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Encyclopedia > United Nations Children's Fund
  United Nations Children's Fund
 

UNICEF Logo
Org type: Fund
Acronyms: UNICEF
Head: Ann Veneman
Status: Active
Established: 1946
Website: http://www.unicef.org
Parent org: ECOSOC
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UNICEF Flag
UNICEF Flag

The United Nations Children's Fund (or UNICEF) was created by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946, to provide emergency food and healthcare to children in countries that had been devastated by World War II. In 1953, UNICEF became a permanent part of the United Nations System and its name was shortened from the original United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund but it has continued to be known by the popular acronym based on this old name. Headquartered in New York City, UNICEF provides long-term humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries. Image File history File links Unicef_logo. ... Ann Margaret Veneman (born June 29, 1949) is currently the Executive Director of UNICEF. She was the first woman to become the United States Secretary of Agriculture. ... The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_UNICEF.svg File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_UNICEF.svg File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... UN redirects here. ... Spanish president in the General Assembly in New York Org type: Principal Organ Acronyms: GA, UNGA Head: President of the UN General Assembly As of 18 September 2007 Srgjan Kerim former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Status: Active Established: 1945 Website: www. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... While the United Nations is an international organization, the United Nations System is the whole network of international organizations, treaties and conventions that were created by the United Nations. ... Look up acronym, initialism, alphabetism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... There are a number of meanings for humanitarianism: humanitarianism, humanism, the doctrine that peoples duty is to promote human welfare. ... For other uses, see Child (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mother (disambiguation). ...  Newly industrialized countries  Other emerging markets  Other developing economies  High income  Upper-middle income  Lower-middle income  Low income A developing country is that country which has a relatively low standard of living, an undeveloped industrial base, and a moderate to low Human Development Index (HDI) score and per capita...


A voluntarily funded agency, UNICEF relies on contributions from governments and private donors. Its programs emphasize developing community-level services to promote the health and well-being of children. UNICEF was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1965 and Prince of Asturias Award of Concord in 2006. In the United States, Canada and some other countries, UNICEF is known for its "Trick-Or-Treat for UNICEF" program in which children collect money for UNICEF from the houses they trick-or-treat at on Halloween night, sometimes instead of candy. UNICEF is present in 190 countries and territories around the world. Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... The Prince of Asturias Awards (Spanish: Premios Príncipe de Asturias, Asturian: Premios Príncipe dAsturies) is a series of annual prizes given in Spain by the Fundación Príncipe de Asturias to individuals, entities, organizations or others from around the world who make notable achievements in the... Trick or treat redirects here. ... This article is about the holiday. ...


Following the reaching of term limits by Executive Director of UNICEF Carol Bellamy, former United States Secretary of Agriculture Ann Veneman took control of the organization in May 2005 with an agenda to increase the organization's focus on the Millennium Development Goals. Total income to UNICEF for 2006 was $2,781,000,000. Executive director is a title given to a person who is the head of an executive branch of an organization or company. ... Carol Bellamy, (born January 14, 1942), is the President and CEO of World Learning, and President of its School for International Training. ... The United States Secretary of Agriculture is the head of the United States Department of Agriculture concerned with land and food as well as agriculture and rural development. ... Ann Margaret Veneman (born June 29, 1949) is currently the Executive Director of UNICEF. She was the first woman to become the United States Secretary of Agriculture. ... The Millenium Development Goals The Millennium Development Goals are eight goals that 192 United Nations member states have agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015. ...

Contents

Priorities


UNICEF is currently focused on five primary priorities: Child Survival and Development, Basic Education and Gender Equality (including girls' education), Child protection from violence, exploitation, and abuse, HIV/AIDS and children, and Policy advocacy and partnerships for children’s rights. Related areas of UNICEF action include early childhood development, adolescence development and participation, life skills based education and child rights all over the world. Image File history File links Copyright-problem_paste. ... This article is about computer text editing. ... Graffiti in Madrid promoting equality, reads todos somos iguales, or we are all equal. Equalism is a name often given to forms of egalitarianism (advocacy of equality) concerned with issues of gender or race. ... Female education is a catch-all term for a complex of issues and debates surrounding education (primary education, secondary education, tertiary education and health education in particular) for females. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ...


UNICEF works to improve the status of their priorities through 14 methods {?} ranging from direct and legal interventions to education and beyond to research and census data collection.


Education

Education is a proven intervention for improving the lives of all people, including children. Educating young women yields spectacular benefits for the current and future generations, and specifically affects a range of UNICEF priorities including child survival, children in family, immunization, and child protection. Child Survival is a field of public health concerned with reducing child mortality. ... A child being immunized against polio. ...

UNICEF’s aim is to get more girls and boys into school, ensure that they stay in school and that they are equipped with the basic tools they need to succeed in later life. As part of its on-going efforts to ensure every girl and boy their right to an education, UNICEF’s acceleration strategy is speeding progress in girls’ and boys' enrollment in 25 selected countries during the 2002–2005 period.[1]

Immunization plus

Immunization is a direct intervention method which has made great improvements in the health of children world-wide over the past 20 years. But every year, more than 2 million children die from diseases that could have been prevented by inexpensive vaccines. A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ...


The plus in the programme is the additional immunizations made possible during interventions. Ranging from client education to nutritional supplements to insecticide-treated mosquito netting, these life-saving services make immunization programmes a powerful tool for child health.[2] A dietary supplement is intended to supply nutrients, (vitamins, minerals, fatty acids or amino acids) that are missing or not consumed in sufficient quantity in a persons diet. ... It has been suggested that ovicide be merged into this article or section. ... A bed covered by a mosquito net. ...


Child protection and well-being

UNICEF uses the term ‘child protection’ to refer to preventing and responding to violence, exploitation and abuse against children and teens up to 18 yrs – including commercial sexual exploitation, trafficking, child labor and harmful traditional practices, such as female genital cutting/mutilation and child marriage. UNICEF’s child protection programmes also target children who are uniquely vulnerable to these abuses, such as when living without parental care, in conflict with the law and in armed conflict. Violations of the child’s right to protection take place in every country and are massive, under-recognized and under-reported barriers to child survival and development, in addition to being human rights violations. Children subjected to violence, exploitation, abuse and neglect are at risk of death, poor physical and mental health, HIV/AIDS infection, educational problems, displacement, homelessness, vagrancy and poor parenting skills later in life.[3] Child abuse is the physical, psychological or sexual abuse or neglect of children. ... The commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) has been defined as one of the worst forms of child labour by the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention (Convention No 182) of the International Labour Organization (ILO). ... Trafficking is a term to define the recruiting, harboring, obtaining, transportation of a person by use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjecting them to involuntary acts, such as acts related to commercial sexual exploitation (including prostitution) or involuntary labor. ... A twelve year old American uneducated child laborer, Furman Owens, who stated Yes I want to learn but cant when I work all the time. ... Female genital cutting (FGC), also known as female genital mutilation (FGM), female circumcision or female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), refers to all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs whether for cultural, religious or other non-therapeutic... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Bag lady redirects here. ... John Everett Millais The Blind Girl: vagrant musicians See also vagrancy (biology) for an alternative use of the term. ... For other uses, see Parent (disambiguation). ...


Among many other programmes, UNICEF supports the international Child Rights Information Network. In 2007, UNICEF published An Overview of child well-being in rich countries, which showed the UK and the USA at the bottom of a league of 21 economically advanced nations when it comes to overall child well-being.[4] The Child Rights Information Network (CRIN) is an international information network that supports the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and child rights. ...


HIV/AIDS

15 million children are now orphaned due to AIDS. It is estimated that by the year 2010 in sub-Saharan Africa alone, more than 18 million children will have lost at least one parent to AIDS. Half of all new infections are people under the age of 25, with girls hit harder and younger than boys. UNICEF is also running several programs dedicated to controlling both online and off-line child pornography.[5] For other uses, see Orphan (disambiguation). ... Satellite image of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries which are fully or partially located south of the Sahara. ... Child pornography refers to pornographic material depicting children. ...


Early childhood

Every child must be ensured the best start in life – their future, and indeed the future of their communities, nations and the whole world depends on it.[6]

UNICEF applies a holistic, evidence-based approach to early childhood, including the following principles: The Earth seen from Apollo 17. ...

  • Preventive and curative health care including immunization, adequate nutrition, and safe water and basic sanitation must be provided as a sine qua non.

Sine qua non or condicio sine qua non was originally a Latin legal term for without which it could not be (but for). It refers to an indispensable and essential action, condition, or ingredient. ...

Structure of the organization

The heart of UNICEF's work is in the field, with staff in over 150 countries and territories. More than 120 country offices carry out UNICEF's mission through a unique program of cooperation developed with host governments. Seven regional offices guide their work and provide technical assistance to country offices as needed.


Overall management and administration of the organization takes place at its headquarters in New York. UNICEF's Supply Division is based in Copenhagen and serves as the primary point of distribution for such essential items as lifesaving vaccines, antiretroviral medicines for children and mothers with HIV, nutritional supplements, emergency shelters, educational supplies, and more. For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... HAART redirects here. ... Emergency shelters are places for people to live temporarily when they cant live in their previous residence, similar to homeless shelters. ...


Many people in industrialized countries first hear about UNICEF’s work through the activities of 37 National Committees for UNICEF. These non-governmental organizations (NGO) are primarily responsible for fundraising, selling UNICEF greeting cards and products, creating private and public partnerships, advocating for children’s rights, and providing other invaluable support. The U.S. Fund for UNICEF is the oldest of the National Committees, founded in 1947.[7] World map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2004). ... NGO redirects here. ... Fundraising is the process of soliciting and gathering money or other gifts in-kind, by requesting donations from individuals, businesses, charitable foundations, or governmental agencies. ...


UNICEF is supported entirely by voluntary funds. Governments contribute two thirds of the organization's resources; private groups and some 6 million individuals contribute the rest through the National Committees.


Guiding and monitoring all of UNICEF's work is a 36-member Executive Board which establishes policies, approves programs and oversees administrative and financial plans. The Executive Board is made up of government representatives who are elected by the United Nations Economic and Social Council, usually for three-year terms. The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development. ...


The UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre

UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre in Florence, Italy, was established in 1988 to strengthen the research capability of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and to support its advocacy for children worldwide. Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ...


The Centre, formally known as the International Child Development Centre, has as its prime objectives to improve international understanding of the issues relating to children's rights, to promote economic policies that advance the cause of children, and to help facilitate the full implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child in industrialized and developing countries. Convention on the Rights of the Child Opened for signature 20 November 1989 in - Entered into force September 2, 1990 Conditions for entry into force 20 ratifications or accessions (Article 49) Parties 193 (only 2 non-parties: USA and Somalia) The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child...


The programme for 2006-2008 was approved by UNICEF Executive Board in September 2005. It reaffirms the Centre's academic freedom and the focus of IRC's research on knowledge gaps, emerging questions and sensitive issues which are relevant to the realization of children's rights, in developing and industrialized countries. It capitalizes on IRC's role as an interface between UNICEF field experience, international experts, research networks and policy makers and is designed to strengthen the Centre's institutional collaboration with regional academic and policy institutions, pursuing the following four goals:

  • Generation and communication of strategic and influential knowledge on issues affecting children and the realization of their rights;
  • Knowledge exchange and brokering;
  • Support to UNICEF's advocacy, policy and programme development in support of the Millennium Agenda
  • Securing and strengthening the Centre's institutional and financial basis.

Three interrelated strategies will guide the achievement of these goals:

  • Evidence-based analysis drawing on quantitative and qualitative information, the application of appropriate methodologies, and the development of recommendations to assess and inform advocacy and policy action.
  • Enhanced partnerships with research and policy institutions and development actors, globally and at regional level, in developing and industrialized countries.
  • Communication and leveraging of research findings and recommendations to support policy development and advocacy initiatives through strategic dissemination of studies and contribution to relevant events and fora.[8]

Public perception

UNICEF is the world's leading children's organization.[citation needed][9] It is the only UN organization concerned only with the well-being of children [10]Over the 60 years of its history it has become a primary reference for governments and NGOs, collecting and disseminating more research on children than any other organization, writing position papers on various aspects of the health and environments of children.[citation needed] UNICEF has also organized world-wide fundraising drives to fund interventions which directly benefit children.[citation needed]


Nevertheless, many groups, governments, and individuals have criticized UNICEF over the years for what they view as failing to meet the needs of their particular group or interest.[citation needed] Recent examples include criticism of its perceived failure to hold the Government of Sudan adequately accountable for the practice of slavery in southern Sudan, its policy against the marketing of breast milk substitutes in developing world hospitals, and its adherence to the 1990 Convention on the Rights of the Child, which has been ratified by every member state in the United Nations except for the United States (which is a signatory to the convention) and Somalia. Slavery in the Sudan has a long history, beginning in ancient Egyptian times and continuing up to the present. ... Breast milk usually refers to the milk produced by a human female which is usually fed to infants, toddlers, and young children by breastfeeding. ...


Unlike NGOs, UNICEF is an inter-governmental organization and thus is accountable to governments. This gives it unique reach and access in every country in the world, but may also sometimes hamper its ability to speak out publicly on rights violations, or to openly criticise the policies and actions of governments.


UNICEF has also been criticised for having political bias by NGO Monitor, an Israeli NGO with the stated aim of monitoring other non-governmental organizations operating in the Middle East. NGO Monitor asserts that while UNICEF aims to fund only non-political organisations, it also funded "Palestinian Youth Association for Leadership and Rights Activation" (PYALARA), a student-run Palestinian NGO. NGO Monitor alleges that PYALARA has a covert political agenda justifying suicide bombings and demonising Israel.[11] NGO Monitor (Non-governmental organization monitor) is an Israeli non-governmental organization with the stated aim of monitoring other non-governmental organizations operating in Israel, the West Bank, and Gaza. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Palestinian Youth Association for Leadership and Rights Activation (PYALARA) is a youth-oriented Palestinian communication and media non-governmental organization designed to provide a creative outlet for young Palestinians frustrated by the harsh conditions of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... A suicide attack is an attack on a military or civilian target, in which an attacker intends to kill others, knowing that he or she will either certainly or most likely die in the process (see suicide). ...


The Catholic Church has also been critical of UNICEF, with the Vatican at times withdrawing its donations, because of reports by the American Life League and others that UNICEF has used some of those funds to finance sterilizations and abortions. Catholic Church redirects here. ... The largest pro-life organization in the United States, the American Life League, or ALL, opposes all forms of abortion, birth control, stem cell research, and euthanasia. ... Sterilization is a surgical technique leaving a male or female unable to procreate. ...


A further example is the emotive issue of intercountry adoptions from Guatemala.[12] The country has ratified the Hague Convention of 29 May 1993 on the Protection of Children and Co-operation in respect of Intercountry Adoption with effect from 1 January 2008. UNICEF has been criticised by some interested parties of failing to support adoptions that are underway before the deadline[13] but, once again, this fails to recognise UNICEF's status and obligations as an international organisation, rather than an NGO. The longtime status of Netherlands as a largely neutral nation in international conflicts and the corresponding ascendance of The Hague as a primary location for diplomatic and international conferences has led to several negotiated conventions over the years being termed the Hague Convention: The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


Sponsorship

Recently, UNICEF has begun partnerships with world-class athletes and teams to promote the organisation's work and to raise funds.

Deco wearing the shirt with the Unicef logo.
Deco wearing the shirt with the Unicef logo.

On 7 September 2006, an agreement between UNICEF and the Catalan club FC Barcelona was reached whereby the club would donate 0.7% of its total yearly revenue to the organization for five years. As part of the agreement, FC Barcelona will wear the UNICEF logo on the front of their shirts, which will be the first time a football club sponsored an organization rather than the other way around. It is also the first time in FC Barcelona's history that they have had another organization's name across the front of their shirts. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (500x675, 88 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): United Nations Childrens Fund Deco ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (500x675, 88 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): United Nations Childrens Fund Deco ... Anderson Luis de Souza, OIH (born August 27, 1977 in São Bernardo do Campo, Brazil) is a professional Portuguese Brazilian footballer widely known as Deco [Portuguese]. He plays internationally for Portugal and for FC Barcelona at club level. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Spanish Autonomous Community. ... Wikinews has related news: 2007/08 UEFA Champions League: Manchester United vs. ... Wikinews has related news: 2007/08 UEFA Champions League: Manchester United vs. ... For other uses, see Logo (disambiguation). ... Business shirt In American English, shirt can refer to almost any upper-body garment other than coats and bras (the term top is sometimes used in ladieswear). ... A football team is the collective name given to a number of players who play together in a football game, be it association football (soccer), rugby, Australian football, American football, Gaelic football, or other version of football. ... Wikinews has related news: 2007/08 UEFA Champions League: Manchester United vs. ... Business shirt In American English, shirt can refer to almost any upper-body garment other than coats and bras (the term top is sometimes used in ladieswear). ...


In January 2007, UNICEF struck a partnership with Canada's national tent pegging team. The team was officially re-flagged as "UNICEF Team Canada", its riders wear UNICEF's logo in competition, and team members promote and raise funds for UNICEF's campaign against childhood HIV-AIDS.[14] When the team became the 2008 tent pegging world champions, UNICEF's flag was raised alongside the Canadian flag at the games, the first time in the history of international Grand Prix equestrian competition that a non-state flag has flown over the medal podium.[15] Tent pegging (sometimes spelled tentpegging or tent-pegging) is a cavalry sport of ancient origin, and one of only ten equestrian disciplines officially recognised by the International Equestrian Federation. ...


The Swedish club Hammarby IF followed the Spanish and Canadian lead on 14 April 2007[16], also raising funds for UNICEF and displaying the UNICEF name on their sportswear. The Danish soccer club Brøndby IF will do likewise from the summer of 2008. For the place name, see Hammarby, Stockholm. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Brøndby IF is a Danish professional football (soccer) club based in the town of Brøndby, on the western outskirts of Copenhagen. ...


Race driver Jacques Villeneuve has occasionally placed the UNICEF logo on the #27 Bill Davis Racing pickup truck in the NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series. This article is about the younger Jacques Villeneuve. ... Bill Davis Racing is a NASCAR team that fields the #22 Caterpillar Toyota Camry for Dave Blaney, the #36 360 OTC Toyota Camry for Jeremy Mayfield in the NASCAR Nextel Cup Series, the #5 Toyota Tundra for Mike Skinner, the #22 Toyota for Ryan Mathews, and the #23 Toyota for... The best selling North American pickup truck, the Ford F-Series. ... Jeff Burton (99), Elliott Sadler (38), Ricky Rudd (21), Dale Jarrett (88), Sterling Marlin (40), Jimmie Johnson (48), and Casey Mears (41) practice for the 2004 Daytona 500 The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) is the largest sanctioning body of motorsports in the United States. ... The NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series is a popular NASCAR racing series that features modified pickup trucks. ...


The ING Renault F1 Team in Formula 1 are also sponsored by UNICEF


Trick-or-Treat UNICEF box

Since 1950 when a group of children in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania donated $17 they received on Halloween to help post-World War II victims, the Trick-or-Treat UNICEF box has become a tradition in North America during the haunting season. These small orange boxes are handed to children at schools and at various locations (such as Hallmark Gold Crown Stores) prior to October 31. To date, the box has collected approximately $91 million dollars (CAD) in Canada and over $132 million (US) in the USA. For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... North American redirects here. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... C$ redirects here. ... USD redirects here. ...


Art in All of Us

UNICEF sponsors the Art in All of Us[17] initiative founded and organised by Anthony Asael (Belgium) and Stephanie Rabemiafara (Madagascar). The mission of Art in All of Us is to promote creative cultural exchange throughout the UN listed countries, using universal language of Art. The AiA World Art Book Program of Art in All of Us will present in one book each and every of the 192 UN-listed countries through a single portrait of a resident, a drawing and a poem done by a local child. An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy one of the guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia on one of the following topics: If you are familiar with the subject matter, please expand the article to establish its notability, citing reliable sources. ...


See also

The Afghan New Beginnings Programme aims to demobilize and reintegrate thousands of child combatants in Afghanistan. ... Facts for Life is a book published and distributed by UNICEF. It provides basic, clearly-expressed advice about child health. ... This is a list of UNICEF Goodwill Ambassadors, who work on behalf of the United Nations Childrens Fund. ... Maurice Pate (October 14, 1894 – January 19, 1965) was an American humanitarian and businessman. ... A Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a survey program developed by the United Nations Childrens Fund to provide internationally comparable, statistically rigorous data on the situation of children and women. ... The event was broadcast on NBC in the United States The Music for UNICEF Concert: A Gift of Song was a benefit concert of popular music held in the United Nations General Assembly in New York City on January 9, 1979. ... Afghan street urchin smiles for the camera in downtown Kabul, Afghanistan (June 2003). ... // Speak Africa is a youth-focused Pan-African multi-media communication initiative designed to empower and provide young voices with the opportunity to share their stories and experiences. ... Voices of Youth is an organization set up by UNICEF to help children from across the world exchange knowledge and ideas. ...

References and notes

  1. ^ UNICEF teams up with partners for girls’ education
  2. ^ Immunization plus
  3. ^ Child protection from violence, exploitation and abuse
  4. ^ An Overview of child well-being in rich countries
  5. ^ HIV/AIDS and children
  6. ^ Early Childhood
  7. ^ US Fund for UNICEF
  8. ^ Innocenti Research Centre
  9. ^ Charity Projects Entertainment Fund
  10. ^ Shaffer, Alice C.. "UNICEF in Central America." The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 329 (1960): 72
  11. ^ NGO Monitor Analysis (Vol. 1 No. 5) 11 March 2003
  12. ^ Guatemala's baby business
  13. ^ The Guatemala 5000 Initiative
  14. ^ UNICEF Team Canada
  15. ^ [Newstrack India "International Tent Pegging"], January 14, 2008
  16. ^ UNICEF, Hammarby strikes partnership (In Swedish)
  17. ^ Art in All of Us

External links


 
 

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