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Encyclopedia > United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
UNFCCC logo.
UNFCCC member countries (green) and observers (orange). Does not include some small island countries for practical purposes
UNFCCC member countries (green) and observers (orange). Does not include some small island countries for practical purposes
  • UNFCCC Members:
  1. Flag of Afghanistan Afghanistan
  2. Flag of Albania Albania
  3. Flag of Algeria Algeria
  4. Flag of Angola Angola
  5. Flag of Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda
  6. Flag of Argentina Argentina
  7. Flag of Armenia Armenia
  8. Flag of Australia Australia
  9. Flag of Austria Austria
  10. Flag of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan
  11. Flag of The Bahamas Bahamas
  12. Flag of Bahrain Bahrain
  13. Flag of Bangladesh Bangladesh
  14. Flag of Barbados Barbados
  15. Flag of Belarus Belarus
  16. Flag of Belgium Belgium
  17. Flag of Belize Belize
  18. Flag of Benin Benin
  19. Flag of Bhutan Bhutan
  20. Flag of Bolivia Bolivia
  21. Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina
  22. Flag of Botswana Botswana
  23. Flag of Brazil Brazil
  24. Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria
  25. Flag of Burkina Faso Burkina Faso
  26. Flag of Myanmar Myanmar
  27. Flag of Burundi Burundi
  28. Flag of Cambodia Cambodia
  29. Flag of Cameroon Cameroon
  30.  Canada
  31. Flag of Cape Verde Cape Verde
  32. Flag of Central African Republic Central African Republic
  33. Flag of Chad Chad
  34.  Chile
  35. Flag of People's Republic of China China
  36. Flag of Colombia Colombia
  37. Flag of Comoros Comoros
  38. Flag of Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo
  39. Flag of Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo
  40. Flag of Cook Islands Cook Islands
  41. Flag of Costa Rica Costa Rica
  42. Flag of Côte d'Ivoire Côte d'Ivoire
  43. Flag of Croatia Croatia
  44. Flag of Cuba Cuba
  45. Flag of Cyprus Cyprus
  46. Flag of Czech Republic Czech Republic
  47. Flag of Denmark Denmark
  48. Flag of Djibouti Djibouti
  49. Flag of Dominica Dominica
  50. Flag of Dominican Republic Dominican Republic
  51. Flag of Ecuador Ecuador
  52. Flag of Egypt Egypt
  53. Flag of El Salvador El Salvador
  54. Flag of Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea
  55. Flag of Eritrea Eritrea
  56. Flag of Estonia Estonia
  57. Flag of Ethiopia Ethiopia
  58.  European Union
  59. Flag of Fiji Fiji
  60. Flag of Finland Finland
  61. Flag of France France
  62. Flag of Gabon Gabon
  63. Flag of The Gambia Gambia
  64. Flag of Georgia (country) Georgia
  65. Flag of Germany Germany
  66. Flag of Ghana Ghana
  67. Flag of Greece Greece
  68. Flag of Grenada Grenada
  69. Flag of Guatemala Guatemala
  70. Flag of Guinea Guinea
  71. Flag of Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau
  72. Flag of Guyana Guyana
  73. Flag of Haiti Haiti
  74. Flag of Honduras Honduras
  75. Flag of Hungary Hungary
  76. Flag of Iceland Iceland
  77. Flag of India India
  78. Flag of Indonesia Indonesia
  79. Flag of Iran Iran
  80.  Ireland
  81.  Israel
  82. Flag of Italy Italy
  83. Flag of Jamaica Jamaica
  84. Flag of Japan Japan
  85. Flag of Jordan Jordan
  86. Flag of Kazakhstan Kazakhstan
  87. Flag of Kenya Kenya
  88. Flag of Kiribati Kiribati
  89. Flag of North Korea North Korea
  90. Flag of South Korea South Korea
  91. Flag of Kuwait Kuwait
  92. Flag of Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan
  93. Flag of Laos Laos
  94. Flag of Latvia Latvia
  95. Flag of Lebanon Lebanon
  96. Flag of Lesotho Lesotho
  97. Flag of Liberia Liberia
  98. Flag of Libya Libya
  99.  Liechtenstein
  100.  Lithuania
  101.  Luxembourg
  102.  Republic of Macedonia
  103.  Madagascar
  104.  Malawi
  105.  Malaysia
  106.  Maldives
  107.  Mali
  108.  Malta
  109.  Marshall Islands
  110.  Mauritania
  111.  Mauritius
  112.  Mexico
  113.  Federated States of Micronesia
  114.  Moldova
  115.  Monaco
  116.  Mongolia
  117.  Morocco
  118.  Mozambique
  119.  Namibia
  120.  Nauru
  121.  Nepal
  122.  Netherlands
  123.  New Zealand
  124.  Nicaragua
  125.  Niger
  126.  Nigeria
  127.  Niue
  128.  Norway
  129.  Oman
  130.  Pakistan
  131.  Palau
  132.  Panama
  133.  Papua New Guinea
  134.  Paraguay
  135.  Peru
  136.  Philippines
  137.  Poland
  138.  Portugal
  139.  Qatar
  140.  Romania
  141.  Russia
  142.  Rwanda
  143.  Saint Kitts and Nevis
  144.  Saint Lucia
  145.  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  146.  Samoa
  147.  San Marino
  148.  São Tomé and Príncipe
  149.  Saudi Arabia
  150.  Senegal
  151.  Serbia
  152.  Seychelles
  153.  Sierra Leone
  154.  Singapore
  155.  Slovakia
  156.  Slovenia
  157.  Solomon Islands
  158.  South Africa
  159.  Spain
  160.  Sri Lanka
  161.  Sudan
  162.  Suriname
  163.  Swaziland
  164.  Sweden
  165.  Switzerland
  166.  Syria
  167.  Tajikistan
  168.  Tanzania
  169.  Thailand
  170.  Togo
  171.  Tonga
  172.  Trinidad and Tobago
  173.  Tunisia
  174.  Turkey
  175.  Turkmenistan
  176.  Tuvalu
  177.  Uganda
  178.  Ukraine
  179.  United Arab Emirates
  180.  United Kingdom
  181.  United States
  182.  Uruguay
  183.  Uzbekistan
  184.  Vanuatu
  185.  Venezuela
  186.  Vietnam
  187.  Yemen
  188.  Zambia
  189.  Zimbabwe
  • Observers:
  1.  Andorra
  2.  Brunei
  3.  Holy See
  4.  Iraq
  5.  Somalia

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC) is an international environmental treaty produced at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), informally known as the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The treaty aimed at reducing emissions of greenhouse gas in order to combat global warming. Image File history File links UNFCCC_logo. ... Image File history File links UNFCCC_logo. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 45 KB)United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change nations File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 45 KB)United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change nations File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Afghanistan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Albania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Algeria_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Angola. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Antigua_and_Barbuda. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenia. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Bahamas. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bahrain_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bangladesh. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Barbados. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belarus. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belize. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Benin. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bhutan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bolivia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Botswana. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Burkina_Faso. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Myanmar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Burundi. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cambodia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cameroon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cape_Verde. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Central_African_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chad. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chile_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Colombia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Comoros. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_the_Congo. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Cook_Islands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Costa_Rica. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cote_d'Ivoire. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Djibouti. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Dominica. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Dominican_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ecuador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_El_Salvador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Equatorial_Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Eritrea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ethiopia. ... Image File history File links European_flag. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Fiji. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Gabon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_The_Gambia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ghana. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Grenada. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guatemala. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guinea-Bissau. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guyana. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Haiti. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Honduras. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iceland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jamaica. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jordan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kazakhstan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kenya. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kiribati. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Korea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kuwait. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kyrgyzstan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Laos. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lesotho. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Liberia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Libya. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Liechtenstein. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macedonia. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Madagascar_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malawi. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Maldives. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mali. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malta_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Marshall_Islands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mauritania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mauritius. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Micronesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Moldova. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Monaco_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mongolia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mozambique. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Namibia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nauru. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nepal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nicaragua. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Niger. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nigeria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Niue. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Oman_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Pakistan_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palau. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Panama. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Papua_New_Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Paraguay. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland_corrected_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Qatar_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Rwanda. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Kitts_and_Nevis. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Lucia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Vincent_and_the_Grenadines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Samoa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_San_Marino_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sao_Tome_and_Principe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Senegal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia_(state)_(bordered). ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  Independence c. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Seychelles. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sierra_Leone. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Singapore_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Solomon_Islands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sudan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Suriname. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Swaziland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tajikistan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tanzania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Togo. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tonga. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Trinidad_and_Tobago. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tunisia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkmenistan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tuvalu. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uganda. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Arab_Emirates. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uruguay_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uzbekistan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Vanuatu. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Venezuela. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Vietnam. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Yemen. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Zambia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Zimbabwe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Andorra. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brunei. ... Image File history File links Wappen_Vatikanstadt. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Somalia. ... Single European Act A treaty is a binding agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, also known as the Earth Summit (or, in Portuguese, Eco 92) was a major conference held in Rio de Janeiro from June 3 to June 14, 1992. ... Location of Rio de Janeiro Coordinates: Country Brazil Region Southeast State Rio de Janeiro Government  - Mayor Cesar Maia (PFL) Area  - City 1,260 km²  (486. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Global mean surface temperatures 1850 to 2006 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades and the projected...


The treaty as originally framed set no mandatory limits on greenhouse gas emissions for individual nations and contained no enforcement provisions; it is therefore considered legally non-binding.


Rather, the treaty included provisions for updates (called "protocols") that would set mandatory emission limits. The principal update is the Kyoto Protocol, which has become much better known than the UNFCCC itself. Kyoto Protocol Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ...


The FCCC was opened for signature on May 9, 1992. It entered into force on March 21, 1994. Its stated objective is "to achieve stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a low enough level to prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system." May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (130th in leap years). ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (81st in leap years). ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... Look up anthropogenic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


A national greenhouse gas inventory is is an accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removals that must be submitted by signatories of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Greenhouse gas inventories are a type of emission inventory that are developed for a variety of reasons. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ...

Contents

Annex I and Annex II Countries, and Developing Countries

Signatories to the UNFCCC are split into three groups:

  • Annex I countries (industrialized countries)
  • Annex II countries (developed countries which pay for costs of developing countries)
  • Developing countries.

Annex I countries agree to reduce their emissions (particularly carbon dioxide) to target levels below their 1990 emissions levels. If they cannot do so, they must buy emission credits or invest in conservation. Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... Emissions trading (or cap and trade) is an administrative approach used to control pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants [1]. In such a plan, a central authority (usually a government agency) sets a limit or cap on the amount of a pollutant that...


Developing countries have no immediate restrictions under the UNFCCC. This serves three purposes:

  • Avoids restrictions on growth because pollution is strongly linked to industrial growth, and developing economies can potentially grow very fast.
  • It means that they cannot sell emissions credits to industrialized nations to permit those nations to over-pollute.
  • They get money and technologies from the developed countries in Annex II.

Developing countries may volunteer to become Annex I countries when they are sufficiently developed.


Developing countries are not expected to implement their commitments under the Convention unless developed countries supply enough funding and technology, and this has lower priority than economic and social development and dealing with poverty. A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ...


Annex I countries

Annex I countries (industrialized countries): Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, European Union, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States of America pabhy

 (40 countries) 

Annex II countries

Annex II countries (developed countries which pay for costs of developing countries)
Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, European Union, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States of America


U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was opened for signature at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) conference in Rio de Janeiro (known by its popular title, the Earth Summit). On June 12, 1992, 154 nations signed the UNFCCC, that upon ratification committed signatories' governments to a voluntary "non-binding aim" to reduce atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases with the goal of "preventing dangerous anthropogenic interference with Earth's climate system." These actions were aimed primarily at industrialized countries, with the intention of stabilizing their emissions of greenhouse gases at 1990 levels by the year 2000; and other responsibilities would be incumbent upon all UNFCCC parties. The parties agreed in general that they would recognize "common but differentiated responsibilities," with greater responsibility for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the near term on the part of developed/industrialized countries, which were listed and identified in Annex I of the UNFCCC and thereafter referred to as "Annex I" countries. The Earth Summit (in Portuguese: Eco 92) is the informal and best-known name for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). ... Location of Rio de Janeiro Coordinates: Country Brazil Region Southeast State Rio de Janeiro Government  - Mayor Cesar Maia (PFL) Area  - City 1,260 km²  (486. ... The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, also known as the Earth Summit (or, in Portuguese, Eco 92) was a major conference held in Rio de Janeiro from June 3 to June 14, 1992. ... June 12 is the 163rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (164th in leap years), with 202 days remaining. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ...


On September 8, 1992, President Bush transmitted the UNFCCC for advice and consent of the U.S. Senate to ratification. The Foreign Relations Committee approved the treaty and reported it (Senate Exec. Rept. 102-55) October 1, 1992. The Senate consented to ratification on October 7, 1992, with a two-thirds majority vote. President Bush signed the instrument of ratification October 13, 1992, and deposited it with the U.N. Secretary General. September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...


According to terms of the UNFCCC, having received over 50 countries' instruments of ratification, it entered into force March 24, 1994. Since the UNFCCC entered into force, the parties have been meeting annually in Conferences of the Parties (COP) to assess progress in dealing with climate change, and beginning in the mid-1990s, to negotiate the Kyoto Protocol to establish legally binding obligations for developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (84th in leap years). ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ...


COP-1, The Berlin Mandate

The UNFCCC Conference of Parties met for the first time in Berlin, Germany in the spring of 1995, and voiced concerns about the adequacy of countries' abilities to meet commitments under the Convention. These were expressed www.band.nikebreath.info/solitaire.htmlin a U.N. ministerial declaration known as the "Berlin Mandate", which established a 2-year Analytical and Assessment Phase (AAP), to negotiate a "comprehensive menu of actions" for countries to pick from and choose future options to address climate change which for them, individually, made the best economic and environmental sense. The Berlin Mandate exempted non-Annex I countries from additional binding obligations, in keeping with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" established in the UNFCCC­ even though, collectively, the larger, newly industrializing countries were expected to be the world's largest emitters of greenhouse gas emissions 15 years hence. Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ...


COP-2, Geneva, Switzerland

The Second Conference of Parties to the UNFCCC (COP-2) met in July 1996 in Geneva, Switzerland. Its Ministerial Declaration was adopted July 18, 1996, and reflected a U.S. position statement presented by Timothy Wirth, former Under Secretary for Global Affairs for the U.S. State Department at that meeting, which Hunters a cool hobo For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Tim Wirth (1939-) is a former United States Senator from Colorado. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ...

  1. Accepted the scientific findings on climate change proffered by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its second assessment (1995);
  2. Rejected uniform "harmonized policies" in favor of flexibility;
  3. Called for "legally binding mid-term targets."

IPCC is the science authority for the UNFCCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), to evaluate the risk of climate change brought on by humans, based mainly on... IPCC is science authority for the UNFCCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to assess the risk of human-induced climate change. The Panel is open to all...

COP-3, The Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change

The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was adopted by COP-3, in December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan, after intensive negotiations. Most industrialized nations and some central European economies in transition (all defined as Annex B countries) agreed to legally binding reductions in greenhouse gas emissions of an average of 6 to 8% below 1990 levels between the years 2008-2012, defined as the first emissions budget period. The United States would be required to reduce its total emissions an average of 7% below 1990 levels, however neither the Clinton administration nor the Bush administration sent the protocol to Congress for ratification. The Bush administration explicitly rejected the protocol in 2001. Kyoto Protocol Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ... Kyoto )   is a city in the central part of the island of HonshÅ«, Japan. ...


COP-4, Buenos Aires

COP-4 took place in Buenos Aires in November 1998. It had been expected that the remaining issues unresolved in Kyoto would be finalized at this meeting. However, the complexity and difficulty of finding agreement on these issues proved insurmountable, and instead the parties adopted a 2-year "Plan of Action" to advance efforts and to devise mechanisms for implementing the Kyoto Protocol, to be completed by 2000. For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ...


COP-5, Bonn, Germany

The 5th Conference of Parties to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change met in Bonn, Germany, between October 25 and November 5, 1999. It was primarily a technical meeting, and did not reach major conclusions. Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany, located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia. ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...


COP-6, The Hague, Netherlands

When COP-6 convened November 13-November 25, 2000, in The Hague, Netherlands, discussions evolved rapidly into a high-level negotiation over the major political issues. These included major controversy over the United States' proposal to allow credit for carbon "sinks" in forests and agricultural lands, satisfying a major proportion of the U.S. emissions reductions in this way; disagreements over consequences for non-compliance by countries that did not meet their emission reduction targets; and difficulties in resolving how developing countries could obtain financial assistance to deal with adverse effects of climate change and meet their obligations to plan for measuring and possibly reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In the final hours of COP-6, despite some compromises agreed between the United States and some EU countries, notably the United Kingdom, the EU countries as a whole, led by Denmark and Germany, rejected the compromise positions, and the talks in The Hague collapsed. Jan Pronk, the President of COP-6, suspended COP-6 without agreement, with the expectation that negotiations would later resume [1]. It was later announced that the COP-6 meetings (termed "COP-6 bis") would be resumed in Bonn, Germany, in the second half of July. The next regularly scheduled meeting of the parties to the UNFCCC - COP-7 - had been set for Marrakech, Morocco, in October-November, 2001. November 13 is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 48 days remaining. ... November 25 is the 329th (in leap years the 330th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Arms of The Hague Flag of The city of The Hague. ... Jan Pronk (left) with Robert Zoellick Johannes Pieter Pronk (born 16 March 1940 in The Hague), better known as Jan Pronk, is a Dutch politician. ... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany, located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia. ... Panoramic picture of the Djemaa el Fna square at sunset. ...


COP-6 "bis," Bonn, Germany

When the COP-6 negotiations resumed July 16-27, 2001, in Bonn, Germany, little progress had been made on resolving the differences that had produced an impasse in The Hague. However, this meeting took place after President George W. Bush had become the U.S. President, and had rejected the Kyoto Protocol in March; as a result the United States delegation to this meeting declined to participate in the negotiations related to the Protocol, and chose to act as observers at that meeting. As the other parties negotiated the key issues, agreement was reached on most of the major political issues, to the surprise of most observers given the low level of expectations that preceded the meeting. The agreements included: July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany, located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia. ...

  1. Flexible Mechanisms: The "flexibility" mechanisms which the United States had strongly favored as the Protocol was initially put together, including emissions trading; Joint Implementation (JI); and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) which allow industrialized countries to fund emissions reduction activities in developing countries as an alternative to domestic emission reductions. One of the key elements of this agreement was that there would be no quantitative limit on the credit a country could claim from use of these mechanisms, but that domestic action must constitute a significant element of the efforts of each Annex B country to meet their targets.
  2. Carbon sinks: ­Credit was agreed to for broad activities that absorb carbon from the atmosphere or store it, including forest and cropland management, and re-vegetation, with no over-all cap on the amount of credit that a country could claim for sinks activities. In the case of forest management, an Appendix Z establishes country-specific caps for each Annex I country, for example, a cap of 13 million tons could be credited to Japan (which represents about 4% of its base-year emissions). For cropland management, countries could receive credit only for carbon sequestration increases above 1990 levels.
  3. Compliance: ­ final action on compliance procedures and mechanisms that would address non-compliance with Protocol provisions was deferred to COP-7, but included broad outlines of consequences for failing to meet emissions targets that would include a requirement to "make up" shortfalls at 1.3 tons to 1, suspension of the right to sell credits for surplus emissions reductions; and a required compliance action plan for those not meeting their targets.
  4. Financing: ­Three new funds were agreed upon to provide assistance for needs associated with climate change; a least-developed-country fund to support National Adaptation Programs of Action; and a Kyoto Protocol adaptation fund supported by a CDM levy and voluntary contributions.

A number of operational details attendant upon these decisions remained to be negotiated and agreed upon, and these were the major issues of the COP-7 meeting that followed. Joint implementation (JI) is an arrangement under the Kyoto Protocol allowing industrialised countries with a greenhouse gas reduction commitment (so-called Annex 1 countries) to invest in emission reducing projects in another industrialised country as an alternative to emission reductions in their own countries. ... CDM directs here. ...


COP-7, Marrakech, Morocco

At the COP-7 meeting in Marrakech, Morocco October 29-November 10, 2001, negotiators in effect completed the work of the Buenos Aires Plan of Action, finalizing most of the operational details and setting the stage for nations to ratify the Protocol.[2] [3] The completed package of decisions are known as the Marrakech Accords. The United States delegation continued to act as observers, declining to participate in active negotiations. Other parties continued to express their hope that the United States would re-engage in the process at some point, but indicated their intention to seek ratification of the requisite number of countries to bring the Protocol into force (55 countries representing 55% of developed country emissions of carbon dioxide in 1990). A target date for bringing the Protocol into force was put forward: ­the August-September 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) to be held in Johannesburg, South Africa. Panoramic picture of the Djemaa el Fna square at sunset. ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Earth Summit 2002. ... City motto: Unity in Development Province Gauteng Mayor Amos Masondo Area  - % water 1,644 km² 0. ...


The main decisions at COP-7 included:

  • Operational rules for international emissions trading among parties to the Protocol and for the CDM and joint implementation;
  • A compliance regime that outlines consequences for failure to meet emissions targets but defers to the parties to the Protocol after it is in force to decide whether these consequences are legally binding;
  • Accounting procedures for the flexibility mechanisms;
  • A decision to consider at COP-8 how to achieve to a review of the adequacy of commitments that might move toward discussions of future developing country commitments.

COP-8, New Delhi, India

October 23November 1, 2002 October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ...


COP-9, Milan, Italy

December 112 2003 December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 19 days remaining. ...


COP-10, Buenos Aires, Argentina

December 6 – 17, 2004 December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


COP-11, Montreal, Canada

The United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP 11 or COP/MOP 1) was a global event which took place at the Palais des congrès de Montréal in Montreal, Quebec, Canada from November 28 to December 9, 2005. Image File history File linksMetadata Unfccc_montreal2005_logo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Unfccc_montreal2005_logo. ... Constructed over the Autoroute Ville-Marie. ... Nickname: City of Mary (Ville-Marie) Motto: Concordia Salus (salvation through harmony) Coordinates: Country Canada Province Quebec Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1] [2] [3]  - City 365. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The meeting, the 11th Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), was also the first Meeting of the Parties (MOP) to the Kyoto Protocol since their initial meeting in Kyoto in 1997. It was therefore one of the largest intergovernmental conferences on climate change ever. The event marked the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol. Kyoto Protocol Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ... Kyoto )   is a city in the central part of the island of HonshÅ«, Japan. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ...


Hosting more than 10,000 delegates, it was one of Canada's largest international events ever and the largest gathering in Montreal since Expo 67. The 1967 International and Universal Exposition, or simply Expo 67 was a Worlds Fair held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada in 1967 to coincide with the Canadian Centennial that year. ...


The Montreal Action Plan is an agreement hammered out at the end of the conference to "extend the life of the Kyoto Protocol beyond its 2012 expiration date and negotiate deeper cuts in greenhouse-gas emissions." [4]

  • Canada's environment minister, at the time, Stéphane Dion, said the agreement provides a "map for the future."[5]

See also COP 11 pages at the UNFCCC. Wikinews has news related to: Dion wins Canadian Liberal leadership on fourth ballot Stéphane Maurice Dion, PC, MP, BA, MA, Ph. ...


COP-12, Nairobi, Kenya

The second meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (COP/MOP 2), in conjunction with the twelfth suction of the Conference of the Parties to the Climate Change Convention (COP 12), was held in Nairobi, Kenya from 6 to 17 November 2006. At the meeting, the phrase climate tourists was coined to describe some delegates who attended "to see Africa, take snaps of the wildlife, the poor, dying African children and women".[citation needed] Nairobi (pronounced ) is the capital and largest city of Kenya. ...


See also

The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... There are numerous international environmental agreements made to protect the environment in different ways. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... The issue of human-caused, or anthropogenic, climate change (global warming) is becoming a central focus of the Green movement. ... Global carbon dioxide emissions 1800–2000 Global average surface temperature 1850 to 2006 Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change: A Scientific Symposium on Stabilisation of Greenhouse Gases was a 2005 international conference that redefined the link between atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration, and the 2°C (3. ...

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