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Encyclopedia > United Nations Security Council Resolution 425

On March 19, 1978, five days after the Israeli invasion of Lebanon, United Nations Security Council Resolution 425 was adopted, calling on Israel to immediately withdraw its forces from Lebanon and establishing the United Nations Interim Forces In Lebanon (UNIFIL). March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... Operation Litani was the official name of the Israel Defense Forces 1978 invasion of Lebanon up to the Litani river. ... United Nations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... List of the UN resolutions concerning Israel and Palestine: Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir commissioned an analysis of UN voting concerning Israel. ... UNIFIL (United Nations Interim Forces In Lebanon) was created in 1978 by the United Nations to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, restore the international peace and security, and help the Lebanese Government restore its effective authority in the area. ...

Contents


Background

U.N. Security Council Resolution 425 was issued five days after the Israeli invasion to Lebanon on March 14, 1978 in what was referred to as Operation Litani. This invasion was immediately triggered by the March 11, 1978 attack on an Israeli bus in the Tel-Aviv area by members of Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) which resulted in the death of 37 Israelis and the injury of 76 more --See Coastal Road Massacre. However this attack was just the latest and most deadly in a string of attacks launched from Lebanese territory. March 14 is the 73rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (74th in leap years) with 292 days remaining in the year. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... Operation Litani was the official name of the Israel Defense Forces 1978 invasion of Lebanon up to the Litani river. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (71st in Leap year). ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... Tel Aviv at night A section of the Tel Aviv beachfront Tel Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea, with an intent to destroy Israel. ... Charred remains of the hijacked bus Front end remains of the hijacked bus The Coastal Road Massacre is the name by which a Palestinian terrorist attack on an Israeli coastal-road bus is known. ... Operation Litani was the official name of the Israel Defense Forces 1978 invasion of Lebanon up to the Litani river. ...


The stated objective of the Operation Litani was to clear out the PLO bases that were located inside Lebanon south of the Litani River in order to secure northern Israel. Operation Litani was the official name of the Israel Defense Forces 1978 invasion of Lebanon up to the Litani river. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea, with an intent to destroy Israel. ... The Litani River in red The Litani River (Arabic: نهر الليطاني; transliterated: Nahr al-Lytany) is an important waterway in southern Lebanon. ...


Following the Lebanese government claims, the United Nations, driven by the United States, began seeking a peacekeeping force for the area that Israel had occupied in order to bring about a withdrawal of the Israeli forces and to reinforce the authority of the Lebanese government in southern Lebanon. United Nations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


These efforts culminated in Resolution 425 during the 2074th meeting of the United Nations Security Council on March 19, 1978 which led to the formation of UNIFIL, the objective of which was to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, restore the international peace and security, and help the Lebanese Government restore its effective authority in the area. The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is the organ of the United Nations charged with maintaining peace and security among nations. ... March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... UNIFIL (United Nations Interim Forces In Lebanon) was created in 1978 by the United Nations to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, restore the international peace and security, and help the Lebanese Government restore its effective authority in the area. ...


The resolution text

"The Security Council,
Taking note of the letters from the Permanent Representative of Lebanon and from the Permanent Representative of Israel, Having heard the statement of the Permanent Representatives of Lebanon and Israel, Gravely concerned at the deterioration of the situation in the Middle East and its consequences to the maintenance of international peace, Convinced that the present situation impedes the achievement of a just peace in the Middle East,
1. Calls for strict respect for the territorial integrity, sovereignty and political independence of Lebanon within its internationally recognized boundaries;
2. Calls upon Israel immediately to cease its military action against Lebanese territorial integrity and withdraw forthwith its forces from all Lebanese territory;
3. Decides, in the light of the request of the Government of Lebanon, to establish immediately under its authority a United Nations interim force for Southern Lebanon for the purpose of confirming the withdrawal of Israeli forces, restoring international peace and security and assisting the Government of Lebanon in ensuring the return of its effective authority in the area, the Force to be composed of personnel drawn from Member States;
4. Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Council within twenty-four hours on the implementation of the present resolution."

Aftermath

The first UNIFIL troops arrived in Lebanon on March 23, 1978, just four days after the resolution was passed. Israel did not accept the resolution and refused to withdraw as no international pressure was exercised on it to abide by the resolution. Israel, however, expanded its occupation in a larger scale invasion in June 1982 where Israeli troops occupied the capital city of Beirut --See 1982 Lebanon War. Other major attacks against Lebanon took place in July 1993 and April 1996 --See Operation Accountability and Operation Grapes of Wrath. UNIFIL (United Nations Interim Forces In Lebanon) was created in 1978 by the United Nations to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, restore the international peace and security, and help the Lebanese Government restore its effective authority in the area. ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in Leap years). ... Combatants Israel Amal Hezbollah PLO Commanders Menachem Begin Ayatollah Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah Imad Mughniyah Yasser Arafat Strength 76,000 15,000 Casualties 675 9,800 The Lebanon War (Hebrew: , Milkhemet Levanon), also known as the Operation Peace of the Galilee (מבצע שלום הגליל, Mivtsa Shlom HaGalil in Hebrew), began June 6, 1982, when... In July 1993, Israeli Forces launched a massive attack against Lebanon named Operation Accountability in Israel and Seven-Day War in Lebanon, in an attempt to displace the Lebanese and Palestinian refugee population, in order to pressure the Lebanese government and population to withdraw support for Hezbollah[1]. Israeli artillery... Combatants Israel, South Lebanon Army Hezbollah Operation Grapes of Wrath is the Israeli Defense Forces code-name for a sixteen-day military blitz against Lebanon in an attempt to end shelling of Northern Israel by Hezbollah. ...


In May 2000, more than 22 years after the resolution 425 was passed, Israel withdrew its troops from southern Lebanon. Prior to the withdrawal, opposition voices inside Israel were putting high pressure on the Israeli government to withdraw from Lebanon as they saw no valid reason for staying there and having to sustain the Lebanese resistance attacks.


The UN Secretary-General had concluded that, as of June 16, 2000, Israel had withdrawn its forces from Lebanon in accordance with resolution 425 (1978). Lebanon, however, claims that Israel is still keeping Lebanese land under its occupation mainly in Shebaa Farms. Israel says, and the UN agrees, that Shebaa Farms is Syrian and not Lebanese and therefore it is not included under the resolution 425. June 16 is the 167th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (168th in leap years), with 198 days remaining. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... Shebaa Farms is a disputed, agricultural area consisting of a dozen or more abandoned farms located southwest of Shebaa, a Lebanese village on the northwestern slopes of Mount Hermon, at the junction of Syria, Lebanon and Israel. ... Shebaa Farms is a disputed, agricultural area consisting of a dozen or more abandoned farms located southwest of Shebaa, a Lebanese village on the northwestern slopes of Mount Hermon, at the junction of Syria, Lebanon and Israel. ...


Lebanon has not extended complete control over south Lebanon, though it was called on to do so by UN Resolution 1391 of 2002 (3 page PDF document) and urged by UN Resolution 1496 of 2003. Israel has lodged multiple complaints regarding Lebanon's conduct. For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Immediately after the withdrawal, Israeli aircraft crossed the Blue Line on an almost daily basis, penetrating deep into Lebanese airspace.[1][2] Since mid-December 2005, the number of Israeli air violations has decreased. [3] Israeli warships also continued to violate the Lebanese territorial waters.[4] On October 22, 2005 a Lebanese fisherman was reported missing. His boat ran aground in Israel, and was returned by the Israeli army. There were a number of bullet marks on the boat. The IDF explained that they had opened fire as a precaution in case the boat was booby-trapped, but that it was already empty at the time[5] Many other incidents were reported along the Blue Line such as gunfire and cross border attacks. Both Lebanon and Israel have lodged multiple complaints regarding the other party's violations. Blue Line can refer to: Blue line (ice hockey) - In ice hockey, the line between center ice and each teams zone. ... Blue Line can refer to: Blue line (ice hockey) - In ice hockey, the line between center ice and each teams zone. ...


Hezbollah, a Shiite paramilitary group which holds de facto sovereignty over much of South Lebanon, continues to launch attacks against Israeli troops from time to time, primarily inside the Shebaa Farms area. Lebanon also calls on Israel to free the prisoners of war and to hand over the maps of the land mines in the area that was under its occupation. Flag of Hezbollah For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ... A paramilitary organization is a group of civilians trained and organised in a military fashion. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Shebaa Farms is a disputed, agricultural area consisting of a dozen or more abandoned farms located southwest of Shebaa, a Lebanese village on the northwestern slopes of Mount Hermon, at the junction of Syria, Lebanon and Israel. ... Various anti-tank and anti-personnel land mines A land mine is a type of self-contained explosive device which is placed onto or into the ground, exploding when triggered by a vehicle or person. ...


See also

Operation Litani was the official name of the Israel Defense Forces 1978 invasion of Lebanon up to the Litani river. ... Combatants Israel Amal Hezbollah PLO Commanders Menachem Begin Ayatollah Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah Imad Mughniyah Yasser Arafat Strength 76,000 15,000 Casualties 675 9,800 The Lebanon War (Hebrew: , Milkhemet Levanon), also known as the Operation Peace of the Galilee (מבצע שלום הגליל, Mivtsa Shlom HaGalil in Hebrew), began June 6, 1982, when... Combatants Lebanese Phalangist Palestinian refugees Commanders Elie Hobeika Strength 150 irregulars Casualties 2 700-3500 Palestinian refugees massacred, 1982. ... In July 1993, Israeli Forces launched a massive attack against Lebanon named Operation Accountability in Israel and Seven-Day War in Lebanon, in an attempt to displace the Lebanese and Palestinian refugee population, in order to pressure the Lebanese government and population to withdraw support for Hezbollah[1]. Israeli artillery... Combatants Israel, South Lebanon Army Hezbollah Operation Grapes of Wrath is the Israeli Defense Forces code-name for a sixteen-day military blitz against Lebanon in an attempt to end shelling of Northern Israel by Hezbollah. ... The Blue Line is a border demarcation between Lebanon and Israel, drawn by the United Nations for the purposes of determining whether Israel had withdrawn from Lebanon. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1559 calls on Syria to cease intervening in Lebanese internal politics, withdraw from Lebanon, and for the disbanding of all Lebanese militias (See: Hezbollah). ... This article discusses the modern-day history of Lebanon. ...

External links

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United Nations resolutions: General AssemblySecurity Council

 
 

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