, Washington, D.C.

United Press International (UPI) is a global news agency, headquartered in the United States. With roots dating back to 1907, it was a mainstay in the press world and one of the three biggest news agencies, along with the Associated Press and Reuters. Its news stories are filed in English, Spanish and Arabic. Image File history File links External of United Press International building in Washington D.C. File links The following pages link to this file: UPI ... Image File history File links External of United Press International building in Washington D.C. File links The following pages link to this file: UPI ... UPI can stand for: United Press International, a global news agency headquartered in the U.S. Unique Personal Identificator Ultimate Protection Inc Category: ... A news agency is an organization of journalists established to supply news reports to organizations in the news trade: newspapers, magazines, and radio and television broadcasters. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pron. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ...

Contents

History

United Press Associations

Newspaper publisher E.W. Scripps, (1854-1926), created the first chain of newspapers in the United States. After the Associated Press refused to sell its services to several of his papers, Scripps combined three regional news services (the Publisher's Press Association, Scripps McRae Press Association, and the Scripps News Association) into the United Press Associations, which began service on June 21, 1907. Scripps founded United Press on the principle that there should be no restrictions on who could buy news from a news service.[citation needed] This formula made UP a direct threat to the monopolistic and exclusionary alliances of the major U.S. and European wire services of the time.[citation needed] “Publisher” redirects here. ... Edward W. Scripps (18 June 1854 - 12 March 1926) was an American newspaper publisher and founder of The E. W. Scripps Company, a diversified media conglomerate, and United Press International news syndicate. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about economic monopoly. ... A European is primarily a person who was born into one of the countries within the continent of Europe. ... A news agency is an organization journalists established to supply news reports to organizations in the news trade: newspapers, magazines, and radio and television broadcasters. ...


United Press became the only privately-owned major news service in the world at a time the world news scene was dominated by the Associated Press in the United States and by the news agencies abroad, which were controlled directly or indirectly by their respective governments: Reuters in Britain, Havas in France, and Wolff in Germany. William Randolph Hearst entered the fray in 1909 when he founded International News Service. Havas was the first French news agency, created in 1835 by Charles-Louis Havas. ... William Randolph Hearst (April 29, 1863 – August 14, 1951) was an American newspaper magnate. ...


The AP was owned by its newspaper members, who could simply decline to serve the competition. Scripps had refused to become a member of AP, calling it a "monopoly, pure and simple"[citation needed] and declaring it was "impossible for any new paper to be started in any of the cities where there were AP members."[citation needed] (AP appeared in 1848, when six New York City newspapers formed a cooperative to gather and share telegraph news, but the name Associated Press did not come into general use until the 1860s.) A monopoly (from the Greek language monos, one + polein, to sell) is defined as a persistent market situation where there is only one provider of a product or service, in other words a firm that has no competitors in its industry. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ... // The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA was built in the six year period between 1863 and 1869. ...


Scripps believed that there should be no restrictions on who could buy news from a news service and he made UP available to anyone, including his competitors. He later said: "I regard my life's greatest service to the people of this country to be the creation of the United Press."[citation needed]


Creating UPI

UPI Logo

Frank Bartholomew, UPI's last reporter-president, took over in 1955, obsessed with bringing Hearst's International News Service (INS) into UP. He put the "I" in UPI on May 24, 1958, when UP and INS merged to become United Press International. Hearst, who owned King Features Syndicate, received a small share of the merged company. Lawyers on both sides worried about anti-trust problems if King competitor, United Features Syndicate, remained a part of the newly merged company, so it was made a separate Scripps company, which deprived UPI of a persuasive sales tool and the money generated by Charles M. Schulz' popular Peanuts and other comic strips. Image File history File links Upiman1. ... Image File history File links Upiman1. ... A Female Reporter A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and presents information in certain types of mass media. ... International News Service (INS) was a news agency founded by William Randolph Hearst in 1909. ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... King Features Syndicate is a syndication company owned by The Hearst Corporation; it distributes about 150 comic strips, newspaper columns, editorial cartoons, puzzles and games to thousands of newspapers around the world. ... Media:Example. ... United Media is large editorial column and comic strip newspaper syndication service based in the United States, owned by The E.W. Scripps Company. ... Charles Monroe Schulz (November 26, 1922 – February 12, 2000) was a 20th-century American cartoonist best known worldwide for his Peanuts comic strip. ... Peanuts is a syndicated daily and Sunday comic strip written and illustrated by Charles M. Schulz, which ran from October 2, 1950, to February 13, 2000 (the day after Schulzs death). ... This article is about the comic strip, the sequential art form as published in newspapers and on the Internet. ...


The new UPI now had 6,000 employees and 5,000 subscribers, 1,000 of them newspapers.


Later that year, it launched the UPI Audio Network, the first wire service radio network. In 1960, subsidiaries included UFS, the British United Press, and Ocean Press. United Press Movietone, a television film service, was operated jointly with 20th Century Fox. Movietone News produced cinema newsreels from 1929-1979. ... Twentieth (20th) Century Fox Film Corporation (known from 1935 to 1985 as Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation) is one of the six major American film studios. ...


Decline

AP was a publishers' cooperative and could assess its members to help pay for extraordinary coverage of such events as wars, the Olympic Games, or national political conventions. UPI clients, in contrast, paid a fixed annual rate; UPI couldn’t ask them to help shoulder the extraordinary coverage costs. Newspapers typically paid UPI about half what they paid AP in the same cities for the same services: At one point, for example, The Chicago Sun-Times paid AP $12,500 a week, but UPI only $5,000; the Wall Street Journal paid AP $36,000 a week, but UPI only $19,300. The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... In politics, a political convention is a meeting of a political party, typically to select party candidates. ... The Chicago Sun-Times is an American daily newspaper published in Chicago. ... The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with an average daily circulation of 1,800,607 (2002). ...


UPI was hurt by changes in the modern news business, including the closing of many of America's afternoon newspapers, resulting in its customer base shrinking. It went through seven owners between 1992 and 2000, when it was acquired by News World Communications, owner of the Washington Times. Because News World Communications is owned by the Unification Church, this purchase raised concerns about editorial independence, most notably from UPI's best-known reporter, Helen Thomas, who resigned her position as UPI's chief White House correspondent after 57 years. News World Communications, Inc. ... The Washington Times is a daily newspaper published in Washington, D.C.. It was founded in 1982 as a conservative alternative to the Washington Post by members of the controversial Unification Church. ... The Unification Church is a new religious movement started by Sun Myung Moon in Korea in the 1940s. ... Freedom of the press (or press freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... President George W. Bush conveys birthday wishes to reporter Helen Thomas in the James S. Brady Press Briefing Room. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ...


Martin Walker, editor of UPI's English edition — a winner of Britain's 'Reporter of the Year' award when he was Deputy Editor-in-Chief at The Guardian — has said he has experienced "no editorial pressure from the owners." Editing may also refer to audio or film editing. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ...


Comeback

By 2007, UPI had become just a famous name, not a comprehensive news service. The company that in 1958 had 6,000 employees and 5,000 subscribers, 1,000 of them newspapers, now has fewer than 50 employees. UPI's end as a truly viable news service occurred in 1999 when its remaining contracts were sold to its one-time rival -- AP. With investment from News World in its Arabic- and Spanish-language services, UPI has stayed in business. In 2004, UPI won the Clapper Award from the Senate Press Gallery and the Fourth Estate Award for its investigative reporting on the dilapidated hospitals awaiting wounded U.S. soldiers returning from Iraq.


People of UPI

"From its inception, UPI was the underdog, offering young journalists little pay but a lot of opportunity.[citation needed] Time and again, the upstart, pocket-poor wire service managed to beat its competition.[citation needed] United Press editor Lucien Carr, whose roommate Jack Kerouac wrote On the Road on a continuous roll of UP teletype paper, once said that "UP's great virtue was that we were the little guy [that] could screw the AP." Jack Kerouac (pronounced ) (March 12, 1922 – October 21, 1969) was an American novelist, writer, poet, and artist. ... :This article is about the novel On the Road. ... A teleprinter (teletypewriter, teletype or TTY) is a now largely obsolete electro-mechanical typewriter which can be used to communicate typed messages from point to point through a simple electrical communications channel, often just a pair of wires. ...


(Kerouac was once speed-typing champion of the greater Boston area and complained that having to insert new sheets of paper so often slowed him down. Carr brought home a roll of UP teletype paper and Kerouac was delighted. He could put the paper into the typewriter once and type for days. The unusual manuscript brought 2.2 million at auction in 2001.) (http://www.rooknet.com/beatpage/index.html).


News people who worked for UPI are nicknamed "Unipressers". Famous Unipressers from UPI's past include journalists Walter Cronkite, David Brinkley, Howard K. Smith, Eric Sevareid, Helen Thomas, Pye Chamberlayne, Frank Bartholomew, Hugh Baillie, Vernon Scott, William L. Shirer (who is best remembered today for writing The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich) and The New York Times' Thomas Friedman. Walter Leland Cronkite, Jr. ... David Brinkley David McClure Brinkley (July 10, 1920 – June 11, 2003) was a popular American television newscaster for two different USA television networks, NBC, and later, ABC. From 1956 through 1970 he co-anchored NBCs top rated nightly news program, The Huntley–Brinkley Report with Chet Huntley. ... Howard K. Smith Howard Kingsbury Smith (May 12, 1914 – February 15, 2002) was an American journalist, radio reporter, television anchorman and commentator, and one of the original Murrow boys. ... Pioneering broadcast journalist Eric Sevareid. ... President George W. Bush conveys birthday wishes to reporter Helen Thomas in the James S. Brady Press Briefing Room. ... Shirer after winning a National Book Award in 1961 for his The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, pictured with fellow authors and award winners Conrad Richter and Randall Jarrell. ... Book cover The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich by journalist William L. Shirer was the first definitive history of Nazi Germany in English. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... Thomas Loren Friedman, OBE (born July 20, 1953), is an American journalist, author and a three-time winner of the Pulitzer Prize. ...


UPI (and AP) photographers saw their work published in hundreds of publications worldwide, including Life, LOOK, and other magazines, as well as newspapers in the United States. Under their work, the only credit line was "UPI". Not until after the 1970s, when their names began appearing under their pictures, did a number of UPI's photographers achieve celebrity within the journalism community. UPI photographers who won Pulitzer Prizes include Andrew Lopez (1960), Kyoichi Sawada (1966) Toshio Sakai (1968), and David Hume Kennerly (1972). Tom Gralish won a Pulitzer Prize and the Robert F. Kennedy Journalism Award in 1986 after leaving UPI for The Philadelphia Inquirer. Dirck Halstead founded "The Digital Journalist"; Books about UPI include Gregory Gordon and Ronald E. Cohen's"Down To The Wire," (1990); Richard M. Hartnett and Billy G. Ferguson's "Unipress" (2003), and Gary Haynes' "Picture This! the inside story of UPI Newspictures" with a Foreword by former Unipresser Walter Cronkite. (2006). Well-known photographers from UPI include Joe Marquette, Darryl Heikes, Carlos Shiebeck, David Hume Kennerly, Ernie Schwork, Ron Bennett, James Smestad, and Bill Snead. This is a list of notable photographers in the art, documentary and fashion traditions. ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation). ... Look was a weekly, general-interest magazine published in the United States from 1937 to 1971, with more of an emphasis on photographs than articles. ... David Hume Kennerly is a interationally respected photographer whose work has appeared in many of the most influential magazines and newspapers in the US. His career began in Roseburg, Oregon, where he published his first picture in the Roseburg High School newspaper. ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ... Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ... The Philadelphia Inquirer is one of a two Knight Ridder newspaper duopoly daily for the Philadelphia area. ...


Richard Harnett, who spent more than 30 years at UPI, recalls what is often considered its greatest achievement: Merriman Smith's Pulitzer Prize-winning coverage of John F. Kennedy's assassination. "Smith was in the press car...When he heard shots, he called in to the Dallas office and sent a flash bulletin," Harnett says. "The AP reporter started pounding on his shoulder to get to the phone, but Merriman kept it from him." (Quoted - Brill's Content, April 2001) President Kennedy with his wife, Jacqueline, and Texas Governor John Connally in the presidential limousine just moments before his assassination The assassination of John F. Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 p. ... Nickname: Motto: Live Large. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Arnaud de Borchgrave, Newsweek's chief foreign correspondent for 25 years, covering more than 90 countries and 17 wars, is currently UPI Editor-at-Large He began his journalistic career at UPI in 1946. Arnaud de Borchgrave is a conservative journalist of Flemish extraction who focuses on international politics. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


U.S. employees of UPI are represented by the News Media Guild. The News Media Guild (http://www. ...


Milestones

  • In 1908, UP pioneered the transmission of feature stories and use of reporter bylines.
  • In 1914, Edward Kleinschmidt invented the teletype, which replaced Morse code clickers in delivering news to newspapers. Press critic Oswald Garrison Villard credits United Press with the first use of the teletype.
  • In the 1920s and 1930s, United Press pioneered its financial wire service and organized the United Feature Syndicate.
  • Founded in the 1930's was "Ocean Press", a news service for oceanliners, comprised of copy from United Press and later United Press International. This ship-board publication was published by a separate corporate subsidiary of Scripps, but essentially under one roof with UP/UPI at the Daily News Building in New York. The subheadline under the "Ocean Press" logo was: "WORLDWIDE NEWS of UNITED PRESS . . . TRANSMITTED by RADIOMARINE CORPORATION OF AMERICA" ... which appears to have been a subsidiary of RCA. Some mastheads were labeled "UNITED PRESS - RCA NEWS SERVICE."
  • In 1935, UP was the first major news service to offer news to broadcasters.
  • 1945 saw it launch the first all-sports wire.
  • In 1948, UP Movietone, a newsfilm syndication service, was started with 20th Century Fox.
  • In 1951, United Press offered the first teletypesetter (TTS) service, enabling newspapers to automatically set and justify type from wire transmissions.
  • In 1952, United Press launched the first international television news film service.
  • The 'UPI March', as written and performed by the Cities Services Band of America under the direction of Paul Lavalle, debuted at the Belasco Theater in New York on December 9, 1952. The UPI March was also played at the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II.
  • In 1953, UPI had the first, fully automatic photo receiver, UNIFAX.
  • In 1958, it launched the UPI Audio Network, the first wire service radio network.
  • In 1974, it launched the first "high-speed" data newswire - operating at 1,200 WPM.
  • On April 19, 1979, UPI announced an agreement with Telecomputing Corp. of America to make the UPI world news report available to owners of home computers. Later, UPI was the first news service to provide news to dial-up services such as Prodigy, CompuServe and world-wide web search pioneers Yahoo! and Excite.
  • In 1981, UPI launched the first satellite data transmissions by a news agency.
  • In 1982, UPI pioneered an eight-level Custom Coding system that allows clients to choose stories based on topic, subtopic and location. It developed one of the first news taxonomies.
  • In 1984, UPI descended into the first of two Chapter 11 bankruptcies. In this period, a series of owners and managers tried launching several new products, while downsizing the original service.
  • In 1988, UPI broke the "all or nothing" news service tradition by introducing component products.
  • In 1993, UPI closed its bureaus and dismissed nearly all of its longtime employees, leaving them without pensions and medical benefits.
  • In 1998, UPI sold its broadcast operations to AP Radio, which shut it down and converted clients to its own service.
  • In 2000, UPI launched a multi-lingual editorial and content management system CMS.
  • On October 14, 2005 UPI launched a direct-to-consumer web site.

1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The byline on a newspaper or magazine article gives the name, and often the position, of the writer of the article. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A teleprinter (teletypewriter, teletype or TTY) is a now largely obsolete electro-mechanical typewriter which can be used to communicate typed messages from point to point through a simple electrical communications channel, often just a pair of wires. ... 1922 Chart of the Morse Code Letters and Numerals Morse code is a method for transmitting telegraphic information, using standardized sequences of short and long elements to represent the letters, numerals, punctuation and special characters of a message. ... Oswald Garrison Villard (1872 in Wiesbaden/Germany - 1949) was a U.S. journalist. ... The 1920s is a decade that is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... Face The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... United Media is large editorial column and comic strip newspaper syndication service based in the United States, owned by The E.W. Scripps Company. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... RCA, formerly an initialism for the Radio Corporation of America, is now a trademark owned by RCA Trademark Management S.A. [1], owned by Thomson SA. The trademark is used by two companies for products descended from that common ancestor: Thomson SA, which manufactures consumer electronics like RCA-branded televisions... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Note: broadcasting is also the old term for hand sowing. ... Year 1945and died 2007 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Movietone was created ever since silent movies came out, and was the primary source of news and current events for moviegoers until the first black and white television set came out in the late 1940s. ... Twentieth (20th) Century Fox Film Corporation (known from 1935 to 1985 as Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation) is one of the six major American film studios. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... link titleThe word international can mean: Between nations or encompassing several nations. ... Paul Lavalle was a conductor, composer, arranger, and performer on clarinet and saxophone. ... The Belasco Theatre is a Broadway theatre. ... December 9 is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The coronation of Empress Farah, of Iran in 1967. ... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Audio can mean: Sounding that can be heard. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Children playing on a Amstrad CPC 464 in the 1980s. ... In telecommunication, the term dial-up has the following meanings: Dial-up access, typically to the Internet A service feature in which a user initiates service on a previously arranged trunk or transfers, without human intervention, from an active trunk to a standby trunk. ... This article refers to the now defunct Prodigy Communications Corporation that was purchased by SBC Communications, Inc. ... CompuServe, (in full, CompuServe Information Services, or CIS), was the first major commercial online service in the United States. ... “Yahoo” redirects here. ... Excite Excite is an Internet portal with an included search engine. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... An Earth observation satellite, ERS 2 For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). ... A news agency is an organization of journalists established to supply news reports to organizations in the news trade: newspapers, magazines, and radio and television broadcasters. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar). ... Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code governs the process of reorganization under the bankruptcy laws of the United States. ... Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration - see text) in the UK. Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organizations to pay their... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... The word tradition comes from the Latin word traditio which means to hand down or to hand over. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The term multilingualism can refer to rather different phenomena. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A website, Web site or WWW site (often shortened to just site) is a collection of webpages, that is, HTML/XHTML documents accessible via HTTP on the Internet; all publicly accessible websites in existence comprise the World Wide Web. ...

External links

History

News/comment


  Results from FactBites:
 
United Press International - SourceWatch (696 words)
United Press International was purchased in May 2000 by News World Communications, a Unification Church-controlled company.
United Press International was established in 1907 and gained a reputation as a pioneering global wire service featuring many of the big names of journalism including Walter Cronkite and Helen Thomas.
In 1958 United Press, as it was then known, merged with International News Service owned by William Randolph Hearst.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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